Gender Equality in Employment

5149 words (21 pages) Essay in General Studies

29/06/17 General Studies Reference this

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Even though Men and Woman constantly work and compete in this society for recognition and rewards. Nowadays Woman is given equal opportunities in every profession from Business to Defense. But there is an historical saying that Men are stronger and smatter than Woman, Which is true to some extinct but when we compare today’s world we say that its totally disagreeable statement. In every profession woman are showing there talent and hard work and making others praise them. Recently in a study conducted by an UK University there are few things that should be noted, Men are 30-40% stronger than Woman and Woman are 10% more smatter than Men (Sunderland University, 2007).

Today we can see that Customer Service and Other Office oriented jobs are mainly dominated by woman, in which aggression levels are not accepted, where as Engineering and Construction oriented jobs are dominated by Man. By this we can understand that Men are more aggressive than Woman. Governments all around the world actively encouraged woman to take part in country development expect some Gulf countries where woman are only allowed to work in offices but not in other sectors. Woman are excelling now a days in every profession, they are leading countries and business, Recently Germany elected its first woman president and companies like Pepsi Co. and other Fortune 500 are managed by Woman CEO’s. Women are made as brand ambassadors for many International brands like Cannon, Sony etc…

But still in some parts of the world women are criticized and not able to perform, the recent assassination of former and the first women president of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto, which shocked the entire world (New York Times, 2008). Many influential women around the world are assassinated for dominating men. Although many western countries already started respecting women in every action they perform. Social relationships of women with men are weakening resulting divorces. Domestic violence against women in the Western countries like United States increased a lot since 1980’s. Women are sexually abused by Men, making them restricted to some part of the society. Statistics prove that three out of every four women were subject to abuse: 9% of which was done by ex-husbands, 35% by boyfriends and 32% by ex-boyfriends (Domestic Violence-Report of an Inter-Agency Working Party, 1992), Governments passed strict rules even death sentence in Republic of China for abusing women. Facing all these problems still women are equally competing with men in all areas. Some of the most influential women in the world are Oprah, Hillary, Mother Theresa, Benazir Bhutto, Indira Ghandi, Angelina Jolie, and many others.

Literature Review

The scope of this research is whether women can truly be successful in the world dominated by men, in which I studied various topics on women development which are explained below. I explained the various stages of women development during last century. In current situations women are given equal opportunities with men, but can this really done? The basic idea of this research is women are still striving over the domination of men. I examined many Surveys, Interviews, and Observations to include in this project, which claims the result. There are some factors which prove the fact.

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The most important social changes for woman development are identified as: Gender Equality around the world makes a clear description of the women development. Resource Availability to women worker to prove them in the society, Schemes launched by Governments to Women empowerment and the Advertising Media interference to the issue like rating top influential women in the world bought some radical changes in the society.

Methodology

When I Studied the Recent Survey on Women’s Empowerment and Development I found that in Globalizing world Men and Women are given equal gender rights. Still, the violence towards women is an epidemic – Against which no country in immune. Women’s Empowerment is different in different countries; we can take an example of Developed, Developing and Underdeveloped Countries. The women in Developed countries seem to assign more rights and freedom than the developing and underdeveloped countries. People in western countries honor women for there excellence and courage, but in some Gulf, African and Asian countries they are not able to even go out of their homes.

During last Iran war thousands of women are made homeless and widows, many Western NGO (Non Profit Organizations) came forward to help the disadvantaged people by providing some work under Government schemes. In a Recent Public Poll on Women rights conducted by World Public Opinion 89% of Mexican said it’s very important for women to have equal rights as of men, where as 77% of United States people said it’s very important and the average stands at 59%. The majority of the people around the world are supporting equal rights (World Public Opinion, March 6th 2008). United Nations (UN) started participating actively around the world for women development. In a questionnaire survey conducted in 16 countries 14 countries responded in favor of UN in actively participating for women development, however in Egypt

Most of those polled (70%) think the United Nations should not get involved in efforts to improve women’s rights and among the Palestinians views are evenly divided.

On average, 64 percent approve of UN efforts to further the rights of women, while 28 percent say this would be improper interference. (World Public Opinion, March 6th 2008).

In 2004 The OECD was subsequently asked to investigate the barriers for women in academic and non-academic research careers in New Zealand. The reports say that women has higher rate of enrollment in higher education with 9.4% where as men as 8.2% (OECD and Ministry of Research Science and Technology, Feb10, 2005). By which we can easily understand women are stepping an ahead of men in scientific careers. When we compare the turnover rate of Women with Men here is the result of the survey conducted in 2004 for African Women Development, since 2000, the turnover rate for women has been higher than the rate for men. Turnover for female public servants increased from 12% in 2000 to 13% in 2004. The turnover rate for male public servants remained unchanged over this period (at 10%). This Survey also proved a Psychological factor which is making women focus on there development is the family responsibility. Overall, 52% of women earned less than $40,000 (compared with 33% of men) and 5% earned more than $80,000 (compared with 12% of men). The pay gap between the median salary for female and male public servants decreased between 2000 and 2004, from 17% to 16%. Women are reaching new heights, attaining growth and development. The migration of women has always been an important component of international migration. As of 2000, 49 per cent of all international migrants were women or girls, and the proportion of females among international migrants had reached 51 percent in more developed regions. (2004-World Survey on the Role of Women in Development, Conducted by UNESCO), Even though women are facing more troubles than man have, these factors all lead to the destruction of social relationships between man and woman making a self competing world.

When I Studied a Recent survey on Women Rights here is what I like to present Globalization is a multi-dimensional process of economic, political, cultural, and ideological change. It has had a mixed impact on women’s rights. On the one hand, it has led to increasing violations of women’s economic, political, and cultural rights in large measure due to the withering away of the welfarist/developmentalist state, the feminization of poverty, the expansion of religious fundamentalisms, and new forms of militarism and conflict. It has been noted by many international women’s organizations, for example, that the new trade agreements contravene the spirit and often the letter of international conventions on human rights, labor rights, and women’s rights. On the other hand, aspects of globalization have provided women with increasing opportunities to work in solidarity at national, regional, and international levels to demand their rights. UNSECO is actively working on the implementation of advanced Human Rights which mainly focus on contribution on Women security and welfare.

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The women are seeking equal work culture in organizations, which are now only enjoyed by men. In many companies the women as less pay rates when compared to men, where as security of a women working in a company is less. World Jurisdiction has ample of cases registered on sexual harassment on women.

When I made a Research on Recognition of Women in the society Women all around the globe are respected and treated as important source of development and existence of human mankind. International Women’s Day (IWD) is observed on March 8th – Which is celebrated across the globe. It is a major day of global celebration for the economic, political and social achievements of women. The first IWD was observed on Feb 29th, 1909 in the United States. Many women marked there positions as the most influential persons in the world, Such as Mother Teresa who was given Woman of the Century for her service. Women proved in every area such as Polictics, Business, Adminstration, Law, Engineering etc… Women ruled nations, managed companies taking potential decesions, worked in Space and every deal as the list goes on. Countries like Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka are once ruled by princess and these countries give a lot of importance to woman. Woman in these countries serve in most influential positions in the Government. Many countries have elected women as Presidents, United States in yet to elect a Lady President. Time Magzine also reported the top most influetial woman on the planet, which is the highest recognition in the society. Women are given Nobel Lauratee for there excellence in the field of specialisation.

During an Interview with Vicki Donlan, author of Her Turn and founder of Women’s Business describes why it’s time for women to continue to step into leadership roles in America, the steps we can take to make this happen and the benefits for women AND men when more women lead. She said women are capable of leading a country like United States without any obstacles, She also stated that women all around the world are intelligent and courage’s for their development.

Indra Nooyi, CEO of Pepsi Co.: Indra was named the #1 Most Powerful Women in Business in 2006 by Fortune Magazine. As President and Chief Executive Officer of PepsiCo, she is the highest ranking Woman in corporate America. She’s helped engineer over $30 billion worth of deals in the past few years and is taking on the challenge of some fierce competition: a newly energized Coca-Cola campaign. She was every confident with her work and decisions she take for the one of the latest business which operates in 190 countries. She always says that every woman can do anything in life, they are equal with men. (Top Business Woman, 2006 by Fortune Magazine)

During an Interview with Michelle Crain, Director of Call center, Inc. and one of the most influential women in the business, she started that women are best in business and she said about the Women Educational Development as “A number of occupations became “professionalized” through the 19th and 20th centuries, gaining regulatory bodies, and passing laws or regulations requiring particular higher educational requirements. As women’s access to higher education was often limited, this effectively restricted women’s participation in these professionalizing occupations. For instance, women were completely forbidden access to Cambridge University until 1868, and were encumbered with a variety of restrictions until 1987 when the University adopted an equal opportunity policy.”

Beside Interviews I also observed during my Internet Research I found that women are leading the way in many countries, but in some countries they are lagging behind men. The inspiration of other women makes them to move forward and achieve new heights. For example in United States more than 65% of the women work and 12% are running business in the same way if we take Kenya only 14% of the women work, mainly devoted to Agriculture field. The Women in Countries like China, India and Other Asian Countries are developing and there is an increasing statistics of working women. Governments are taking initiatives for Women Development in these countries by launching schemes for working women. The United States Employment Law is totally in favor of women by providing same wage rates, flexible working hours and Maternity leaves. It is observed in United States that the women as better Credit Score than men. This shows that Women are constantly developing in the society.

The inspiration and Government actions women are excelling and there is lot more to do. The Women in Countries like United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia and Other European Countries are fully development and in transition phase. But the Countries like India, China, Pakistan and Other Asian Countries they still developing; Governments are taking active role in Women Development and Empowerment. UN interference is also making them to work on this issue. Reports and Surveys say that Women in North Korea, Kenya and other African Countries are still facing lot of problems, and there is no aid to rescue them.

When I made an Internet Research Observation the Women in Developed and Developing Countries are facing sexual harassments at work environment. Governments and Companies passed strict rules against the sexual harassment on women, but the strategy didn’t change. The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2004 shows that there are more than 1500 women killed in United States for Sexual Harassments. In India the working women are sexually harassed and killed, recently three cases are recorded in International companies like HP and Wipro, where Call Center Associates were sexually harassed and killed by the Drivers appointed by the companies, this made companies to take initiative in launching GPRS to the cars that are used to pick and drop women employees. The jurisdictions around the world are fully loaded with sexual harassments cases, which are yet to justify.

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When I made a survey with other women on Streets about the Security on Women the Woman told that the women should develop there own security system to protect against men, by waging fight for human rights. Many activists have already started these types of fights to improve the women rights in the society. Many Women Claim that these types of sexual harassments make women mentally bind to there homes and are not able to work in the environment. Majority of the women said that we are also part of the society and should be respected and treated well is the basic point that should be noted by men.

When I made an Observation on Women in Business I found that Women are leading many International companies with motivation and high decision making skills, Men and Women equally contribute to the development of the economy. Both are now money maker and creators. UN has taken a step forward to help the women in Business by launching a Development center for Women Development, which focuses on women in Business sectors. Training programs are given to women who are interested in starting there own business.

In my Internet Research on Women in Business I found that Fortune 500 Companies are managed and operated by many women. For example: Indra Nooyi. The present CEO of Pepsi Co. and another example: The founder of Mary Kay Cosmetics created a business that has helped some half a million women fulfills their dreams of business ownership. A best-selling author and powerful motivational speaker, Lifetime Television named her the Most Outstanding Woman in Business in the 20th Century. Debbi Fields is one of the greatest Women Entrepreneur she at age of 20, Debbi Fields was a housewife with no business experience, but a great chocolate chip cookie recipe and a dream. Today, Mrs. Fields Cookies is one of the world’s most recognizable dessert franchises, with over 600 stores in the U.S. and ten other countries.

When I made an Online Observation on the Women in Scientific Inventions where I found that Women also spread there activity in Scientific Inventions by inventing many prominent inventions in the world. Cancer is one of the most killing diseases on the world, Dr. Marie Curie is known to the world as the scientist who discovered radioactive metals i.e. Radium & Polonium Marie Curie contributed greatly to our understanding of radioactivity and the effects of x-rays. She received two Nobel prizes for her brilliant work, but died of leukemia, caused by her repeated exposure to radioactive material. Mary Dixon Kies in 1809 received the first U. S. patent issued to a woman. Kies, a Connecticut native, invented a process for weaving straw with silk or thread. First Lady Dolley Madison praised her for boosting the nation’s hat industry. Unfortunately, the patent file was destroyed in the great Patent Office fire in 1836. She is generally regarded as the mother of inventions. Many other women for there excellence in Inventions were awarded Nobel Laureates, in every filed that Nobel is awarded Women had there positions.

When I made an Observation on Successful women in Space and Defense Sector I found that Space Administration is most difficult way to exploring the universe, Women has made everything possible there are more than 50 women still date that traveled in space exploring new inventions and discoveries. Tereshkova is a Russian Engineer who was entitled to be the first women in Space; she was in space for 2.95 days. NASA has more than 2500 women engineers and technicians working on different space missions. Many explorations which include the recent Mars exploration which was engineered by women, marking there name on top.

Many women even died in failures of missions leaving an inspiration note to other women, When studying Successful women in various Internet and Extranet sources I found that nowadays the Women Applications at NASA centers and other Defense Research Centers are increasing, which shows a sign of interest and motivation. There are women Pilots, Engineers, Technicians and other working staff in every country Defense Research and implementation. Many women are leading armies and the defense related issues.

Questionnaire

Question 1: Do you really think men and women are equal in working environment?

Question 2: What are the changes you need to get for better woman working?

Question 3: Do you think working men and women have low social relationships?

Question 4: What is the role men play in women’s working class?

Question 5: Do you think men are responsible for women underdevelopment?

Question 6: Do you support women working in defense?

Question 7: What are the additional rights that a woman is in need of?

Question 8: Do you think UN is taking an active role in Women Development?

Question 9: What are the measures we have take to develop the women working class in African and other Asian countries?

Question 10: Do you think women in western countries are safe?

Question 11: What are the measures you suggest for decreasing the Sexual Harassment cases? Please mention a few of the measures?

Question 12: Do you think United States has equal gender rights?

Question 13: Do you support women having low wage rate than men?

Question 14: What is the role that governments should play for equal gender rights?

Question 15: Whom do you prefer if you have a company?

  • Men
  • Women

The Data I found when I surveyed 160 women near my Neighborhood and on Streets was only 3% of the women show anguish that women are not equally treated to men, there was 94% of the women say that women are equal with men in all fields. When I asked some questions from the above questionnaire in my survey like the response for the survey is 1. Do you think Women are Successful? The Answer was 96% of the women said yes and the rest 4% said up to some extent only needs more development. 2. Do you think United States has equal gender rights? The Answer is 100% said yes, United States has 100% equal gender rights. 3. Do you support women having low wage rate than men? The Answer in the survey is 74% said yes we support and 26% said no, when I asked them why you are not supporting yourself in wage plan: They just answered that Men should know that we are also same in the work.

4. Do you support women working in defense? The Answer was 100% percent said Yes, We can anywhere in the world. When I asked my group the most sensitive question in my questionnaire. 5. Do you think working men and women have low social relationships? The Answer is only 12% said yes on Low Social Relationships where as 88% percent said No, Its understanding and family responsibility.

Discussion on Women Success

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Men had dominance over Women from the inception of human mankind, making them restricted to a very own limits. Men dominated Women in every step of life, taking out the opportunities from her hand. Now the time has come for a rapid change, which is equal existence. This is mainly not agreeable by some men, who always see women in a lower identity. Women responded well for this situation and started protesting for their basic rights. Men and Women must be given equal opportunity and status that men enjoy in the society. Some men agree to this statement, while some say that women are not compactable to working situations.

While we take some examples of greatest men and women the larger percentage are men, and how the reports are changing even women are having higher rates of success. In earlier days very low percentage of women used to graduate where now the percentage is highly rising above the men, with the effect of Globalization the opportunities for women and men are almost same in the corporate world. If women are working smatter than men, then a radical change happens in the corporate world which involves switching of gender workers. Some women strongly believe that women are equal to men, which is true only to some extinct, where as in some cases men deal more smatter and quicker than women. Experiments and other surveys show that women concentrate on work more than men, but the decision making skills are slower when compared to men. Governments support to women development is also considered as important step in women achievers. The world around us clearly agree that Women as Successes in every step of there life.

SWOT Analysis of Working Women

When I made some Internet Research on Women Success, I made a SWOT analysis to test there ability and treats so I made SWOT analysis for both men and women – Here is the SWOT analysis of women, by which we can evaluate the points that help the women in there development, also we can evaluate the weakness of women.

Strengths: Work Concentration, Determination and inspirational towards work.

Weakness: Physically weak, Psychological Weakness, Barrier for Long Working Hours.

Opportunities: Government Schemes, Globalization, Equal Gender rights and Special Women Rights.

Threats: Sexual Harassment, Dominance of Men and Devaluation of Social responsibilities.

Here is SWOT analysis of Men, by which we can evaluate on which basis men are leading over women.

Strengths: Hard Working, Decision Making Skills, High Technical Knowledge and Long Hour Working.

Weakness: Addiction to Alcohols, Low Concentration skills and Financial Tensions.

Opportunities: Predominance in Engineering and Construction sectors, Physical Strength and Globalization.

Threats: Entry of Women to the industry and Government Schemes.

Comparison: After comparing and researching the two SWOT analyses I can clearly understand that Women and Men are equal in Oppurtunities, Strengths and Weakness but when we see the Treats Women have high risk features when compared to men.

Suggestions and Opinions

Keeping Women Success in Research I’ve included some suggestions and opinions, that helps in improving the Success rate in Women.

Equal Gender Rights and Women Empowerment are the main issues that were faced as critical areas of development by Governments these days. Governments and NGO’s appointed several cultural working organizations for this development, which is a good step but these are mainly concerned to some extent of the geography. Here are some of the suggestions this project includes for Women Development and Equal Gender Rights.

•Governments in African and Asian Continents should implement more developing schemes and take an initiative for Women Development and Equal Gender Rights. The Women rights in these areas are not well implemented as of many western countries. Governments should enforce Laws relating to wok environment and Sexual Harassments on women.

•United Nations Role for Women Development in these Areas: UN should sanction more International funds to these areas for Women employment, Appoint volunteer organizations in these areas for educating and training women in specific skills. UN must force Governments to implement Equal Rights for Women and Men.

•Special Schemes for European Women Workers: European Union (EU) is the richest financial market in the whole world, Euro as marked its presence as the Global Trading Currency, Even though the women workers in EU are less when compared to United States and

Canada. EU should take initiative in increasing wage plans for Women workers and other fringe benefits.

•During my Research I found that Female Discrimination in Asian countries is very high, female child deaths are recorded in every part of Asia, Mainly in India. Indians Psychologically think that females are low productive and cost oriented as they grow up, So poor families kill if a female baby is born, Now a days trend is changing Low Female Child Deaths are recorded. Government intervention in this issue made this happen. Government of India has passed several laws for presentation of early marriage of women and child labor in the society, which is not disabled till now. These types of activities on women should be completely taken out from the society.

• With Opinion of the people I surveyed, I found that 96% of the women need more Women Maternity Leaves: In United States women are generally assigned to taken maternity leave for 30 days which is a good option for the working women to take leave without quitting the job, But I think these leaves should be increased to 45-50 days with paid benefits.

Result

After briefly examining the growth and success of women in the last century and different surveys and interviews based on women development and empowerment. Women’s motivation and determination towards work is running them towards success. Women around the world are now empowered with new innovative ideas and techniques with the support of Government and other Organizations. There was a rapid change in the status of women in last 2 decades, they started careers in every profession that man has done. The constant inspiration they get from other women makes them to search for a new opportunity. Women are more exploring nature than men, so they have new prospective ideas which work. Many women have marked there names as the most influential women on planet earth, But when we compare the world’s top 100 richest people in the world we have only two women’s listed on. This says there is lot more to achieve.

Women have just started off in there success run; there is a long distance to travel for status and pride. Men and Women are building competitive work culture, which is having cutthroat competition. Women are fighting for equal rights, even many women welfare and development organizations were established for protecting women against these unlawful issues. Women with tremendous support and motivation may lead there way to success. Globalization shows a challenging way for women with ample of opportunities from Small Scale industries to Defense.

Women have wide spread there wings across each and every profession. During my Research with Women Companies World Magazine, 2007 I found that even companies deigned some professional careers especially for women, in which female domination appears than men such as Tourism and Service Sector Jobs. Women now a day appear more confident in work than men, hard work, motivational levels made them to reach different scales of height.

Women are clearly standing on the same stature than a man enjoys in the society, Working women are respected and appreciated with rewards. In today’s society Men and Women are equally treated with honor and respect, Even though there is no end for Development, Women should move wisely towards the better futures with more and more new innovations in mind. Mother Teresa is truly Women of the Century with working on Social Service as profession, well recognized and honored for her excellence. Mother Teresa Inspirations made many women to work hard towards there goal and destiny.

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References

  • A survey on women rights by www.WorldPublicOpinion.org on March 6, 2008.
  • Women Development and Strategies, Women Empowerment – A Book written by Desbai in 2000.
  • Increase of Women in Research and Development by Ministry of Research Science and Technology of New Zealand (www.morst.govt.nz).
  • Chapter 8 of Women in Public Service by Government of New Zealand (www.ssc.govt.nz).
  • 2004 Survey on role of women in the world’s Development by UNESCO.
  • World’s leading Business women and there achievements taken from www.leadingwomen.biz.
  • Indra Nooyi, Powerful Business lady – www.Capitalistchicks.com.
  • A Survey on Women’s loss in Global warming – Women Development & Environment Organization (WEDO).
  • An Interview with C. Rice (Secretary of State), by Washington post on Dec 15th, 2006.
  • List of NASA women astronauts published in January 2008.
  • Top influential women on the planet earth – Fortune Business
  • Successful women, 2006 – Andre Grove

 

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