This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of foot reflexology in terms of enhancing psychological wellbeing of elderly people in selected old age home at Pondicherry.
Ageing is the accumulation of changes in an organism or object over time. Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change. Health is vital to maintain well-being and quality of life in old age and is essential if older citizen are to continue making active to society. Problems of the ageing are mostly not due to age but largely due to psychosocial environment, diminishing supports and changes in life situations.
According to traditional medicine each foot has over 7,000 nerve endings, 26bones, 107 ligaments and 19 muscles. This type of drugless therapy creates a physiological change in the body by naturally improving your Circulation, which reduces our body Tension and enhances relaxation. It aids in the elimination of the body waste and restoring the body functions to better health.
The objectives of the study were
To assess and compare the pre and post level of psychological wellbeing of experimental group.
To assess and compare the pre and post level of psychological wellbeing of control group.
To compare the pre test level of psychological well being between experimental group and control group..
To compare the post test level of psychological well being between experimental group and control group.
To associate the pre test level of psychological wellbeing among elderly with their selected demographic variables
To associate the post test level of psychological wellbeing among elderly with selected demographic variables.
The research hypothesis stated were
There is a significant difference between the pre test and post test level of psychological well-being among elderly in experimental group at p<0.05 level.
There is a significant difference between the pre test and post test level of psychological well-being among elderly in control group at p<0.05 level.
There is a significant difference between the pre test level of psychological well-being between the experimental group and control group of elderly at p<0.05 level.
There is a significant difference between the post test level of psychological well-being between the experimental group and control group of elderly at p<0.05 level.
There is a significant association between the pre test level of psychological well-being among experimental group and control group with their selected demographic variables at p<0.05 level.
There is a significant association of post test level of psychological well-being among experimental group and control group of elderly selected demographic variables at p<0.05 level.
The assumptions were
Psychological problem in elderly is may be because of loneliness.
Foot reflexology may improve the psychological wellbeing among elderly.
Psychological problems in elderly may be leads to furthermore physiological problem in elderly
THE REVIEW OF LITERATURE COLLECTED FOR THE STUDIES RELATED TO
Section A: Literature related to psychological problems among elderly.
Section B: Literature related to effectiveness of foot reflexology on the psychological wellbeing of elderly.
Section C. Literature related to effects foot reflexology on other conditions
Section D: Literature related to effectiveness of various complementary and alternative systems of medicine in enhancing psychological wellbeing among elderly.
The conceptual frame work for this study was developed based on the Ernestin Weidenbach’s Helping Art of Clinical Nursing Theory. This provide comprehensive framework for assessment, implementation and evaluation of the intervention programme.
The research design selected for the study was pre test and post test only design of basic experimental design which comes under true experimental design. The study was conducted in the Immaculate Heart Of Mary’s Convent Home For Age, Pondicherry. The tool used for data collection consisting of demographic variables such as age, gender, educational status, religion, marital status, work pattern, income and habitat. The general psychological well being scale was used to assess the level of psychological well being among the elderly people. The pilot study conducted in Mother Mary old age home, Neyveli and findings revealed that the tool was feasible, reliable and practicable to conduct the main study.
The tool was validated by 4 experts consisting of 3 nursing experts and 1 medical experts and the reliability of the tool was confirmed by test retest method. The value of the reliability was r =0.87, and so the tool was highly reliable. The main study was conducted in Immaculate Heart Of Mary’s Convent Home For Age, Pondicherry. The 60 elderly people who fulfilled the inclusive and exclusive criteria were selected for the study out of which 30 mothers were assigned to experimental group and 30 were assigned to control group through lottery method.
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The data was collected and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that there was highly significant difference in the psychological wellbeing of elderly people after the administration of foot reflexology. The calculated ‘t’ value was 13.7 which showed was highly statistical significant difference in the post test level of psychological well being between the experimental and control group of the elderly people at p€¼0.05 level. Hence the research hypothesis stated that that there is a significant difference between the post test level of the psychological well being between the experimental and control group of the elderly people at p<0.05 was retained.
Data findings revealed that there was a partial association of pre test level of psychological well being in the experimental and control group with their selected demographic variables. Data findings also revealed that there was no statistically significant association of post assessment level of psychological well being in experimental and control group with their selected demographic Variables.
From the result of the study, it was concluded that rendering of complementary and alternative interventions like foot reflexology to the elderly people was effective in enhancing the psychological wellbeing. Therefore the investigator felt that, more importance should be given for assessment of the psychological wellbeing of the elderly people.
The researcher has derived the following implications from the study which are of vital concern to the field of nursing service, nursing administration, nursing education and nursing research.
Implication for Nursing Practice
The nursing person should develop an in depth knowledge about the psychological problems of elderly people.
Certification programs for training reflexology for health personnel should be started in hospitals.
Staff development programs for imparting education and training regarding complementary and alternative therapy like foot reflexology.
The nursing personnel should encourage the hospitals to set up a separate nursing care unit for patients receiving alternative therapies.
Implications for Nursing Education
The nurse educators need to be equipped with adequate knowledge regarding complementary and alternative medications.
The students should be provided with adequate clinical exposure in relation to practice of foot reflexology and complementary and alternative therapy in elderly with psychological problems.
Conduct workshops or conferences for students regarding the use of complementary and alternative therapy in day today nursing practice.
Strengthen the curriculum for nurses to excel them in knowledge and skill in areas of complementary and alternative systems of medicine.
Implications for Nursing Administration
Collaborate with the governing bodies as well as the hospital administration to formulate standards protocols and policy to emphasize complementary and alternative therapies like foot reflexology in nursing care.
Conduct in-service education program in effectiveness of complementary and alternative therapies like foot reflexology in nursing care.
Implications for nursing research
As a nurse researcher:
1. Disseminate the findings of research through conferences, seminars, and publishing in nursing journals.
2. Encourage further research to be conducted on the area of reflexology.
The study was conducted among a small sample of 60; hence generalization must be done with caution.
Since there were very few studies done on the effectiveness of foot reflexology on elderly, the investigator had a lot of difficulty in collecting the study materials for the review.
The following studies can be undertaken to strengthen foot reflexology as well as remedy for the problems of elderly people.
A similar study can be conducted by increasing the sample size.
A similar study can be conducted using a true experimental design.
A study can be conducted on more number of neurological problems of elderly.
A study can be performed by developing a self-instructional module which enables the care givers to become aware of foot reflexology and its benefits.
A further study can be conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing personnel in foot reflexology elderly people
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