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Types of Environmental Disasters

2908 words (12 pages) Essay in Geography

08/02/20 Geography Reference this

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Abstract

This paper intends to give graduate understudies, analysts, and government and free organizations with an outline of disaster types. Disaster types have been the subject of research by academicians, the government, and independent organizations. The paper abridges the perspectives of specialists and organizations. Disaster types are gathered from a few sources, for example, specialized, general articles, web sites, and inner reports. Disaster definitions, criteria and types are investigated. Disasters are ordered into catastrophic(natural) events, man-made disasters, and hybrid fiascos. Man-made fiascos are ordered into innovative debacles, transportation mishaps, open spots disappointment, and creation disappointment. The paper displays a correlation between the fundamental kinds of disasters. It is trusted that the three disaster types cover every single terrible occasion. No meaning of disaster is all around acknowledged. A few criteria are proposed to characterize catastrophes. Comprehension of disaster definitions, criteria, and types helps analysts and organization in the correct order, great account, and better examination of disasters. Catastrophes have distinctive qualities and effect in any case, calamities have a typical component, which is their seriousness.

Environmental Disasters: The Type of Disaster

A disaster is characterized by the Asian Disaster Reduction Center (2003) as: A genuine disturbance of the working of society, causing far reaching human, material or ecological misfortunes which surpass the capacity of influenced society to adapt utilizing just its very own assets. There are many research centers and organizations everywhere throughout the world that are worried about catastrophe administration (avoidance, readiness, moderation, reaction and alleviation). Research centers and organizations in some cases portray debacles in various terms, although catastrophes have been named regular, unnatural man-made, simply social, mechanical, and hybrid. Nonetheless, it has been discovered that calamities can be ordered into three sorts: natural, man-made, and hybrid. Natural disasters are calamitous occasions coming about because of characteristic causes, for example, volcanic emissions, tornadoes, tremors, and so forth., over which man has no control. Catastrophic events are regularly named “Demonstrations of God”.

   Man-made disasters, then again, are those calamitous occasions that outcome from human choices. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2003) featured that a man-made debacle alludes to non-normal heartbreaking events that can be sudden or all the longer haul. Sudden man-influenced fiascos to incorporate basic, building and mine breakdown when this happens freely with no outside power. Moreover air, land, and ocean calamities are all man-made fiascos. Long haul man-made debacles will in general allude to national and worldwide clashes. There are fiascos that outcome from both human mistake and common powers. These are cross breed debacles. A case of a half breed fiasco is the broad clearing of wildernesses causing soil disintegration, and consequently substantial rain causing avalanches. This paper gives a short diagram of normal debacles. It isn’t comprehensive of all the fiasco types which may happen. It does, be that as it may, survey fiasco types. This paper outlines the sorts of catastrophes and presents a correlation between the principle types.

There are numerous meanings of a catastrophe: definitions have been given by Turner and Pedgeon (1997), Prehospital and Disaster Medicine (2002), Denis (1995) and Keller and Al-Madhari (1996). The definition utilized appears to be reliant upon the order utilizing the term. Turner and Pedgeon (1997) called attention to that no meaning of “fiasco” is all around acknowledged. Parker (1992) audited the idea of catastrophe and proposed that the favored meaning of fiasco is: an unordinary common or man-made occasion, including an occasion caused by disappointment of technological frameworks, which incidentally overpowers the reaction limit of human networks, gatherings of people or indigenous habitats and which causes huge harm, monetary misfortune, interruption, damage, as well as death toll. This definition incorporates restorative mishaps and fiascos, for example, those which influence of challenging hack antibody, and HIV/AIDS hemophiliac cases.

A few criteria have been proposed to characterize calamities as far as their outcomes (Keller and Al-Madhari, 1996; Keller et al. 1997; Mitroff, 1988; Contra Costa County Hazardous Material Division, 2002; Malaysian National Security Council, 2003; Middleton and Franks, 2001). The United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP-APELL, 2003) and the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (2003) have made web sites and proposed criteria characterize calamities to be gone into databases. The Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) requires that for a fiasco to be gone into the database no less than one of the accompanying criteria must be satisfied:

  • ten or more individuals detailed executed;
  • 100 individuals detailed influenced;
  • a call for universal help; and
  • declaration of a highly sensitive situation.

Sorts of calamities have been the subject of research and worry to academicians and to government and independent organizations. Research focuses everywhere throughout the world have examined the catastrophe wonders. Occasionally scientists order fiasco utilizing diverse phrasing. The perspectives of academicians on catastrophe types are abridged underneath. Turner and Pedgeon (1997) evaluated man-made fiascos in detail, and abridged. The sorts of calamities as pursues:

(1) Natural catastrophes:

  • Natural wonders underneath the Earth’s surface:
  • tremors;
  • tidal waves; and
  • volcanic ejection.    

Kaplan (1996) featured that a wide assortment of fiascos has happened in the USA. Catastrophic events brought about the extensive interruption of vitality supplies to expansive quantities of individuals. The kinds of catastrophic events which happened were:

• hurricanes;

• earthquakes;

• ice storms;

• tornadoes;

• typhoons;

• floods;

• firestorms; and

• volcanic emissions.

Oil slicks and common unsettling influences likewise crushed and upset networks. Kaplan (1996) evaluated 16 case narratives of catastrophic events and analyzed readiness and recuperation issues. Fowlkes and Miller (1988) evaluated the Love Canal debacle and called attention to that it was an unnatural fiasco. They characterized an unnatural catastrophe as pursues: it doesn’t strike, and its event can’t be characterized as to time, place, or degree of annihilation. They reached the resolution that unnatural catastrophes are described as pursues:

• there are no mishaps; and

• the unnatural calamity occasion itself has no nature of a mishap.

The course of an unnatural calamity is extended and double. The primary phase of an unnatural debacle involves the genuine or potential introduction of a populace to undetectable hazard; the second anticipates the progression of time and the development of crippling wellbeing or natural impacts in results of that presentation. An unnatural fiasco is frequently portrayed as a gradually creating occasion. There are no unfortunate casualties; an unnatural debacle pursues from the plain uncertainty that goes to the intangibility of such presentation. Where the potential hazard is obscure and unbounded, the personality of its exploited people or whether there are unfortunate casualties at all can’t be certainly decided. In theories cases, no catastrophe appropriate is said to exist, in any event in traditional terms. Shrivastava et al. (1988) investigated the Bhopal catastrophe. They brought up that the occasion was a mechanical emergency and featured that a modern emergency is activated by two communicating sets of disappointments. Inside associations, an unpredictable arrangement of human, authoritative, and innovative (HOT) factors prompt the activating occasion. These in turn collaborate with administrative, framework and readiness (RIP) disappointments in the authoritative condition. Richardson (1994) featured that socio-specialized catastrophes happen in no less than four sorts of authoritative circumstance. These are: (1)              plant and industrial facility disappointments including wonders, for example, blasts, harmful holes furthermore, the auxiliary crumple of physical resources; (2) transport disappointments including episodes, for example, impacts and upsets;   (3) stadia or other “open place” disappointments including fires, auxiliary breakdown and swarm pulverizing; and (4) production disappointments, for example, PC framework breakdowns and the generation what’s more, circulation of deficient items.

Mitroff (1988) recognized sorts of debacles as pursues:

• major item imperfection;

• major plant/gear imperfection;

• major mechanical mishaps; and

• major PC breakdowns.

Hood et al. (1992) arranged calamities into three kinds: (1) purely cataclysmic events caused by very eccentric occasions, which are exclusively made by powers outside human control (e.g. shooting star strikes the Earth all of a sudden); (2) hybrid catastrophes, which are a compound of human choices and unstable characteristic powers (e.g. surges assault network based on a known floodplain); and (3) purely social calamities, which are exclusively the result of choices made about what’s more, inside human associations as opposed to shifts in the powers of nature (e.g. various disappointments cause atomic reactor emergency).

Haddow and Bullock (2003) called attention to that common dangers are those perils that exist in the indigenous habitat and represent a danger to human populaces and networks. They characterized common dangers as surges, tremors, tropical storms, storm floods, tornadoes, out of control fires, avalanches, tidal waves, volcanic ejections, extreme winter storms, dry seasons, extraordinary warmth, beach front disintegration, tempests, hailstorms, snow torrential slides, arrive subsidence, far reaching soils, and dam disappointments. They grouped mechanical perils as flames, unsafe material episodes, atomic mischances, fear mongering, and organic and synthetic weapons.

Offices’ perspectives

There are numerous offices everywhere throughout the world worried about debacle marvels. These offices at times characterize debacles into various kinds. The perspectives of a few offices of calamity types are condensed underneath. Joined Nations Environmental Program (UNEP-APELL). UNEP-APELL (2003) has made a web site to give a database on calamities. UNEP arranged calamities into cataclysmic events, innovative debacles, transport fiascos and following dam disappointments. The case accounts of cataclysmic events (tropical storms, flooding, seismic tremors what’s more, avalanches) to have happened worldwide are sketched out. Likewise, mechanical mischances including transport, atomic power, stockpiling, settled dangerous establishments, ports and ocean transport are condensed. Fixate for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED). The Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (2003) has made a web site to give a database on debacles. CRED has grouped calamities into normal and innovative debacles. CRED has arranged innovative debacles into mechanical debacles and transportation mischances. CRED keeps up a database of calamities occasions from 1900 to the present. Quite a bit of their information is gotten from alleviation gatherings, including the Red Cross/Red Crescent Agency.

World Health Organization (WHO). The World Health Organization is a UN organization that helps part nations and all worldwide wellbeing accomplices to coordinate calamity decrease into their improvement designs and to have the ability to oversee crises successfully, with a most extreme of confidence. The World Health Association (2003) and World Health Organization/EHA (1998) grouped calamities as pursues: (1) Natural (physical) debacles:

• Weather-related debacles (meteorological): sea tempests, twisters, tornados, tropical storms; substantial downpours, tempests, surges, snowstorms; dry season and starvation; and warm waves, cool waves.

• External (geographical): avalanches; and torrential slides.

• Internal (structural and earthly): quakes; and volcanic emissions.

• Natural (natural): pervasions; and pandemics.

(2) Manmade/innovative fiascos:

• industrial fiascos;

• nuclear mischances;

• chemical mischances;

• fires;

• wars, common difficulty; and

• structural disappointments (dams, mines).

Global Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCRCS). The fundamental exercises of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent is Societies is

to lessen the effect of fiascos, anticipate and keep the event of debacles, and to react to fiascos with alleviation help and support. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2003) has made an interne site that gives

data about debacle administration, polices and distributions, and so on. IFRCRCS has grouped calamities into:

• hurricanes, violent winds and storms;

• drought;

• earthquakes;

• epidemics;

• famine/sustenance frailty;

• surges;

• man-made debacles;

• population development;

• volcanic emissions; and

• innovative calamities.

Government Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The Federal Emergency Administration Agency (2003) is a free government office that gives bureaucratic help to the individuals who have been influenced by a wide range of calamity in the USA. FEMA has made a web site that gives foundation data about fiascos, risks and relief of calamities. FEMA has arranged fiascos into:

(1) Natural fiascos:

• earthquakes;

• extreme warm;

• floods and streak surges;

• hurricanes;

• landslides and mud streams;

• thunderstorms and lightning;

• tornadoes;

• tsunamis;

• volcanoes; and

• wild fires.

(2) Technological calamities:

• hazardous materials; and

• finding dangers in the home.

The Mid-Florida Area Agency on Aging (MFAAA). The Mid-Florida Area Agency on Maturing (2003) has made a site to give valuable data that can encourage more seasoned individuals plan for, and recoup from, debacles. MFAAA exhibited a short diagram of normal debacles that are generally foreseen. Fiascos that may happen are

condensed as pursues:

• hurricanes;

• inland and waterfront flooding;

• tornadoes/extreme rainstorms;

• winter storms/vitality crises;

• nuclear/risky substance mischances;

• fires;

• forest/rapidly spreading fires;

• urban fires;

• transportation mishaps;

• civil clutter/riots;

• earthquakes;

• bomb dangers/psychological oppressor assaults; and

• epidemics.   

Malaysian National Security Council. Order 20 (Malaysian National Security Gathering, 2003) is an official request delineating an approach on calamity administration and the help of land debacles as per the dimension and intricacy of the calamity. It is too gone for building up an administration component with the reason for deciding the jobs and duties of the different offices engaged with taking care of fiascos. Order 20 arranges awful episodes as pursues:

• natural debacles, for example, surges, storms, dry spell, shore disintegration, avalanches or any other debacle because of solid breezes and overwhelming precipitation;

• industrial catastrophes, for example, blasts, flames, contamination and spilling of unsafe materials from plants, refineries and mechanical terminals which process, deliver also, store such materials;

• accidents that include the transportation, supply and evacuation of risky materials;

• the crumple of tall structures and uncommon structures;

• air crashes happening in spots with structures and populace;

• train impacts and crashes;

• fires including tremendous territories or elevated structures or any extraordinary structure with numerous individuals inside;

• the blasting of a hydroelectric power station or repository;

• nuclear and radiology mishap including atomic composites or radioactive specialists in which the mischance could spread and cause death toll, property harm or then again natural contamination influencing neighborhood exercises;

• the arrival of harmful gas in an open region; and

• haze, which can make a basic circumstance nature, undermining open concordance, government organization and the monetary exercises of the state.

Calamities can occur at wherever on the planet, whenever. Calamities have extreme impacts as far as individuals’ lives, property and the earth. Research focuses, and organizations have examined debacle wonders, and depicted them and arranged them as per distinctive sorts and definitions. Cataclysmic events are calamitous occasions coming about because of common causes. The creator trusts that everything occurs with the desire of God. Albeit catastrophic events are outside the ability to control of individuals, the effects of catastrophic events can be diminished by setting up guidance ahead of time frameworks which figure approaching catastrophic events. Additionally, the results of catastrophic events can be lessened through viable fiasco administration. Man-influenced catastrophes to incorporate socio-specialized and fighting debacles. Socio-specialized debacles happen because of human, specialized, operational blunders. Cross breed calamities happen due to regular powers and human mistake.

This paper has checked on debacle types and the accompanying focuses are noted:

• understanding catastrophe definitions, criteria and types helps analysts and offices in the best possible characterization, great account, and better examination of calamities;

• disasters can be arranged into three sorts (normal, man-made and crossover) it is trusted that these three fiasco types cover every single awful occasion;

• disasters have diverse attributes and effect however have a typical component, which is their seriousness;

• no meaning of fiasco is all around acknowledged; and

• several criteria have been proposed to characterize fiascos.

References

  • Bijlefeld, Marjolijn. The Gun Control Debate: A Documentary History. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1997.
  • Goldstein, Steven. A Case for Gun Control. New York: The H.W. Wilson Co. 1994.
  • Gottlieb, Alan. The Rights of Gun Owners. Bellevue, Washington: Merril Press, 1991.
  • Kleck, Gary. The Great American Gun Debate. San Francisco, California: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1997.
  • Kruschke, Earl R. Gun Control. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1995.
  • Lindermann, Kennith. “Issue in Focus: Gun Control.” Chicago Tribune. (21 April 1992): 1.
  • “Unfocused public lets gun control foes fire at will” Chicago Tribune. (15 May 1993): 1.
  • Wright, Stuart A. Violent Crime. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1995.
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