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There has been an increase in the concern surrounding the issue of high rates of carbon emissions leading to the problem of increasing greenhouse gases from traditional vehicles which use oil, petrol, diesel or compressed natural gas, etc. Due to limited non-renewable energy sources and the polluting effect of fuel emissions, electric vehicles are becoming popular in recent years. For the purpose of this essay, ‘electric vehicles’ can be defined as transportation driven by an electric motor or battery, electric vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles which are powered by electricity and petrol, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and battery electric vehicles according to Ergon Energy. This essay will argue that the use of electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia. The first reason is electric vehicles can reduce the amount of carbon emission such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and thus lower pollution levels. The second reason is Australian government is supporting and reducing costs in order to attract buyers. The last reason is the convenience of recharging as electric vehicles charging stations can be placed in many areas.
Firstly, one reason why the use of electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia is electric vehicles can reduce the amount of carbon emission such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and thus lower pollution levels. According to Union of Concerned Scientist, the battery in electric vehicles are recharged by using a dedicated charger as these vehicles do not run by oil, petrol or diesel. In addition, Union of Concerned Scientist states that these vehicles will not produce any tailpipe contaminants, compared with traditional vehicles which directly emitted carbon emissions through the pipe and forming pollutants outlined by Energy gov. As a result, it may contribute to the problem of global warming and serious climate change claims Broadbent, Metternicht and Drozdzewsk (2018) due to the carbon emissions, Ortar and Ryghaug (2019) believe that electric vehicles have the potential of reducing car emissions and greenhouse gas emissions. Mcduling (2018) argues that electric vehicles might produce larger amounts of pollution than traditional vehicles, as a result, eleven countries with high emissions such as South Africa may emit more carbon emission than traditional ones. However, replacing traditional vehicles with electric vehicles, could reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide for 0.8% and 2.8% respectively (Ferrero, Alessandrini and Balanzino 2016). Gould and Golob (1998) described the batteries in electric vehicles could lead to an environmental issue such as poor water quality as these batteries contain lead acid and nickel cadmium which would release harmful pollutant when they are recycled, but it can also be argued that battery of electric vehicles could be reused in storage for other uses. According to Hall and Lutsey (2018), due to technological advances in industries area, lithium ion batteries might be totally recycled. Thus, one reason why electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia is reducing the amount of carbon emission such as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.
Secondly, the Australian government’s support and in reducing costs in order to attract buyers is another reason why electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia. Froome (2016) pointed out that the Australian government is considering decreasing import taxes for electric vehicles. For example, Hong Kong government was promoting a scheme which cooperated with Tesla to sell a Tesla Model S 70D cars at a discount price according to Woodhouse (2015). In addition, Luo, Leng, Huang and Liang (2014) commented that the Spanish and Romanian governments have lowered the price by providing a discount price to buyers. Shao, Yang and Zhang (2017) showed that the incentive of purchase electric vehicles schemes carried out in the US and China by reducing the price level. Consequently, it has provided incentives to electric vehicles buyers under discount schemes, which are the best way to sell and promote electric vehicles to the public according to Luo et al (2014). Additionally, Shao et al claims government incentives might provide impetus on sales of electric vehicles, as government is the main feature of technical transfer believed by Ahman (2006). According to Brase (2019) a brand-new electric vehicle would cost more than buying a traditional gasoline one. Berman(2019) stated that batteries is the main factor causing high purchase price on electric vehicle, however due to the reduced size of installed traditional engines may actually be lower than traditional vehicles (Lebeau, Lebeau, Macharis, and Van Mierlo, 2013). Furthermore, Finkel (2018) commented that since the global motor demand with the redesign of the original electric vehicles, subsequent models are becoming less expensive, as a result, the cost is falling continuously. Therefore, Australian government support to make the price lower is the second reason why electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia.
Finally, electric vehicles should be encouraged in Australia because of the convenience of recharging as electric charging stations can be placed in many areas. Electric charging station are divided into local charging and long-distance charging. Local charging refers to slow charging for long periods of parking such as at home or at work, while long-distance charging means a fast charging station which can recharge quickly in order to continue long-distance outing recorded by Bryden, Hilton, Cruden, and Holton (2018). Furthermore, Progressive Digital Media Transportation (2013) states Montreal in Canada has installed 80 charging stations in public areas and also a German transportation company has been introducing their first high power charging station for electric buses. However, Froome (2016) argues that Australia lacks recharging facilities. In the United States, more than 9000 charging station have been installed compared to 200 in Australia. It seems to be that Australia have fewer facilities for electric vehicles (Washington 2015). However, Froome (2016) also argues that the Australian government will build more facilities in the future. According to of Manufactures’ Monthly (2013) charging networks have been improving in Perth and Melbourne which installed more than 30 charging stations, and also Australia could learn design and experiences from the United States and European as suggested by Washington (2015). On the other hand, the charging station may affect the voltage stability according to Sanchari, Kari, Karuna and Pinakeshwar (2018). In addition, van Kooten Niekerk, van Den Akker and Hoogeveen, J (2017) claim that the price of electricity may dramatically change in a week or month. Yet Lam, Leung and Chu (2013) point out renewable energy can be transformed into electricity, electric vehicles are able to storing renewable energy (Ortar and Ryghaug 2019). Since Australia does not have enough oil but it has many other energy resources such as wind, solar and hydro power according to Froome (2016), hence, the third reason is the convenience of recharging.
In conclusion, this essay has argued why electric vehicles should or should not be encouraged in Australia. This essay has shown that electric vehicles should be encouraged. The reasons are electric vehicles do not produce numerous pollutants. They can also lower the price levels in order to provide incentives to the buyers. Finally, electric vehicles can be recharged at public charging stations as the Australian government plans to install more charging stations. In the face of climate change and technological advances, electric vehicles are important to protect the environment and in the future since electric vehicles do not produce large amounts of carbon emissions, they should be encouraged.
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