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Literature Review: Impacts of Climate Change

1415 words (6 pages) Essay in Environmental Studies

18/05/20 Environmental Studies Reference this

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INTRODUCTION

Climate change is a reality.

CLIMATE CHANGE DEFINITION

Climate change is the periodic modification of Earth’s climate brought about as the result of changes in the atmosphere as well as the interactions between the atmosphere and various other geologic, chemical, biological and geographical factors within the Earth system.

According to UNFCCC, Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and that is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.

REASONS ON CLIMATE CHANGE

NATURAL FACTORS

ORBITAL CHANGES

Cyclical changes in the earth’s orbit and tilt that causes climate fluctuations over thousands of years.

VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS

Volcanic eruptions discharge CO2 and they also emit aerosol such as volcanic ash or dust and sulphur dioxide which results in changes in weather and may also cause acid rain.

VARIATION IN SOLAR RADIATION

The changes in the solar radiation may occur due to sunspots which contribute to the warmer global climate.

MOVEMENT OF TECTONIC PLATES

As tectonic plates moves over the geological timescale carried to different positions and latitudes affects global circulation pattern of ocean currents and winds that changes the global temperature.

ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS

BURNING FOSSIL FUELS

The burning of fossil fuels like coal,oil and gas to create electricity or for the fuel of the cars CO2 and other greenhouse gases are released which increases the global warming.

Electricity is the main cause of carbon pollution in Australia about 86% of electricity produced by burning coal and gases.

DEFORESTATION AND TREE CLEARING

Plants and tress play an important role in regulating the climate because the absorb the CO2 from the air and acts as carbon sink.

About one- fifth of global green house gas comes from deforestation and aforest degradation.

AGRICULTURE AND FARMING

Animals particularly the livestocks produces the methane which is the potential greenhouse gases which becomes the big contributor to the global warming.

Fertilizers used in the agriculture also releases oxides which also increases the greenhouse gases.

Australian farming contributes 16% of our total greenhouse gas emission.

EFFECTS ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Sea levels are rising and oceans are becoming warmer. More intense droughts threatens crops wildlife and freshwater supplies. The animal like the polar bears from the Artic to the marine turtles of the coast of Africa and our planet’s diversity of life is at risk due to the changing climate.

HIGHER TEMPERATURES

Greenhouse gases release by power plants, automobiles, deforestation and other sources are contributing to the planet heating. The maximum hottest years on record since 1990 comes in the last decade.

Research found that if the emission of such heat trapping gases are not reduced the earth’s temperature could increase by 3 to 10 degree Fahrenheit by the century end.

WORLD WEATHER AND CLIMATE

Increasing temperature will make the ocean water to expand, ice melting in Antartic and Greenland also will contribute to the rising sea level which threatens the low lying coastal areas and the cities and also it destroys the ecosystem

Weather changes will also affect many crops grown around the world and the uncertainity rainfall greatly affects the agriculture practices leads to the impacts on food supply and food security.

Due to higher ocean temperature, it supplies more energy to hurricanes and tropical storms and it will become more frequent and intensified.

Higher temperature increases the amount of evaporation from the land and water leading to drought in many areas. Lands affected by drought are more vulnerable to flooding once rain falls.

Hot temperatures and dry conditions also increases the likelihood of forest fires.

ILLNESS AND DISEASE

Increase of temperature creates the risk of heat related illness even death of the vulnerable human population. For example, the scientist links the deadly heat waves to the climate change.

Climate change increases the spread of infectious diseases like malaria which once where limited to tropics due to climate change it finds the new place to survive.

 

 

LONG-TERM EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE FORECAST BY IPCC   (INTERGOVERNMANTAK PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE)

 NORTH AMERICA: Decreasing snowpack in western mountains; increased frequency, intensity and duration of heat waves in cities.

 LATIN AMERICA: Gradual replacement of tropical forest by Savannah, risk of significant biodiversity loss and changes in the water availability for the consumption.

 EUROPE: Increased risk of flash floods, erosion from storm and sea level rise, reduced snow level and winter tourism, extensive species losses and reduction of crop productivity.

AFRICA: By 2020, about 200 million people are prone to increased water stress; yields from rainfed agriculture could be reduced by upto 50% ,access to food may be severly compromised.

ASIA: Freshwater availability projected to decrease by 2050s  coastal areas will be at risk due to increased floods and death rate due to the diseases associated with floods are expected.

ARTICLES RELATED JUSTIFYING THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

IPCC was created in 1988, its working group has contributed to six assessment reports and numerous special reports regarding the climate change.

  AR6 CLIMATE CHANGE 2021 IMPACTS:

MANAGERIAL ACTIVITIES ON CLIMATE CHANGE

Societies can respond to the climate change by reducing the rate and magnitude of change by reducing greenhouse gas emission and by adapting to its impacts and it depends on socio-economic and environmental circumstances.

TRIANGLE DIAGRAM FROM IPCC 4TH ASSESSMENT REPORT DESCRIBING RELATION BETWEEN    ADAPTION, MITIGATION AND INACTION.

ADAPTION involves developing ways to protect people and places by reducing their vulnerability to climate impacts. For example, to protect against the sea level rise building of seawalls or relocation of buildings to higher grounds.

MITIGATION involves attempts to slow the process of global climate change, by lowering the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. For example, planting trees that absorb Co2 from the air reduce the global warming.

 

REFERENCES

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