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Resilient and Sustainable Infrastructure
Globalization and Automation
Globalization and Automation are referred to as two megatrends which are influencing the workers’ job in industrialized countries. Both types of workers such as blue collar and white-collar workers are influenced by it, however, the impact on white collar workers is higher as millions of laborers are being migrated from one country to other for getting jobs. The migration of workers has assisted the countries to eliminate the poverty in developing countries. The globalization and automation also assisted in bringing sustainability across the globe. The countries have determined the importance of globalization and automation and therefore signed different treaties for sustainability and protection of their own regions. It would not be wrong to say that these two megatrends have influenced the different treaties of sustainable developments. This essay is covering the impact on globalization and automation on climate change treaties, the international framework for a sustainable environment, the attitude of countries towards refugees and immigrants & geopolitical conflicts.
Impact of Globalization and Automation on Workers
The globalization has influenced the economies of various countries as it has contributed towards the initiation of international businesses. There are many countries which have expanded their production processes across the nations which are increasing the opportunities of employment for white collar and blue collars workers. These workers are migrating from one country to avail the opportunities of jobs. The availability of jobs has increased the living standard of these workers as their income is increased to a greater extent. According to the report presented by International Monetary Fund (1996), the globalization has increased the income level and improved the living standards due to increasing opportunities for employment all over the world. (Danev, 2017). PWC has also presented their report by analyzing the 200,000 jobs of 29 countries to know the impact of automation on the workers and declared that the automation brings a variety of benefits for the workers such as ease of job, assistance in work and many others. According to estimation, up to 25% of the jobs are being automated in Asian countries. Where the automation and globalization are bringing benefits for workers at the same time these two megatrends are bringing challenges for them. (PWC, 2017)
Globalization and Automation Impact on;
The globalization is impacting countries in a variety of ways such as the impact on the environment, impact on sustainability and others. The followings are the different impacts of globalization and automation on the countries in a variety of ways which are explained in detail.
- Global Treaties on Climate Change
The globalization has influenced the consumption of goods to a greater extent as the demand for a variety of products is increased which is increasing the stress on the environment. The higher demand for the products triggers production in factories which put pressure on the environment as the waste and other pollutants produced in the production process are expelled out in the environment. The polluted water, the emission from the different cars, collapsing fisheries and other threats to the environment of countries are the major influences of the globalization on the environment. To offset the impact on the environment, there are different NGOs, and environmental protection agencies are playing a role to recognize the impact of these challenges and develop the treaties across the nations to prevent the side effects of nations. The US Canada Air quality agreement is an example of the treaty which is made among countries to offset the hazardous impact on globalization on the environment. The nuclear test ban treaty is another example of environmental protection treating which is signed to prevent the explosion testing in all environments. (Kimball, 2017)
- International Framework on Sustainable Development
The two mega trends influence the international framework on global sustainability to a greater extent. The United Nations have developed different goals for sustainable development which includes no hunger, no poverty, quality education, gender equality, good health, clean water, and better sanitary conditions. There are many other goals too which are set by UN, and these megatrends are assisting the countries to achieve these goals. The globalization has decreased the barriers to trade and automation also assisted many workers to get their desires jobs very easily. The higher employment opportunities have improved the availability of employment which is leading towards sustainable development. The employment opportunities improved the living conditions and different treaties among the countries, with respect to the environment, also provides entire environmental protection which led towards clean air and water. (United Nations Org., 2018)
- Nationalism and Protectionism Sentiments
The nationalism is the term which is used for the devotion and loyalty of the individuals towards the culture, and the values of the nation and the globalization and automation have impacted the nationalism to a greater extent. The world has become integrated with each other and distance among different cultures is also overcome by the time. Due to globalization, the national identity of the countries is decreasing, and the world has become a global village which has almost no boundaries for the citizens of other countries. On the other hand, the protectionism is also influenced by it to a greater extent as the barriers of entry to the other countries are decreased, and access is granted by the majority of countries. The protection is impacted adversely with respect to environment, security and many others. (Erwin, 2017)
- Countries’ Attitude Towards Immigrants and Refugees
According to International Social Survey Program (ISSP) has presented a report which has analyzed the impact of globalization on 31 countries and declared that there is no relationship exists in the globalization and hate and prejudice against citizens of other countries. Empirical studies are also conducted which have disclosed that the globalization and automation have impacted the behavior of the people towards immigrants and refugees. It has become a common practice of the people to meet with the foreign people in the home country. Therefore they have started to accept them. (M. Butkus, 2018)
- The Potential for Geopolitical Conflict
The globalization and automation have also impacted the geopolitical conflicts positively as it has provided the route to resolve the issues with respect to the economy, politics, and geography. The foreign policies are developed to stimulate the relationship with other countries which minimizes the negative impacts of the other countries on the state. Due to the megatrends, the countries have started to develop positive relationships among countries. (Anderson, 1994)
- Anderson, E. W. (1994). The effects of globalization on geopolitical perspectives. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/41147225?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
- Danev, N. (2017). Positive Effects of Globalization on Workers. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://bizfluent.com/info-8275899-positive-effects-globalization-workers.html
- Erwin, A. (2017). Nationalism in a Globalized Era. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://medium.com/westminster-journal/nationalism-in-a-globalized-era-15ae61904bcd
- Kimball, D. (2017). The Status of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: Signatories and Ratifiers. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/ctbtsig
- M. Butkus. (2018). Society’s attitudes towards the impact of immigration: the case of EU countries. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from http://mmi.fem.sumdu.edu.ua/en/journals/2018/1/338-352
- PWC. (2017). How will automation impact jobs? Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://www.pwc.co.uk/services/economics-policy/insights/the-impact-of-automation-on-jobs.html
- United Nations Org. (2018). About the Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/
Impact of Climate Change
The climate change impacts the countries to a greater extent and with the passage of time these change are increasing the costs of damages due to flooding, seas level and droughts. IPCC has determined the climate change and 1300 scientist with the help of research work have declared that the temperature will rise up to 10 degree till next centuries. The increase in temperature have caused more floods and melting of ices on mountains which damages the country to higher extent. The climate change where have negative impacts at the same time it influences some countries positively. There are many countries in the world which are getting significant benefits out of climate change. The essay is disclosing the three major examples of the countries which are impacted by climate change and enjoying benefits out of it with the passage of time. (NASA, 2018)
Positive Impacts of Climate Change
The climate change, on one hand impacts the countries adversely as they have to bear the cost of damages, but at the same time the climate change also significantly benefiting many countries. The below are the positive impacts of the climate change of three countries explaining that how the country is benefiting from climate change and when the benefits will be experienced by the citizens of the country.
Temperature Rise in Canada
The Canada is the country which is experiencing the rise in temperature for past few years and it is expected that the temperature will increase further with the passage of time. The Canadian farmers are rejoicing over the climate change and with Canada all the countries which are located in northern latitude are taking advantage from the increase in temperature. As the temperature is increasing, the farmers have started to plough more land to grow multiple crops. (McDonald, 2014). The farmers have started to cultivate the cereals and all the farmers are excited about the yield which they are getting presently. In these years, the Canada is doubling its cultivation to take advantage out of it. It is expected that in near future the growth will increase and the more land will be cultivate to take advantage which was not previously enjoyed by the state. (Global warming may benefit some farmers, 2014). It would not be wrong to say that the climate change is turning Canada into superpower as the diverse range of economic benefits will be experienced by the Canadians. The trading will also initiated with the boost in the agricultural products which will enable Canada to perform well as compared to many other partners of the country. The melting ice can also open up many shipping routes in Arctic Oceans which develops the ability to reduce the cost of trading at international level by reducing the time taken by trading. It is expected that the country will get access to 20% of the freshwater reserve of the world which is one of the most valuable asset of the country. This reserve is one of the most important and valuable thing which have more benefits than having gold. The climate change will impact these reserves positively. (Dembicki, 2017)
Benefits of Climate Change to Russia
The countries across the world are impacted highly with climate change and Russia is the country which is coming at the top due to climate change. The Russia was expediting the negative growth in the winter season and this was not suitable for the country. The rise in temperature in Russia has provided the opportunity to country to cultivate more crops. In the present year, the country is proved itself as the top exporter of wheat. Previously the country was experiencing the struggle to travel in Arctic water due to ice but now due to rise in temperature the ice tend to melt and the routes for traveling are available. The ships in the Arctic water are able to navigate from one place to other which is the reserves of energy for the country. Due to these routes, the Moscow is intended to spend up to 209 billion rubles in the country in the next three years with the intention to make investment. The potential of arctic region is increasing which will also increase the economic activity in the region. The climate change will make the country economically stable making it at the top of superpowers of world. (Times, 2017)
Benefits of Climate Change in Ireland
The Ireland is the country which was growing limited crops due to their climate but the changing climate is impacting the agriculture sector of the country to higher extent. The farmers of country are diversifying their types of crops which were not grown by them previously. The temperature difference from previous years has impacted the cultivation positively. There are many new income generating activities which are initiated in country. The farmers have increased their personal income which is increasing the overall output and production of countries. Other than crop cultivation, the fishing opportunities can also increase in near future and the country is expected to enjoy these benefits in long run. The primary benefit is related to farming and it is expected that the temperature rise will provide opportunity to Ireland to experience the hot weather in summer season. The rise in temperature is beneficial for many crops and it is expected that the winter days will decrease with the passage of time. (Seamus Walsh, 2015)
It can be concluded that there are many countries which are experiencing the benefits of climate change to higher extent. The countries such as Ireland, Canada and Russia are the major one who are about to become the superpowers of the world due to increase in economic activities. As the temperature is rising in these regions the potential of international trade is also increasing which is allowing the countries to earn the foreign exchange revenue. Due to growth opportunities many other countries are investing in these countries to earn long-term benefits.
- Dembicki, G. (2017). How Climate Change Could Turn Canada into a Global Superpower. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://www.vice.com/en_ca/article/mbanm4/how-climate-change-could-turn-canada-into-a-global-superpower
- Global warming may benefit some farmers. (2014). Retrieved October 24, 2018, from http://sciencenordic.com/global-warming-may-benefit-some-farmers
- McDonald, B. (2014). Climate change report: The good and bad news for Canada. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://www.cbc.ca/newsblogs/technology/quirks-quarks-blog/2014/03/climate-change-report-the-good-and-bad-news-for-canada-1.html
- NASA. (2018). How climate is changing. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/
- Seamus Walsh. (2015). What will climate change really mean for Ireland? Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://www.independent.ie/irish-news/irelands-changing-climate/what-will-climate-change-really-mean-for-ireland-34221446.html
- Times, M. (2017). Russia to Reap Benefits from Climate Change. Retrieved October 24, 2018, from https://themoscowtimes.com/articles/russia-to-reap-benefits-from-climate-59145
Significance of the Food-Water-Energy Nexus Due to Increase in Population
Different theorists and researchers have determined that the world’s population would increase up to 9 billion by the year 2050 and almost 40% of this population is expected to grow in developing countries. It is expected that this growth in population would result in a number of challenges to be faced, even today there are a number of food and water challenges faced across the world. Theorists and researchers still have to find a way about how to feed such a huge amount of population. With the increased population, it would not be wrong to say that the income level, living standards and provision of food and water would all deteriorate (Shannak, Mabrey and Vittorio, 2018).
In order to deal with this situation, experiences of different countries that have recovered and have been able to reduce hunger and malnutrition It would not be wrong to advice that this economic growth does not ensure success right away. It requires extensive planning and precision to be adopted by the policy makers (Wichelns, 2017).
Increasing Recognition of the Significance of the Food-Water-Energy Nexus
One of the major issues faced as a result of this increasing population would be water and food nexus. Water and food are the basic requirements for the existence of any living being. Global projection, especially in terms of population, has identified that the requirement of food and water are expected to grow significantly in the coming years. The basic aim of world food nexus is to enhance the balance between different uses of a number of means which would help in creating a better eco-system to improve the water and food conditions (McBean, 2016).
With this increased demand, it would also allow the competition to grow in terms of natural resources i.e. water, energy, agriculture and many other sectors. All the projects associated with any of these sectors and also by providing them with the water storage especially for the process of irrigation. All these changes are bound to improve these condition by putting its food an eco-system at stake. Moreover, another issue to be faced would be with the increasing concept of Bio energy crops during the process of agriculture as it might also play its part in improving energy and food supply. The concept of nexus supports the factor that food and water should not be considered as separate entities and their cost-effectiveness, policy-making, implementation and evaluation should all be considered and designed together. (EL-Gafy, Grigg and Waskom, 2017).
Nexus in Terms of Challenges and Potential Solution
There are a number of challenges faced by nexus at different level i.e.
As the increase in population would influence the whole world by also implying a number of challenges since the global economy would be affected but this challenge. This approach has gained a higher momentum over the past couple of years on a global level. A number of complex global chains are required which would help in designing sophisticated management approaches towards this nexus thinking. It would help in developing a social corporate responsibility and sustainability at a global level. A global imitative named thirsty energy has been designed to respond to these global nexus challenges and reflecting the most potential solution (Mohtar and Daher, 2016).
With this initiative taken at a global level also has a huge implication a regional level. This initiative would be designed in a manner where a number of methodologies would be designed helping the team to move forward and take advantage of this ignition at a global level.
Whereas, this strategy would initiate at a local level, where a number of different international conferences would be designed in order to generate awareness about this factors and help in the smart planning of the whole process. This would help in meeting a number of political and social realities at the local level and in the identification of how these factors have influenced the development of food and water nexus (EL-Gafy, Grigg and Waskom, 2017).
Projections of Climate Change Affect this Nexus
There are a number of factors influencing this food and water nexus. Climatic change is among the top of these factors. It is important to consider the importance of these climatic changes at the global, local and regional level. This would help the nexus to account for a number of variabilities for the supply of water which is also associated with the cost of water supply infrastructure (Scanlon et al., 2017).
A number of policies are being pursued in order to mitigate the climatic changes. These changes would also help in the reduction of carbon dioxide and also to use water for supplying energy across the world. (Scanlon et al., 2017)
Potential Barriers to Solution
Even though a number of infrastructure solutions are provided to deal with the shortage of water and food availability all across the world. The climatic changes would act as the major barrier to impact the increase the potential unavailability of water and food in the world. Since this nexus requires suitable climatic conditions in order to enhance the growth (El-Gafy, 2017).
In order to deal with these challenges, the foremost requirement would be to enhance the investment in renewable energy products as most of the water is consumed in the production of energy and this is not able to fulfil its desired purpose. Especially in the developed countries, almost all the energy generation requires a supply of water. Whereas, water is also responsible for the growth of food items and any other means responsible for the survival of living beings.
In order to be able to feed the population after the extensive growth in 2025, it is important to secure the available water resources and build a more resilient and sustainable solution for the production of energy. As water and food both are strongly linked to each other, this would allow in sustaining and generating more effective solutions for saving these two basic resources and make the survival of living organisms possible.
- El-Gafy, I. (2017). Water–food–energy nexus index: analysis of water–energy–food nexus of crop’s production system applying the indicators approach. Applied Water Science, 7(6), pp.2857-2868
- EL-Gafy, I., Grigg, N. and Waskom, R. (2017). Water-Food-Energy: Nexus and Non-Nexus Approaches for Optimal Cropping Pattern. Water Resources Management, 31(15), pp.4971-4980.
- McBean, E. (2016). Water Security, The Nexus Of Water, Food, Population Growth and Energy. The Global Environmental Engineers, 3(1), pp.33-39.
- Mohtar, R. and Daher, B. (2016). Water-Energy-Food Nexus Framework for facilitating multi-stakeholder dialogue. Water International, pp.1-7.
- Scanlon, B., Ruddell, B., Reed, P., Hook, R., Zheng, C., Tidwell, V. and Siebert, S. (2017). The food-energy-water nexus: Transforming science for society. Water Resources Research, 53(5), pp.3550-3556.
- Shannak, S., Mabrey, D. and Vittorio, M. (2018). Moving from theory to practice in the water-energy–food nexus: An evaluation of existing models and frameworks. Water-Energy Nexus, 1(1), pp.17-25.
- Wichelns, D. (2017). The water-energy-food nexus: Is the increasing attention warranted, from either a research or policy perspective?. Environmental Science & Policy, 69, pp.113-123.
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