Advantages and Applications of Biogas

3195 words (13 pages) Essay in Environmental Studies

08/02/20 Environmental Studies Reference this

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 Since the beginning of mankind individuals have utilized renewable sources of energy to survive. Renewable energy is energy that is gathered from renewable resources, which are normally recharged on a human timescale, for example, daylight, wind, downpour, tides, waves, and geothermal warmth. Nonrenewable energy resources, similar to coal, atomic, oil, and gaseous petrol, are accessible in restricted supplies. This is more often than not because of the long time it takes for them to be renewed. Fossil fuels make up an enormous segment of the present vitality advertise, albeit promising new renewable innovations are rising, and this achievement can likewise contribute to the terminations of non-renewable energy source plants. Renewable energy in the long run will be very efficient for mankind due to its large amount of benefits.

 

What is Biogas?

Biogas is the blend of gases created by the breakdown of organic matter without oxygen. Biogas can be created from crude materials, for example, manure, green waste, food waste, plant material, agricultural waste, or municipal waste. Most importantly, it is a renewable source of energy and it also improves two major environmental problems:

  1. The global waste epidemic that releases dangerous levels of methane gas every day
  2. The reliance on fossil fuel energy to meet global energy demand

By converting natural waste into energy, biogas is using nature’s effective liability to reuse substances into profitable assets. Biogas generation recovers waste materials that would otherwise pollute landfills; prevents the use of toxic chemicals in sewage treatment plants, and saves money, energy, and material by treating waste on-site.  In addition, biogas utilization does not require fossil fuel extraction to create energy.[1] It also consists mainly of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Biogas has a high calorific esteem and can be changed over into heat and electricity. The maturation remains is called digestate, which is a totally unscented fluid material with high agronomic esteem, with improved highlights contrasted with the beginning material.

 

Benefits of Biogas

There are many benefits of biogas especially for the environment and companies. Some are:

      The creation of profitable environmentally friendly power vitality (power, warming, cooling)

      Reduction of ozone harming substance outflows

      Reduction in supplement misfortune and washout from the fields (compost preparing plants)

      Recirculation of nitrogen, which lessens the need to utilize non-renewable energy sources for the extraction of nitrogen from the air

      Recirculation of phosphorous, which helps lessening the weight on the world’s constrained phosphorous assets

      Fewer pathogens

      Efficient utilization of natural results

      Reduction of scent discharges (compost preparing plants)

      Efficient vitality transformation of wet biomasses

      Extensive ecological points of interest – less outflow of the nursery gasses methane, CO2 and nitrous oxide.

      Earth well-disposed distribution of natural waste from industry and family units.

      Less scent burdens when spreading slurry on the fields – matured slurry smells extensively not exactly typical slurry and the smell diminishes quicker.

      Plants ingest aged slurry better, expanding the yield on the fields.

      Security of subsoil water – improved nitrogen misuse lessens draining and in this way drinking water pollution.

      Decreased expenses for artificial manure.

      Bio digesters can keep manure and microorganisms out of streams, lakes and groundwater.

 

Uses of Biogas

Biogas has numerous utilizations in light of its a profoundly adaptable vitality, preference in the battle against climate change. This is especially valid for zones that are hard to decarbonize and have high discharges, for example, transport, agriculture, and heating. Biogas can also be used promptly in all applications intended for flammable gas, for example, direct burning including absorption heating and cooling, cooking, space and water warming, drying, and gas turbines. It might likewise be utilized in filling inward burning motors and energy components for generation of mechanical work or potentially power. Biogas is used as fuel and a major reason is because it is a renewable source of energy this is why it is used for transportation. It is also said to be among the challenges of global warming. It is known to be the main source of GHG emissions in the world.

According to the European Biogas Association, the consumption of fossil fuels in transportations was responsible for 31.6% of the GHG emissions in the European Union in 2013.[2]  In numerous nations, biogas is seen as a naturally appealing option in contrast to diesel and fuel for buses and other local transit vehicles. The sound dimension produced by methane-powdered engines is for the most part lower than that created by diesel engines and the fumes seethe discharges are viewed as lower than the outflow from diesel engines, and the emission of nitrogen oxides is extremely low. Utilization of biogas in versatile motors expects pressure to high weight gas (>3000 psig) and might be best connected in armada vehicles. A refueling station might be required to bring down energizing time and give sufficient fuel stockpiling.

Biogas and Climate change

The utilization of biofuels is fundamental to accomplishing worldwide GHG emission reduction targets. By catching the methane from manure, biogas ventures can shield the environment from harmful emissions of a gas strongly connected with climate change. While burning of biogas, similar to petroleum gas, produces carbon dioxide (CO2), an ozone harming substance, the carbon in biogas originates from plant matter that fixed this carbon from air CO2. Therefore, biogas production is carbon-impartial and does not add to ozone depleting substance discharges.

Furthermore, any utilization of fossil fuels replaced by biogas will bring down CO2 discharges. The primary measures to improve the global warming reduction capability of biogas plants are: to utilize a flare maintaining a strategic distance from methane release, to cover tanks, to upgrade the proficiency of joined warmth and power (CHP) units, to improve the electric power use methodology, to abuse however much warm vitality as could be expected, to stay away from spillages. Biogas can altogether add to decrease ozone harming substance emissions. Nonetheless, consideration must be paid towards undesired outflows of methane and nitrous oxide (N2O).

Biogas and Pollution

A more complete understanding of the environmental and economic performance of biogas to energy technologies will allow state and local governments, regulators, and potential project developers to identify geographically appropriate and cost-effective biogas management options.[3] In some developing countries where they cannot develop certain fruits due to seasonal problem the leftover waste could be converted to generate energy. Other than providing energy from a renewable, available source, it wipes out the need to burn wood, which has numerous disadvantages. These include indoor air pollution, which is in charge of 4 million deaths every year as indicated by the World Health Organization, and deforestation for example; one family unit utilizes four tons of wood a year, an errand that dependably tumbles to ladies), among numerous others. Circular as far as possible, the aged slurry, called digestate, is additionally utilized as a natural fertilizer, supplanting buys of expensive and contaminating chemical agriculture projects.

Drinking water is a valuable commodity for a huge part of the world. On the other hand, have you at any point wondered what’s going on to wastewater after we flush it somewhere around our channels and toilets?  Wastewater is used water that comes from agricultural, domestic, and medical, transport activities, or industrial. Used water turns into upon the difference in its quality, temperature, and composition. The two types are: sewage and industrial water. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a demonstrated innovation for sewage slime treatment and which allows the production of renewable energy from the same process. The advantages of AD of sewage sludge are broadly perceived and the technology is well established in numerous nations.

Today, a high extent of biogas produced in AD plants is from those on city wastewater treatment sites and there is as yet a tremendous potential to misuse around the world. Sewage sludge is generated in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a feature of the water cleaning process. The sludge contains the particles evacuated from the wastewater, which are wealthy in supplements and natural issue, leaving the water clean for its discharge into nature. Developing populace focuses and extending industry, which are progressively all around served by wastewater treatment offices, result in fast development of sewage sludge creation. Wastewater solids (sludge) from more than at least 1,238 U. S. WWTPs experience anaerobic processing (AD) and produce biogas. Practically the majority of this wastewater biogas production happens at facilities that treat from one to a huge number of gallons every day (MGD) of wastewater. The greater part of these plants has their very own working AD systems; however, some send their solids to another WWTP where they are handled by AD.[4]

Is Biogas a good investment?

It is essential to think about the biogas plant’s positive impacts, in that the plant can create value from multiple points of view. When the plant extracts gas from manure, the organic nitrogen is changed over into ammonium nitrogen. The digested fertilizer is consequently acknowledged all the more effectively by farming harvests and gives a higher yield than untreated manure. This additionally makes it conceivable to spare expenses on utilizing fake fertilizer, which ought to be determined into the plant’s financial limit.[5]  In the event that mechanical waste is utilized in the biogas plant, funds on transfer expenses ought to likewise be thought about. It is likewise conceivable to factor in the benefit of making green energy from manure and waste items, and in this way increase the value of a business. Likewise, worth referencing is that the biogas plant serves to recycle important supplements into farming soil, consequently monitoring constrained phosphorous assets and energy usage for the creation of manufactured nitrogen.

Turning waste into biogas would save a lot of money spent on waste water treatment plans (WWTP). Cedrob is an innovator in meat preparing and poultry creation.[6]  Cedrob endeavors to be energy independent. They own 3 slaughterhouses with an all-out limit of 150.000.000 grills and 900.000 geese every year, they are likewise hatching 160.000.000 eggs, and creating 720.000 huge amounts of grub every year. Nijhuis went about as all out WWTP and biogas solution supplier, dealing with mechanical and common structures, hardware supply and establishment and dispatching to understand the environmental desire of Cedrob. The WWTP is intended to treat various kinds of wastewater from Cedrob’s slaughterhouse.

In 2009, Nijhuis won the agreement to convey a full-scale WWTP and biogas plant to Cedrob. The WWTP is intended to treat various kinds of wastewater from Cedrob’s slaughterhouse, cutup line, cleaning water from the poultry ranches and sterile wastewater. The WWTP incorporates a wide extent of Nijhuis advancements differing from channel frameworks (NRF 90/300), coagulation and flocculation (PFR 140), broke down air buoyancy (IPF 180) and furthermore an oxygen consuming treatment framework (BIOCTOR-CONTINUOUS) meeting all waterway water release measures. Organic excess sludge from the WWTP, sludge from essential Nijhuis DAF treatment, just as muck transported from off-site, are pre-treated and processed in the Nijhuis AECOMIXTM-TAURUS (2x 1.900 m3 digester volume). The digestate is dewatered with a decanter centrifuge to be utilized as manure. The plant started working in January 2013. The customer benefits are:

      Water quality to release to a close by stream.

      Nijhuis aptitude and application learning in the poultry business.

      Energy independence, warmth and power for the WWTP, biogas plant and slaughterhouse.

      Transform wastewater into > 4.000 m3/d biogas.

Biofuels energy LLC is also implicating this study in their five-year plan, because they see the benefits of using biogas.[7]

Comparative costs of renewable and fossil fuel technologies

The expense of sustainable power source is currently falling so quick that it ought to be a reliably less expensive source of electricity generation than  fossil fuels within just a few years. The normal value decreases for green energy will give a new test to the market position of inheritance energizes and to the nations that depend on them for fare profit, for example, many Middle East states which have since a long time ago hoped to oil and gas deals as the bedrock of their economies. It likewise gives a test to some Western nations including the United States, where President Donald Trump has tried advocating the coal business and has found a way to build oil output.  On the off chance that renewable energy source is in fact ready to undermine the expense of inheritance powers, at that point governments and enormous organizations constructing new power plants will more likely than not swing to green energy vitality for any new limit, which will diminish interest for oil, petroleum gas and coal.

There are a few purposes behind the quick improving cost performance of the key sustainable power source advances. One is the developing inclination among governments for aggressive offering forms while giving out contracts to create new power plants, which is driving down the taxes that developers can request. Besides that there is a developing base of experienced engineers applying for opportunities around the globe. Also proceeded with advances are being made in the innovations themselves.

 There are other renewable sources of energy that helps for example; solar energy which harnesses energy from the sun for its uses. By correlation, fossil fuel use requires drilling of the earth as a way to a fuel’s creation. Many people are uninformed that non-renewable energy sources don’t simply make ozone depleting substance outflows the way toward penetrating additionally debases and dissolves the ground and contaminates water supply. Fossil fuel generation today costs between $0.05 – $0.17 per kilowatt hour in G20 countries, including the U.S., the U.K., Russia, Japan, India, and Germany. By 2020, however, renewables are expected to cost $0.03 – $0.10 per kilowatt hour, with the price of onshore wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects expected to be as low as $0.03 per kilowatt hour by 2019.[8] In the United States, sun and wind control represented almost 95 percent of all new power capacity included a year ago, as indicated by Engadget.

Conclusion

 Furthermore, in the coming years, we’re certain to see renewable energy become a rival in the fossil fuels industry. Another report as of late distributed by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), predicts the expense of renewable energy will encounter an extreme drop by 2020, putting it on the same pace with, or less expensive than, fossil fuels. If the prediction turns out to be correct, the lower cost of sustainable power source will unquestionably make it harder for the non-renewable energy source industry to disregard. Renewables will before long be good for the environment, and cost-effective.

Works Citation

  • What Is Biogas? A Beginners Guide.” Homebiogas, www.homebiogas.com/Blog/142/What_is_Biogas|fq|_A_Beginners_Guide.
  • Biogas, an Unparalleled Ally against Climate Change! • BiogasWorld.” BiogasWorld, 18 Apr. 2019, www.biogasworld.com/news/biogas-climate-change/.
  • Kosusko, Mike, R. Williams, L. Moreno, AND C. Ely. Air Quality, Climate and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies. In Proceedings, Air & Waste Management Association Annual Conference and Exhibition – 2015, Raleigh, NC, June 22 – 26, 2015. Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 9 pg, (2015)
  • Bachmann, Nathalie. Sustainable Biogas Production in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. IEA Bioenergy, 2015.
  • Lene. “When Is Biogas Profitable?” Natural Energy, www.xergi.com/biogas-plant/when-is-biogas-profitable.html.
  • Mazanec, Frank. “Turning Waste Into Renewable Natural Gas Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study- Five Years after Commercial Operation.” Socal Gas, BioFuels Energy LLC, www.socalgas.com/1443740098116/Biogas-to-RNG-at-Point-Loma-Wastewater-Treatment-Facility.pdf .
  • A, Cedrob S. “Turning Wastewater into Clean Water and Biogas.” Nijhuis Industries, www.nijhuisindustries.com/references/turning-wastewater-into-clean-water-and-biogas/.
  • Futurism , Kyree Leary. “Renewable Energy Will Be Cheaper than Fossil Fuels by 2020, According to a New Report.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 17 Jan. 2018, www.businessinsider.com/renewable-energy-will-be-cheaper-than-fossil-fuels-by-2020-2018-1.

[1] “What Is Biogas? A Beginners Guide.” Homebiogas, www.homebiogas.com/Blog/142/What_is_Biogas|fq|_A_Beginners_Guide.

[2]  By using biogas as a fuel to fight against climate change, we would reduce GHG emissions by more than 50% compared to the use of coal and natural gas. (“Biogas, an Unparalleled Ally against Climate Change! • BiogasWorld.” BiogasWorld, 18 Apr. 2019, www.biogasworld.com/news/biogas-climate-change/.)

[3] Kosusko, Mike, R. Williams, L. Moreno, AND C. Ely. Air Quality, Climate and Economic Impacts of Biogas Management Technologies. In Proceedings, Air & Waste Management Association Annual Conference and Exhibition – 2015, Raleigh, NC, June 22 – 26, 2015. Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, 9 pg, (2015)

[4] Bachmann, Nathalie. Sustainable Biogas Production in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. IEA Bioenergy, 2015.

[5] Lene. “When Is Biogas Profitable?” Natural Energy, www.xergi.com/biogas-plant/when-is-biogas-profitable.html.

[6] This company has its own breeding farms, hatcheries, broiler breeding, poultry slaughterhouses and processing plants in Poland. A, Cedrob S. “Turning Wastewater into Clean Water and Biogas.” Nijhuis Industries, www.nijhuisindustries.com/references/turning-wastewater-into-clean-water-and-biogas/.

[7] Mazanec, Frank. “Turning Waste Into Renewable Natural Gas Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study- Five Years after Commercial Operation.” Socal Gas, BioFuels Energy LLC, www.socalgas.com/1443740098116/Biogas-to-RNG-at-Point-Loma-Wastewater-Treatment-Facility.pdf .

[8] Futurism , Kyree Leary. “Renewable Energy Will Be Cheaper than Fossil Fuels by 2020, According to a New Report.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 17 Jan. 2018, www.businessinsider.com/renewable-energy-will-be-cheaper-than-fossil-fuels-by-2020-2018-1

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