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Comparing Mozambique and South Africa's Demographics

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Period

Live births per year

Deaths per year

Natural Increase per year

Crude Birth Rate (per 1,000 per year)

Crude Death Rate (per 1,000 per year)

Natural Increase (per 1,000 per year)

Total Fertility Rate (over av'ge woman's life)

Infant Mortality Rate (per 100,000 live births)

1950–1955

629 000

295 000

+ 334 000

43.3

20.3

+ 23.0

6.50

96

1955–1960

697 000

297 000

+ 400 000

42.5

18.1

+ 24.4

6.50

91

1960–1965

774 000

310 000

+ 464 000

41.6

16.7

+ 25.0

6.30

87

1965–1970

808 000

312 000

+ 496 000

38.2

14.7

+ 23.5

5.70

84

1970–1975

909 000

317 000

+ 592 000

37.7

13.1

+ 24.6

5.47

77

1975–1980

980 000

319 000

+ 661 000

35.8

11.7

+ 24.1

5.00

71

1980–1985

1 052 000

307 000

+ 745 000

33.9

9.9

+ 24.0

4.56

61

1985–1990

1 086 000

299 000

+ 787 000

31.1

8.6

+ 22.5

4.00

53

1990–1995

1 073 000

332 000

+ 742 000

27.5

8.5

+ 19.0

3.34

51

1995–2000

1 082 000

450 000

+ 632 000

25.1

10.4

+ 14.7

2.95

56

2000–2005

1 111 000

645 000

+ 466 000

24.0

13.9

+ 10.1

2.80

59

2005–2010

1 074 000

746 000

+ 328 000

21.9

15.2

+ 6.7

2.55

55

In the table we can see the increase in population per year on average for 5 year spans

Mozambique

Period

Live births per year

Deaths per year

Natural change per year

CBR*

CDR*

NC*

TFR*

IMR*

1950-1955

331 000

220 000

111 000

49.4

32.8

16.5

6.60

220

1955-1960

359 000

219 000

140 000

49.1

30.0

19.1

6.60

201

1960-1965

392 000

222 000

170 000

48.6

27.5

21.1

6.60

185

1965-1970

430 000

230 000

201 000

48.0

25.6

22.4

6.60

172

1970-1975

474 000

236 000

238 000

47.2

23.5

23.7

6.58

158

1975-1980

534 000

247 000

288 000

46.9

21.7

25.3

6.53

146

1980-1985

584 000

272 000

313 000

45.9

21.3

24.5

6.44

143

1985-1990

586 000

283 000

302 000

43.6

21.1

22.5

6.33

143

1990-1995

640 000

293 000

347 000

43.4

19.9

23.6

6.12

134

1995-2000

739 000

301 000

438 000

43.3

17.6

25.7

5.85

115

2000-2005

844 000

326 000

518 000

43.3

16.7

26.6

5.52

99

2005-2010

869 000

341 000

528 000

39.4

15.4

23.9

5.11

88

*CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Mozambique

Loss of natural habitat

About 80% of Mozambique’s population live in rural areas and depend on wood for cooking and for heating of water for domestic use, space heating and drying of foodstuffs.1This reliance on trees could spell disaster should population levels rise. Mangroves are being removed and converted into rice farms and salt pans, aquaculture and housing. Further offshore, corals are subjected to destructive fishing practices (e.g. use of fine mesh nets and dynamite).

What is WWF doing? / ©: WWF

© WWF

Illegal and unsustainable wildlife use, and human wildlife conflict

In Mozambique like elsewhere in Africa and Asia, habitat loss is causing humans and wildlife to share increasingly smaller living spaces. Both sides are losing in the conflicts that ensue, such as in and around the Delta of the Zambezi River. There, crocodiles and hippos are coming face to face with humans increasingly often, while poaching and other illegal activities put species in jeopardy. In some places, such as Quirimbas National Park, there are concerns that current levels of resource use – e.g. sand oysters - may not be sustainable, and are already leading to diminishing harvests of fish and other resources. For local people, this means reduced incomes and increased poverty in the long run.

Pollution

Off Mozambique’s coast, tankers carrying crude oil from the Arabian Gulf have resulted in contamination of the sea from spills and discharge of polluted ballast waters. In urban settings, rural sewage treatment is inadequate, exposing people to potential outbreaks of disease.

Agriculture

Poor farming practices and deforestation contribute to sedimentation of rivers that run to the sea, degrading seagrasses and coral reefs

South Africa

Water is perhaps South Africa's most critical resource - one of low abundance and growing needs. Tie that with problems of increased land use and population growth and you have several big reasons for concern.

Lack of water South Africa's freshwater supply is almost stretched to its limit. Less than 10% of South Africa’s rainfall is available as surface water, one of the lowest conversion ratios in the world. The country’s groundwater resources are equally limited. Despite regulations of river waters, in many catchments the need for water exceeds the supply and quality is often below standards. Given the projected growth in population and economic development, South Africa faces tough times in meeting water demands in the decades ahead. The shortfall in freshwater is tied to growing demands, but also to other issues such as loss of natural habitat and potentially climate change.

 / ©: WWF-Canon / John E. NEWBY

© WWF-Canon / John E. NEWBY

Destruction of natural habitats The land of the "fine-leaved plants", the South African Fynbos, is one of the world’s most impressive botanical kingdoms - a mind-boggling variety of plants that is richer than any other comparable sized area in Africa. An estimated 8,500 species of vascular plants, of which 70% are endemic (they are found nowhere else in the world), are reported here. But because the area has been heavily settled for several centuries, large swathes of natural vegetation, particularly in the lowlands, have been cleared for agriculture and urban development. Similar problems face the Namib-Karoo-Kaokeveld desert, a very distinctive and floristically rich ecoregion with highly diverse endemic plant communities. Here, poor land management, conversion of marginal lands for cultivation, dam construction, mining, and illegal extraction of selected succulents for black market trade, pose a suite of threats.

What is WWF doing? / ©: WWF

© WWF

Overfishing Along the West Coast of South Africa, there is persistent overharvesting of many commercially valuable species and products such as pilchard, anchovy and rock lobster. Further at sea, some fish stocks have been over-harvested, and several species face local extinction. These dangerous trends follow improvements of fishing methods, increase in fishing effort and the establishment of fishing industries.

Introduction of exotic species South Africa's natural habitats are being colonized by alien species at great rates. Introduced species, particularly North American gamefishes such as largemouth bass and smallmouth bass, are pushing out indigenous species and threaten to lead some of them to extinction.

Pollution A high level of traffic associated with crude oil transport from the Arabian Gulf has resulted in contamination from tankers' spills and discharge of polluted ballast waters.

Reference List

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_South_Africa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Mozambique

http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/mozambique/environmental_problems_in_mozambique/

http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/south_africa/environmental_problems__in_south_africa/


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