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History of Hollywood

5177 words (21 pages) Essay in Film Studies

14/07/17 Film Studies Reference this

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Hollywood cinema is the most popular in the world. Hollywood has a significant influence on the cinema of other countries, it’s no secret that it was Hollywood movies set in the fashion of many genres of film. They are decisive in the choice of subject, and in the selection of an ensemble of actors, and in creating the image of the film for an advertising campaign. Today this industry still dictates fashion for movies, every year it produces thousands of films. And that is something!

The old studio system in Hollywood combined the production of films, their rent and a network of cinemas. This system, which allowed major U.S. companies to win national and international markets, known as the “Golden Age of Hollywood.”

Film production has two main components: the producer and his film crew and services. Many of the major studios of the world combine these processes under one roof: for example the famous “Seven” studious in Hollywood – Fox, Universal, Paramount, Sony, Disney, Warner, MGM. Other studios offer only services and rent out their premises for lease without their own production and distribution: for example the famous Hollywood studio “Raleigh.” All those and others, regardless of whether they run in the production of their own products or not, have one thing in common – the perfect industrial base. 

History of creation of cinema industry in the USA and Creation of Hollywood

The creation of cinema is considered to be the date of the first public display of film of brothers Louis and Auguste Lumiere, on December 28, 1895.  At that time Lumière brothers showed only their “moving pictures” in Paris’ Grand Cafe, and in the U.S. film industry was already a dynamic industry of entertainment. Thomas Alva Edison in 1891, presented his movie-making camera and peep show – the device that projected moving image onto the screen. However, the screen size was slightly larger than a matchbox, but for a minute audience could see a moving picture. Two years later, William  Dickson, Edison’s assistant, built first studio and began to make films that appear in cinema salons. Unexpectedly peep show became very popular, maybe because it created the illusion of a long trip or visiting the theater, where different comedies or entertaining stories were shown. From the invention of the Lumiere brothers, peeps differed only by one thing – the lack of a large screen, that was corrected by Edison in April 1896. Since then, the U.S. salons became real cinemas.

Why the cinema was so popular in the United States? In Europe films and cinema were entertainment for more or less wealthy people, and in America they immediately became available to the mass public.

In 1908, Edison subjected to himself all firms that used while film production and distribution his proprietary equipment. Everyone who wanted to work in the field of cinematography, was supposed to make a charge, otherwise he threatened to prosecute. To escape from the agents of Edison, William H. Zelig shifted production of his films from Chicago to California, opening Hollywood studio. So did also Carl Lemmle, who moved his company from the capital of cinema New York to the West Coast. ( Bowser,  1990, p. 160.)

Cinema came in Hollywood in the person of Colonel William H. Zelinga, who in the beginning of XX century bought the piece of land in Wilcox’s area for a branch of his Chicago production company. He acted entirely on legal rights – he had an official license for the survey equipment and rolling copying movies. However, in 1907 in America broke the so-called “patent war”, the essence of which were disputes about the ownership of projection equipment. After that, the municipality of Los Angeles forbidden to open in the city and its environs “nickelodeons” (semi-underground cinema, at the entrance to which was taken a charge of five cents, in English “Ni”, and “Odeon” is a theater, where the stolen movies were shown on unlicensed equipment).

Interest to the cinema in America evolved in parallel with great colonization process of the country with people all over the world, who were the potential audience. For example, in 1907 only from Europe to America came to 1,285,000 people, who gave a new and strong impetus to the development of cinema. In addition, it were immigrants who became founders of the country’s largest movie studios: Adolf Tsukor (Hungary ), who began his career as an apprentice at the furriers, founded «Paramount»; Charles Lemley (Germany) – founded the «Universal», Warner Brothers (Poland) – founded the «Warner Brosers», Louis B. Mayer ( Russia, Belarus) – founded «Metro-Goldwin-Mayer». (Scott, 2005)

“HOLLYWOOD” -is a district in Los Angeles, California, located in northwest of downtown Los Angeles. It is famous as the historical center of movie studios and movie stars. 

The first studio in Hollywood was founded by Centaur Company, located in New Jersey, that wanted to shoot westerns in California. They rented an abandoned roadside diner at 6121 Sunset Boulevard at the corner of Gower-street, and turned it into the studio in October 1911, calling it “Studio Nestor” in honor of the western branch of the company. Later the building became “film lab in Hollywood, which is now called« Hollywood Digital Laboratory ». ( Bowser, 1990)

The first feature film made in the studio Hollywood, in 1914, was the film “an Indian husband,” created by Cecil B. DeMille and Oscar Apfel. Feature films, made in Los Angeles before “Indian Husband” were the films “From Dusk Till Dawn” (1913) and “Sea Wolf” (1913). (Bowser, 1990, p. 160.)

Hollywood had a lot of advantages: there was a lot of sun, spread out around the magnificent scenery – mountains, valleys, islands, lakes, beaches, deserts, forests – where it was possible to recreate any character that comes on the planet. The land here is cheap cost, around there were numerous labor for construction and maintenance of studios. By 1915 it was concentrated 60% of American filmmaking, and for the next five years, an system of film studios, which allowed Hollywood to become a cinema capital of the world. 

The word “Hollywood” is often used as the word “movie” in the United States. Alias refers to Tinseltown shiny surface typical of Hollywood and the film industry. Currently, most of the industry dispersed in nearby cities such as Burbank and the Los Angeles Westside, but such auxiliary industries like editing, effects, props, post-production and lighting companies, remain in Hollywood, as well as for location filming in Paramount Pictures.

In 1911 the company Nestor Company opened in Hollywood at the corner of Sunset Boulevard and the streets Gouner first studio. By 1920 years in Hollywood studios have opened such as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount Pictures, Warner Brothers, Twentieth Century Fox, and Hollywood became the center of American cinema. The growing film industry require appropriate infrastructure. In Hollywood, they built homes for many film companies, employees, opened a lot of banks, restaurants, clubs, cinemas. After World War II look of Hollywood once again changed. Although most studios were in the Hollywood, many movie stars and show business have moved to Beverly Hills, was followed by fashionable restaurants and shops.

Many historic Hollywood theaters are used as places of filmmaking and concert venues in major theatrical releases and prime of the Academy of Awards. 

Very often the notion of “American Cinema” and “Hollywood” unite. And this is a big mistake. American cinema – it is not only a huge Hollywood film industry, but also developed a system of independent cinema. This film, produced by enthusiasts without the intervention of major film companies, which they simply do not support. On the one hand, this means smaller budgets, on the other hand – less pressure on the directors. This film is usually not rich, because the producers of film-makers have to look for themselves (and often have to invest and own money).However, in the U.S. independent film is quite popular. In addition, it also earned worldwide recognition, not just winning on the international kinokonkursah and festivals, and has yielded a number of major contemporary authors. Prominent representatives of the modern independent American cinema are Woody Allen, John Malkovich, Michael Moore, Jim Jarmusch, David Lynch, Joel and Ethan Coen.

Filmmaking in Hollywood from the era of “silent cinema” to the Golden Age of Hollywood

Hollywood began his fame in the era of silent films. Although the films of that era were shown without sound, talented directors and artists had made them a highly entertaining spectacle. Films made during the silent movies era in Hollywood are among the greatest masterpieces in cinema history. Although the directors of silent films often resorted to using titles that told the audience important information, yet the main stake was done on the visual images, not only on the development of the plot, but also in the transfer of thoughts and feelings of characters. Of course, the audience needed time to understand the language of the “Great Silent”, but soon it became really successful. (Koszarski, 1990)

Creation of feature films in 1920 was very difficult. While the system of studios offered little opportunity for expressions of artists, it nevertheless had generated a lot of talented filmmakers. Some of them, such as John Ford or King Vidor, had taken a prominent place in the history, others, like James Cruz, Rex Ingram, Lewis Weber and Fred Niblo, were forgotten. (Koszarski, 1990)

With the advent of sound cinema, filmmaking began to flourish. The success was so deafening that Hollywood had entered a period of greatest prosperity, when it’s perfectly executed masterpieces helped the audience in the world at least temporarily forgot emotion of that troubled era.

Indeed, the silent cinema was never completely silent. Even the first film screenings were held with the accompaniment of a pianist. By 1920’s, many “cinema” had their own organs, machines of sound and even orchestras. In Hollywood, directors were in no hurry to spend huge money on renovations of theirs studios and movie theaters, fearing that “talking films” could just be a passing fad. (Koszarski, 1990)

But by the mid 1920’s the company, Warner Brothers, was facing severe financial difficulties, and it was necessary to somehow attract the audience. In 1926 the studio released the film “Don Juan” – a “costume” film with sound and orchestral music recorded by the system “Vitafon”. But finally the era of silent films ended only in October 1927, when the film “The Jazz Singer” with Al Jolson in the leading role was released.

The transition to sound film was so expensive that Hollywood was forced to seek sources of funding to apply to banks and other business institutions. In return, some of them, expressing the views of various religious organizations demanded that the film studios to avoid sensitive topics. As a result, in 1934, Hollywood had to take a set of rules, known as the Production Code: according to this code, in Hollywood movies were not allowed criticism of any religious believes, surgery, drug use, drunkenness, and cruelty to children or animals. The use of curses, even the most innocuous, is also forbidden. It was impossible to show details of robberies and acts of violence, to discourage violations of law, and criminals were not allowed to kill police officers. Stringent restrictions are imposed on everything that was related to sex. Nude actors on the screen, showing same-sex and interracial love affairs and even passionate kissing was strictly prohibited.

When Hollywood began producing its sound pictures, it quickly regained its reputation as the director of best film production, which made it “the capital of world cinema” in the era of silent films. 1930-1945 years were the “golden age” of Hollywood. It’s studios during this time brought into the world 7500 full-length films. Most of them were black and white, but since 1935 were coming out more and more films made with the use of “Technicolor”. (Scott, 2005)

      The system of studios remained virtually unchanged, although the organization was similar studios, each of them has developed his own special style. The largest of the studios “Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer” asserted that “it had more stars than the sky”. It specialized on bright and cheerful family pictures. Production Company “Paramount” felt strong influence of European cinema. Many of its films delt with topics of wealth, power and human passions.

The company “United Artists” didn’t made own films, but engaged rental tapes of independent producers, such as Samuel Goldwyn and David O. Selznick. (Scott, 2005)

The company “Warner Brothers” had never been rich, but still managed to release a number of popular gangster movies, social films and musicals. “XX Century Fox” also filmed musicals, westerns and historical pictures, but with very modest budget.

The Company “Universal” had no equal in the era of silent films, but with the advent of sound had to go to the staging of cheap game tapes, mostly horror films.  “Columbia” was in great distress that survived only by borrowing “stars” and directors for its most important films from other studios.

In the center of each film were of course the stars, although much attention was paid to the quality of the script, as well as costumes, sets and lighting. Nevertheless, the astronomical fees of stars were in the past, moreover, now they were all involved with very stringent contracts with one or another studio. The actor, who refused from the proposed role, was threatening suspension from work or the loan of another movie company.

In late 1930 the lives of ordinary Americans were not easy: in the era of the Great Depression even the biggest studios with difficulty managed to attract audience in cinema halls. One way of attracting of the public was the practice of double sessions. Now the film “A” – the main full-time film – was accompanied by a less expensive film “B” within a single session. Many films of Class “B” were produced by small cinema companies, which were nicknamed the “fraternity of beggars”.  The most fortunate of them were of “Republic” and “Monogram”, that produced practically more than 40 films a year: they were mostly westerns, adventure films and thrillers.

1946 was for Hollywood’s biggest studios the year of greatest success in its history. However, a few months later, it plunged into the deepest crisis caused by the need to reorganize the system of film studios, the changes in audience preferences, as well as government investigation which went down in history as the Hollywood “witch hunt”. (Scott, 2005)

The foundation of the major Hollywood studios and their influence and dominance in the American filmmaking processes

“Paramount”

History of «Paramount Pictures» began in May 1912. The company’s founder and one of the first producers Adolph Zukor saw that the existing cinemas attract mostly migrants from the working class, so together with partners Daniel Frohman Charles Frohman, he decided to open the first cinema showing art films, which will focus on the middle class due to the fact that the pictures will be removed leading actors of that time.  In the same year another producer Jesse Louis Lasky opened «Lasky Feature Play Company». As the first employee company Lasky took on the work a theater director Cecil B. De Mille, who had at that time no experience in cinema.  Since 1914, the company “Lasky” and the studio «Famous Players» mandated distribution of the pictures of the new company “Paramount Pictures », that was founded earlier, in the 1914by the owner of several theaters in Utah William Wadsworth Hodkinson, who had bought and merged a few smaller firms. (Scott, 2005)

Soon «Paramount Pictures » became the first successful film studio in the country. Until then, movies were distributed only in the territory of one state or region that was not effective.

One of the first slogans of the company was the motto «Famous Players in Famous Plays».  The company was signing contracts and raised many stars, like Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino and Wallace Reid. With the arsenal of the stars «Paramount» was unable to introduce such a thing as a «block booking», which meant that if the cinema owner wishes to buy a film with good actors, it had to purchase another smaller films of «Paramount» for rental throughout the year . Such a system of relationships could, on the one hand, make «Paramount» a leader in this position in the 20-30’s, but on the other – to allow the Government to prosecute the company on the basis of competition law for more than 20 years.

During the 20-ies of the last century, Zukor managed to built a huge theatrical network of more than 200 screens, driving two filmmaking studios and became one of the first investors in the radio, getting a 50% stake in a newly created in 1928 «Columbia Broadcasting System». By purchasing in 1926 a thriving cinema network «Balaban & Katz», he hired Barney Balaban, who became president of «Paramount», and Sam Katz, who ruled the cinema circuit «Paramount-Publix». Zukor also hired independent producer BP Schulberg who was managing the studio «West Coast». (Scott, 2005)

 In 1927 the company «Famous Players-Lasky» changed its name to «Paramount-Famous Lasky Corporation», and three years later, taking into account the importance of cinema «Publix», was renamed to «Paramount-Publix Corporation».(Scott, 2005)

As before, the film company «Paramount» continued to focus on the stars: in the 20-ies they were Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino. By 30s of the last century many new talents appeared: Marlene Dietrich, Mae West, Gary Cooper, Claudette Colbert, the Marx Brothers, Dorothy Lamour, Carole Lombard, Bing Crosby, the famous Argentine tango dancer Carlos Gardel and many others. At this time «Paramount» really was called a factory of the production of film, which produced 60-70 films in a year. thesewere the benefits of a huge network of cinemas and the previously mentioned system of «block booking».

Multiplication unit of the «Paramount» also had great success, thanks to two main characters: sailor Pop and Betty Boop. Studio «Fleischer Studios» produced cartoons with both heroes right up until 1942, when «Paramount» reorganized the company, made it «Famous Studios», and gained control over the cartoons.

In 1940 «Paramount» agreed with the government decision to terminate the systems of «block booking» and «pre-selling» (practice of collecting money in advance for the rental of films, which are still in the stage production). Although a similar action in the company has been a serious reduction in production costs, nodding the bar from 60 to more moderate 20 films a year. However, with new stars Bob Hope, Alan Ladd, Veronica Lake, Paulette Goddard and Betty Hutton and an astronomical number of the movie in time of war, «Paramount» and other companies, who owned a combination of “studio-theater”, earned more than they had ever before.

That is why the Federal Trade Commission and the U.S. Justice Department decided to reopen the case against five companies owning such a combination. All this eventually led in 1948 to the U.S. Supreme Court decision that brought an end to the classical Hollywood studios system. Company «Paramount» was divided in two: «Paramount Pictures Corporation» was still involved in film production, including those intended for display in the 1500-screen cinemas.

Company «Paramount Pictures» was among the first followers of television in 1939, running in Los Angeles an experimental television station, later known as «KTLA», and station «WBBM-TV» in Chicago. The company also invested in innovative “DuMont Laboratories” and ” DuMont Television Network”. However, due to aggravation of anti-trust control by the state after 1948 «Paramount» limited participation in the television network, and «DuMont» in the mid-50’s of the last century ceased to exist.

Animation and production of short films «Paramount» came into the possession of various television producers, who are mostly cartoons and shows acquired by «UM & M. T.V. Corp. ».Animation about Popayán were sold «Associated Artists Productions», «Superman» – «Motion Pictures for Television», while the remaining cartoons were sold to the company «Harvey Comics».

In the beginning of the 1960’s the future of «Paramount» was a question: a risky movie business was not successful, cinema network was in the past, investments in «DuMont» and play TV turned to nothing. Despite tough times, «Paramount» released commercially successful pictures such as «The Odd Couple» (1968), “Love Story” (1970), “Rosemary’s Baby” (1968) and “Chinatown”. (Scott, 2005)

In the 80-90-s. of the last century, the successful promotion of “Paramount Pictures” in the field of “light” movie was even more intensive producing such hits as “Flashdance” (1983), “Friday the 13th”, “Raiders of the Lost Ark” (1981) and its sequel “Beverly Hills COP» (1984), and of course film series with comedian Eddie Murphy and films series of ” Star Trek”. Despite the fact that special attention was paid to commercial cinema, from time to time serious dramatic film were made, like “Atlantic City” (1980) and “Forrest Gump” (1994). At the same time in the collection of films «Paramount» more than usually degree began to appear remakes and television tapes based on the movies. Although sometimes they have been commercially successful, yet the studio had produced very few films of the same level which once made a “Paramount Pictures” a leader in the production of movies.

In 2005 «Paramount» announced the acquisition of the company «DreamWorks» for 1,6 billion U.S. dollars. This agreement did not include the unit “DreamWorks Animation SKG Inc.”, which is the most profitable part of the company “DreamWorks”. However, «Paramount» got the right to hire and distribution of profitable animated pictures «DreamWorks», which include Shrek Franchise.

The American company engaged in the manufacture and distribution of film production, “Paramount Pictures Corporation” is now located in Hollywood and now this company is the oldest American film studio. The place where it is now- is the historical centre of cinema production, and for many visitors with a newly renovated studio «Paramount» embodies Hollywood, and the tour tothe studio attracts a large number of guests.

“Universal Studios”

Universal Studios (Universal Pictures) is the second largest Hollywood studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal and is included in more than a dozen studios in the world. Universal was founded on the base of one of its predecessors – “Yankee Film Company” (1909). Founder of Universal are Carl Lemley, and Abe and Julius Stern.

In 1908 Thomas Edison created “Motion Pictures Trust”, which collected payments from all aspects of the film business – from production to the show – because he owned a patent for an electric motor used in cameras and a film projector, and a monopoly on distribution. Lemly and other theater owners saw the way in getting rid of Edison’s monopoly in the production of original films, which led to the fact that Lemley with partners in June 1909, created a “Yankee Film Company”. 

Soon, the company has become a “Independent Moving Pictures Company”, and from 8 June 1912, it became known as “Universal Film Manufacturing Co”.  The main areas of activity were Universal film production and distribution.

Very important for the development and success of the company was commemoration in the titles the names of the actors, that allowed the company to sign contracts with many famous artists of that time. In addition, it helped to create the so-called star system – a system of “stars”. 

Thus, in 1910, Lemley is actively promoted Florence Lawrence, until the well-known as Biograph Girl, what can be considered the first ever case of name actor in the marketing company’s film studio. 

In 1915, Lemley has opened the world’s largest film studios – “Universal City Studios” , that had an area of 0.9 km² on the Cahuenga Pass near Hollywood. Management Studio was a third area of activity of the company.

In 1926, Universal opened a studio in Germany – Deutsche Univarsal-Film AG, which was headed by Joe Pasternak. Until 1936, the unit produced 3-4 films a year, but under pressure of the growing influence of Hitler in Europe, it had to migrate first to Austria and then to Hungary. With the advent of sound in cinema, this studio was to make films in German, Hungarian and Polish languages. Universal did not not showed these films in the U.S., but they still fall into the American Rental efforts of independent distributors. 

Then the studio made such famous films as: “Show Boat” (1929) , a rich musical “Broadway” with the first color scenes, “The King of Jazz” (1930) and “On the Western Front”, which brought the studio an Oscar for the best film of 1930. Also was made a series of films about monsters – Universal Horror films – this is “Frankenstein,” “Dracula” and “The Mummy”. (Scott, 2005)

By the beginning of the Second World studio retured to its recent specialization: Romance, cheap western and classic horror sequel to the studio. 

In 1950, the company’s agent, Lew Wasserman, MCA and Universal Studios produced a veritable revolution in the American movie business: Wasserman signed the contract with the studio, under which his client – the great James Stewart – receives no fee, and the portion of the profits from the rental of 3 films with his participation, which were supposed to withdraw to Universal. When one of those films – “Winchester 73” – became a mega hit rolled, Stewart became the first truly rich American actor. Soon this form of payment for the actor’s work was firmly established in the practice of American and international film business. 

In the late 50-ies of XX century studio, and the whole movie business in general, was undergoing yet another difficult period associated with the development of television. The company MCA, which was the actor’s agency, became a powerful television producer, and in 1958 for $ 11 million acquired Universal Pictures with it’s studio area of 1.5 km2. Although formally Universal remained independent producer, the effect of MCA on the nature of film removed at the studio was very significant. However, MCA not only significantly upgraded the capacity of the studio, but signed for Universal contracts with such prominent actors like Doris Day, Lana Turner and Cary Grant.

In the 70 years of the last century, despite the fact that the studios made such hits as “Airport”, “The Sting,” “American Graffiti,” “Jaws,” “ET”, “Back to the Future” and “Jurassic Park period”, the main magic wand for the studio were films made for television. In the early 70’s Universal combined its efforts on the world distribution of his films with Paramount Pictures, but in 1981 they have been joined by “Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer”: so there appeared a company “United International Pictures”, which since 1997 also distributed films of Dreamworks. (Scott, 2005)

In the 90 years Universal had repeatedly changed owners, that led to the creation of one of the largest U.S. and global media conglomerates – NBC Universal.

Warner Brothers

The American company, which is one of the largest producers of film and television entertainment.

Warner Bros. includes several subsidiary companies, including Warner Bros. Studios, Warner Bros. Pictures, Warner Bros. Television, Warner Bros. Animation, Warner Home Video, DC Comics and The CW Television Network.

The company is named in honor of the four Warner brothers who founded in 1904 the Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company (the precursor to Warner Bros.), which distribute films. For several years, the territory in which they worked for the company, expanded to include a four-state area. 

By the beginning of the First World War the brothers began producing films, and in 1918 opened a studio Warner Bros. Studio, situated on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack Warner produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert were engaged in finance in New York. In 1923 they formally merged into a corporation Warner Bros. Pictures, Inc. 

The company prospered, allowing the brothers in 1924 to get a loan on Wall Street. This money was acquired by “Vitagraph Company”, which had a nationwide distribution network, and bought several radio stations and built new theaters.

In the 1920’s company began to actively develop the film with sound and in 1926 began producing films with sound and sound effects. In 1927 it released the film “The Jazz Singer” with dialogue, and the film became a sensation, and inaugurated an era of “talking pictures”. 

In 1928 the company acquired one of the largest networks of cinemas – Stanley Company. Later, in 1929, the brothers acquired its main rival – First National Pictures. The court allowed the two companies merge under the name Warner, provided that prior to 1938 the brothers will be releasing several films a year under the name First National Pictures. 

In 1928 the brothers released in theaters now “Lights of New York” (born Lights of New York) with a full sound track. Since then, the entire film industry finally turned to movies with sound: by the end of 1929 all the major studios released only sound films. 

In 1929 Warner Bros. released their first full-color film «On with the Show». The second color film “Gold Diggers of Broadway”, that had become so popular that was shown in cinemas for over ten years- thus began the era of color film. 

In the period from 1929 to 1931, Warner released a set of color films (“Sally”, “Bright Lights”, “Song of the flame”, “Song of the West”, “Under the moon of Texas” and others). Most of them were musicals, and audience quickly got tired of them, so the studio had to withdraw from this genre. 

Under the guidance of Darryl Zanuck in the 1930 studio famed for its gangster movie, and then to melodrama. Around 1934 the company has problems with the censors, so it switched to making of historical films.

In 1930 it established an independent company Warner’s cartoon, under the direction of Leon Schlesinger cartoon creation. In 1931, it established a new series of cartoons – Looney Tunes – humorous sketches with a jazz soundtrack. In 1933, new artists came to the studio (Jack King, Freeze Freeling et al), who produced the famous Buddy (born Buddy). Studio has acquired a recognizable style that made its work extremely popular.  Among them were rabbit Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck.

During the Second World War studio became very rich thanks to increased demand for movies. In these years the company opened a lot of actors who were celebrities: Joan Crawford, Doris Day, etc. (Scott, 2005)

In January 5, 1948 Warner Bros. released the first color newsreel, the Night of Roses Parade, that was a significant contribution to the development of the cinema. 

In 1948 the Supreme Court of the United States, considering the antitrust disputes, issued a decision that made Warner Bros. and four other major film companies of the country separate from the film industry of their networks cinemas. Without the possibility of wide translating, there was no longer need to produce 30 films a year, so the brothers began to turn their production and ultimately sold the company to bank syndicate.

For some time the company was engaged in adaptation of the popular plays, as well as a very good showing in creating a television series (“individualist” and others). In 1958 began its work the record company “Warner Bros. Records”, but

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