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Natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 hit New Orleans cause more damage and death, a notice of a change to the National Response Plan (NRP) was released, incorporating lessons learned from the 2005 hurricane season. Terrorist attacks are immoral evil and are premeditated. The attacks of 911 were hateful deliberate and the worst of humanity. After the 911 attacks modify the way, government officials felt the need to develop the Office Emergency Management. The National Response Framework (NRF) and the Department of Homeland Security revamped flexible and adaptable ideology in which coordinated key positions and responsibilities across the nation connecting all levels of local, state, government, non-governmental organizations and the private sector.
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The idea intends to identify roles and guide key personnel in managing serious terrorist incidents to a large-scale catastrophic and natural disaster. People are informed well in advance and prepared for natural disasters during Hurricane season, Local, and state offices along with emergency management perform training simulation. These agencies advise the population on evacuation routes, shelter locations and the importance to prepared in the event of a natural disaster was to hit the area. Is evident that people panic some are forced to evacuate from their homes at a moment notice and others may not be able to return home.
Protecting public health and safety has always been paramount in nuclear power plant design and operation. Robust structures, such as reactor containment buildings, protect the reactor. Safety systems, such as diesel generators, are redundant and independent. These design features provide excellent protection from external hazards, such as tornadoes and hurricanes, as well as nuclear accidents. The same design features also protect against potential acts of terrorism, making nuclear power plants among the most robust and well-protected civilian facilities in the country (2011 U.SNRC).
Thousands of people volunteer to assist those in need when a major disaster strikes. In a case of a Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD), as an American Red Cross Volunteer Responder, one must follow the protocols in place in the event of a terrorist attack. Be off limits of the contaminated locations that has evidence for trained personnel to conduct investigations. Initiating a risk assessment and recognize characteristics and distinction of chemical, biological agents, radiological material. Using specialized equipment such as chemical devices and meter to detect radiation. Evacuations may be required to prevent further casualties from contamination. Temporary shelter in place and decontamination area is appropriate if there is a short duration of release of hazardous material and is determined to be safe for everyone to remain in place. Also, protective action to include victims who pose an infection hazard, quarantine of affected locations. Access to contaminated area is issue by personnel assigned to the Command Post delegated by the Incident Command
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In a WMD incident, protection of the lives of the victims, as well as the responders is a primary concern. To enter a location response teams need to safely enter with appropriate equipment to avoid any hazards of agents. They need to be in fully encapsulated for those areas that highly toxic; vapor protection suites provide skin and respiratory protection. The three types of control zones are:
- Hot Zone- Personnel entering this area must wear the highest level of protective equipment based on the substance involved. Referred as a restricted zone An area surrounding by hazardous materials incident, it extends far enough to prevent any hazardous material release from causing harm to personnel outside the area.
- Warm Zone- Decontamination area personnel working in this area with limited access to prevent or reduce contamination must wear appropriate protective gear, as they will be dealing with contaminated people and equipment.
- Cold Zone – Contains the command post and other support functions deemed necessary to control the incident. Personnel working in this area do not have to wear protective gear but should have it available if needed.
Decontamination procedures vary depending on the particular hazard because one procedure or method will not work for all hazards (Review of the Department’s preparation to respond to a WMD incident (2010, page 3).
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