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Groundwater is a regenerated phenomenon. Its circumstance from long time ago began to become worse and even worst because of people greediness and ignorance. We, group one, attempted strenuously to design this report to accomplish our only purpose which is for our mates to awake their sleeping instinct and make them aware of the importance of the groundwater for the environment and even for us.
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From antiquity, water especially water from underground has been utilized for irrigation and livestock. People with their narrow understanding of the environment in the past have succeeded in developing new simple methods to attract rain water and bring groundwater to surface so that they can use it easily. Many parts of the world face a lack of freshwater and groundwater occupies approximately two third of the freshwater resources, from that the groundwater is the most important, reliable source of freshwater sources. About 1% of water on the earth is made up by ground water and the groundwater volume is equal to a fifty five m thick layer in the earth surface.
Groundwater supplies are the fundamental resources for people drinking, agriculture and even industry, about 80% of drinking water in Middle East, Europe, Russia and North America are groundwater. This Table (1) indicates the percentage of countries dependence on groundwater.
Groundwater simply is the existed water in vents and scratches in rocks in ground layers. It is created from the collective of rainfall, melting ice and snow. Through the soil this banding water together moves into groundwater system stored in aquifers and when it find its way to surface it discharge from ground as lakes, streams and oceans. Therefore, groundwater is directly related to the water cycle which is related to the processes of the atmosphere and climate.
Through the soil the falling rain seeps down to the aeration or unsaturated zone which its vents are filled with air. It continues to seep deeper to enter the saturated zone where rocks vents are filled with water. The surface of that zone is called the water table that can occur everywhere in ground layers.
Water table water reaches the surface at lakes and streams in humid climates. Thus, the amounts of floating water changes as seasons change. For example the depth of water table decreases during wet seasons and increases during dry seasons. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/images/chwattab.gif
Groundwater Rocks Textures:
Groundwater amount and flow rate is controlled by properties related to rocks:
The percentage of pore space in the rock volume that allocates the amount of water that a rock can store. Porosity in sedimentary rocks is based on the size of rock partials, their shapes and their sorting and cement degree.
Usually rocks with well-rounded rough partial sediments have higher porosity than fine-organized partial sediments, That is because the partials don’t fit together very well.
Usually unsorted sediments have lower porosity than the well sorted sediments because sorted partials head for filling the empty space.
Cements highly fill the space of pore,
and it has lower porosity.
The percentage of how highly the spaces of vents are interconnected in the rock. Usually rocks with low porosity have also low permeability but this isn’t always true. There are possibilities that a rock with many pored space has a little interconnections between these pores. Vesicular volcanic rock is a good example for this state. Vesicular volcanic rock has a high porosity which is given from the stored gas in its bubbles but in contrast it has a low permeability because pores in that rock are not connected together.
Force of molecular attraction is when water faces a lack in ionic charge and becomes attracted to minerals in rock vents. This shows us that if the permeability is low then water won’t move. This means that if the interconnections size isn’t enough for the molecular attraction the water won’t move. http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/images/molecattr.gif
After rainfall seeps down to the ground, the soil carries away this water to springs and wells which is called aquifers. Precipitation recharge water into the ground in aquifers rocks vents and the recharge rate varies depending on the type of the aquifer rocks.
If water is pumped from the well too much and with high speed then it will draw down in an aquifer and if this continues with the same high speed then the aquifer will dry out. There are two types of aquifers :
Unconfined Aquifers :
This type is the common kind of aquifers.
Through unconfined Aquifer water table can expose to surface from aeration zone
Confined Aquifers :
This type is less common. It occurs when an aquifer constricts between impermeable strata layers.
The figure below shows a distinctive kind of confined aquifer in artesian system. Artesian systems result in free flowing springs and wells.
When the surface interacts with the water table on the earth surface causing water flowing out of the ground, springs are formed. They occur when aquiclude rock interacts with an aquifer .
When human beings dig a deep hole in the ground that interacts with water table, wells are formed. Wells are one of the groundwater sources. They will dry out if we dig holes very deep in the ground. C:UsersLGAppDataLocalMicrosoftWindowsTemporary Internet FilesLowContent.IE5Y3H9SNP9 7_aquiferswells_large.jpg
Groundwater Foundation and composition:
Most of the shallow groundwater is composed directly from the nominated small amounts of rainwater and snow melt to the class that follows the surface. As for the groundwater remote valley has its adherence to the pores of the soil they remain stagnant for millions of years. Some of this type of water contains large amounts of dissolved salts may be salty sea water retained by the surrounding rock formation during a long time ago. In volcanic regions may produce small amounts of groundwater from molten masses of igneous rocks in the deeper part of the class that follows the surface.
Even in areas where there is a hot spring, the quantities of water that originates from molten rock, generally less than 1% of the total hot water flowing on the surface. Through the various stages of geological evolution of groundwater have been too many changes in the structure occurred as a result of mutual influence between water and surrounding rock under the influence of pressure and heat.
According to modern conceptions, the groundwater is formed at the expense of water molecules within the solid part of the earth. According to modern conceptions, the groundwater is formed at the expense of water molecules within the solid part of the earth. As a result of the receipt of water to the rocks from the outer shells also it result of dewatering of the sedimentary origin of metals.
Groundwater originating outside
Established this type of water as a result of leakage of part of the water runoff to the ground by the pores and cracks within rocks. This leakage depends on the quality of the rocks in the area of the leak.
Ground water originating in the internal
In addition to the emergence of underground water sedimentation and condensation also arise through the presence and the presence of water vapor and other gases resulting from (Amalgam) liquid in the range of the deep Earth. As a result of the movement of these (Amalgam), these gases and vapors separated from the (Amalgam) and the Federation of hydrogen and oxygen, forming water vapor, Which in turn condenses problem fluids rise through cracks and deep tectonic faults and appear on the surface in the form of metal springs are hot and you know this theory virginity.
Groundwater chemical origin
Many of the rocks under the water molecules attached to such Almirabelit (NasSO4.10H2O) which contains 55.9% water. Plaster and also contains 20.9% water and also Allimonayat and contains 25.2% water in composition. Under the changes affected by geothermal can be freed from a portion of these rocks, and water is a safe house of groundwater.
Groundwater Movement: http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/images/movement.gif
Groundwater movement is very slow, which means they will still exist in the ground and are available for very long periods so that could be used in multiple uses before they reach on its way to the sea and this is one of the most important characteristics.
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Underground water moves toward the bottom and as a result of Gravitation, and then laterally as a result of increasing pressure and movement might be in places where the alleged high pressure and high water to the places where the alleged low water pressure is less.
The speed of ground water on several factors, including:
a) Amount Alomta: t rev in the rainy season due to increased water levels a mile underground.
b) Permeability: Increases the speed increase of permeability.
c) Depth: at least speed up the water depth due to the loss of energy due to friction with rocks.
The difference between the level of groundwater and surface water: water moves from the hills to the valleys in the rainy season as it moves from the bottom of the valleys in the dry season.
Is determined by the rate of movement of groundwater on the basis of the permeability of rocks or sediments that contain this water and also the rate of decline of water level and the rate of flow of river water depends on the downstream slope.
Groundwater Pollution :
Water pollution: damage or corruption to the quality of water leading to an imbalance in the system in one way or the other, thereby reducing their capacity to perform its natural role.
Collects groundwater beneath the earth’s crust of Foreign affairs , and these waters are considered the most important sources of water given by the states informed attention to the preservation of environmental pollution by attachment , environmental contamination and the indiscriminate use of groundwater resources threatens the groundwater in the world .
There are several reasons for causing pollution of underground water, one of the causes of pollution is the human activities in the land that come through pesticides and chemical fertilizers, and chemicals spills and deep injection wells, these materials cause serious diseases in humans especially in children where up to humans through the irrigation and rain, who nominated them Egervan pesticides non analyst Baltjah aquifers .
It is important to know that groundwater is a very important source of potable water for use, and may be wasteful in the use of much of the work cause a major threat to the presence and continuity of fresh water is the most important problems who cause reduce the chances of the availability of groundwater collapse of the land and the leakage of salt water to wells constantly Vidhar water and causing her substantial pollution and a clear change its characteristics of natural and unfortunately there are some wells close to the surface of the earth, which expose it to contamination of biological or chemical Valabar that contain ground water should preferably be at altitudes appropriate to avoid what might happen around them .. If the rise was more than 40 feet reduces the pollution of groundwater Only in this case, the layered porous half permeability is working to rid the water of impurities and contaminants, and if there is contamination of the groundwater may be difficult to filter the whole it is difficult to liquidate quickly, because this water Tkwon slow flow and movement in the ground may not exceed several meters of movement may affect the location and quality of water filtering.
There are several diseases caused by pollution of underground water, such as:
1 – Cholera.
2 – Typhoid.
3 – All kinds of dysentery.
4 – Hepatitis.
5 – Malaria.
6 – Schistosomiasis.
7 – Liver disease.
8 – Poisoning.
There are several ways to prevent contaminants from reaching groundwater and some solutions for the liquidation of underground water of pollutants such as:
* Chemical precipitation to remove water hardness.
* Sedimentation to remove sediment resulting from chemical treatment.
* Disinfection process to kill micro-organisms causing disease.
* Desalination of saline groundwater.
* Wastewater treatment before arriving to the soil and water bodies.
* Dissemination of human consciousness for water conservation.
* Passing laws to deal with toxic waste and follow the process to get rid of toxic waste.
* Passing laws to deal with toxic waste and follow the process to get rid of toxic waste.
Groundwater in the UAE
Human activities impact:
Human activities have a significant impact on groundwater in the United Arab Emirates. Groundwater is the source of the most commonly used provision in the United Arab Emirates, where it is facing a heavy pressure from population growth, urbanization and agricultural and industrial practices.
As a result of these activities has become ground water is used excessively in recent decades and, more from the past. The height of these human activities require an increase in the use of groundwater, which led to their use of groundwater stored in aquifers key and so will this lead to a decrease of excessive use of groundwater in the main stores in the United Arab Emirates. And also as a result received excellent groundwater degradation where it met with many of the problems that reduce the quality in the United Arab Emirates, and one of these problems, groundwater salinity and will progressively become more saline, and the other problem that may harm the quality of groundwater is due to the imbalance between the annual recharge and discharge. Recently several wells in the eastern and the northern parts of the country went dry.
On the other hand, the oil industry and the practice of agriculture are key factors in the pollution of groundwater. As a result of the oil industry is to increase the salinity in groundwater due to solvents, waste oil thrown staged near areas of groundwater example Bu Hasa area. The agricultural practices are increasing pollution of groundwater due to the use of pesticides and fertilizers staged affect the quality of groundwater.
Future plans: Increase continuity in the use of groundwater has led to decreases dramatically and this is what was observed in recent decades, after studies staged held in the UAE and this is the main reason to re-examine the sources of water in the UAE and building plans for the future adopted by the State in the use of water source and the most important groundwater.
Of the most important future plans to maintain the underground water level and the reduction of use, is to regulate the drilling and exploitation of groundwater wells and the exploitation of the groundwater in agriculture properly be used in any modern irrigation methods staged availability of ground water and keep them from drying.
In addition to the expansion of the establishment of dams to hold rainwater, and include the application of a program to conserve and rationalize water use, groundwater, and enhance the statistics of groundwater, especially in the area of authentication and authorization withdrawals of water and develop a program to improve methods for rainwater harvesting in order to feed water tank underground.
Construction of dams: Given the importance played by dams in the custody of rainwater for later use feed water storage underground, especially since the natural nutrition are only a small percentage of the amount of water withdrawn and did not exceed in any case 10% were interested in the United Arab Emirates establishment of dams, which now numbered114 dams with a capacity of storing 114 million cubic meters.
Modify the patterns of agricultural and irrigation:
Given that agriculture is the largest consumer of water in the state (about 80%) of total water consumption has turned the state in recent years to use the patterns of modern agricultural reduce water consumption through the promotion of workers in the agricultural sector on the use of means and methods of modern irrigation, training in their use, It is through the provision of irrigation systems, modern farm prices are almost free in some cases, have succeeded the State had notable success in mainstreaming the use of these means, as increased area cultivated areas that are irrigated by the use of those means more than 70% and on that used by some parties to the plans set standards and specifications for water quality and crops to be cultivated and determine the area and the regulations and conditions of the agricultural plan.
So far, we have seen that groundwater is very essential freshwater resources for us without it we will face a remarkable damage in human life span. So, from this importance of groundwater UAE holds many projects to preserve the water sources because I said the water sources in the United Arab Emirates due to lack of rainfall. Among the most important of these projects the project primarily in the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates, the “underground injection” His aim is to maintain strategic reserves of water in the emirate, through improving the quality of groundwater, which has become unfit for the use of high salinity due to depletion in the past years.
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