Sustainable Management of Water Resources in Depok Citybased on Water Stress Index (WSI) and SWOTAnalysis
Waterwithgoodqualityandquantitywillaffectthestateofthesurroundingenvironment.Depokasone ofthedevelopingcitieslocatednearthecentreofthecapitalcityofJakarta,experiencingsimilar problems related to meeting the clean water needs which in fact the direction of development forclean water management cannot be said to be sustainable because there are still problems with waterstress conditionsinseveralregions.Relatedtotheconceptofsustainablemanagementthatprioritizesthe quality of life, efficiency, inheritance aspects for the next generation, future needs, andminimizing effects, the division of WSI component levels consists of resources, access, capacity, use,and environment.Basedonthecomponentanalysis,theWSIvalueforthecityofDepokwasobtainedat 12.29,whichindicatesthatDepokCityisexperiencingaverycriticalconditionofwater.Fromthe SWOTanalysis,itcanbeseenthatthemanagementofwaterresourcesiscurrentlyinquadrantI,which is a position that indicates strong conditions and has the opportunity to carry outsustainable management, so it is possible to continue to expand, increase growth, and achieve maximumprogress to meet the clean water needs for people living in DepokCity.
Keywords: Water resources, Sustainable, Environment
Humans have many needs in order to continue their lives, including water. Water with good quality and quantity will affect the state of the surrounding environment. The water provided by the Drinking Water Company, until now, cannot meet the needs of clean water for residents and commercial needs. Therefore, many residents and businesses choose to use ground water as a source of clean water. This is very concerning given the poor impact caused by the use of ground water. The surface water condition also decreases with the large amount of water and wastewater discharges that are not properly treated. Depok as one of the developing cities located near the center of the capital city of Jakarta, also experiences similar problems related to meeting clean water needs which in fact the direction of development for clean water management cannot be said to be sustainable because there are still problems with water stress conditions in several regions. Through this study, the authors conducted an analysis of indicators that influence sustainable development related to the water management system and recommendations which are expected to be useful for meeting raw water needs.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The concept of sustainable management provides an understanding of the limitations between physical natural resources and human needs that need to be balanced with population growth and the development
of activities and technology, so that it is expected that later it can go simultaneously and not have an adverse effect on the environment. Water stress is also known as water poverty or water scarcity. Water stress is defined by the World Water Assessment Program (Molle & Mollinga, 2003), by looking at it as a condition of water that has sufficient quality and quantity that is satisfactory to meet human and environmental needs (Molle & Mollinga, 2003). The meaning of the word is enough here to match the existing needs. The idea of WSI was raised by Sullivan (2005) who discussed background theoretically (Sullivan, Meigh, & Lawrence, 2005). WSI is created with the participation of various consultants, stakeholders, decision makers and scientists. The result of this discussion is the emergence of five index components. This process provides an assessment of life assets (Mlote, Sullivan, & Meigh, 2002). Five components that need to be considered in the calculation of WSI (Sullivan, Meigh, & Lawrence, 2005), namely resources, access, capacity, use, and environment. Effective WSI implementation will facilitate the government to monitor progress at any time. The first measurement of WSI at the location will be the basis, and changes at any time will be proven by recalculation at more specific intervals.
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SWOT analysis is an instrument used in strategic planning by looking at the analysis of internal and external conditions. The qualitative and quantitative approaches of the SWOT matrix were developed by Kearns by analyzing external factors (Opportunities and Challenges) and internal factors (Strengths and Weaknesses). From this analysis a strategic solution will emerge that can be given to solve existing issues.
Element variations are measured by different unit units collected together, and five combined components use the same unit (Sullivan C.A, 2005):
WSI = wr R + wa A+ wc C + wu U + weE (1)
Where WSI is a water stress index for a particular location, Xi is a component i which is the application of components applied by policy makers. wi is the weight given to the component. Each component is composed by several sub-components, and is combined using the same technique so that the component values are obtained. With condition:
wr + wa + wc + wu + we = 1 (2)
The weight chosen if added together must be equal to one. Calculating WSI is done by weighting the average of the five components, namely resources (R), access (A), capacity (C), usage (U), and environment (E). Each component is first standardized so that it has a range of ranges
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0-100, then the WPI value will also range from 0-100. A low WSI value indicates an extreme case of water insecurity. The weight given to the element wi, represents the relative importance given. WSI is based on the calculation of resources, access, capacity to be regulated and managed, usage, and environmental impacts on the site. For each component has the following sub-components:
- Components of water resources: availability of piped water, ground water and surface water
- Components of access: sanitation access, residents served with piped water, and coverage of residents with proper sanitation
- Component Capacity: Education level of the population, poverty line, percentage of child mortality
- Component of Use: clean water needs per person
- Environmental Components: quality of water resources
In formulating the basic recommendations as an effort to control water pollution, the Minister of Environment Regulation Number 01 of 2010 concerning Water Pollution Control Procedures was used. The scope stipulated in this Ministerial Regulation covers 7 things, namely: 1. Inventory and identification of water pollutant sources; 2. Determination of capacity of water pollution loads; 3. Determination of waste water quality standards; 4. Determination of water pollution control policies; 5. Licensing; 6. Water quality monitoring; 7. Coaching and supervision; and provision of information. The
method used in the assessment of the indicators mentioned above is to separate them into two general criteria, namely (Rahmawati, 2011):
- Evaluation criteria that are supportive, namely those that act as strength (S) and opportunity (O). The value given for the indicator is in accordance with the classification.
- Assessment criteria that are inhibiting, namely those that act as weaknesses (W) and threats (T). The value given for the indicator is in accordance with the classification.
Based on the data collected it is known that for the water resources component, Depok City has a potential of 299 m3/year. By doing weighting and literature study, it can be seen that this value indicates the water resources potential is still very lacking, so it is given a value of 5. As for the access component, it can be known through the acquisition of BPS Depok in Figures 2015 and Profile of Depok City Health Office 2016, that 97.18% of the population has private sanitation facilities, 9% are served by piping networks, and 79.78% of the population have proper sanitation. Thus, it can be analyzed that for the access component has a value of 14 which is obtained from the average value obtained by each sub- component. From the capacity sub-component, it can be seen that more than 50% of the population of Depok City are junior high school graduates up to D3, Depok City poverty line is 2.34% and the percentage of under-five mortality is 2.2/1000 live births. Thus, it can be seen that from the aspect of capacity, Depok residents are still classified as good, so that the value of 16.67 is obtained from the average value obtained by each sub-component. Calculation of clean water consumption needs is done by referring to PDAM water usage and domestic water usage standards. From the calculation, it is found that the water requirement is 61.43 liters/day. This indicates that the water demand is not so large, so the value for the component of use is 13.65. For environmental aspects, an analysis of the quality of water resources is carried out. Through secondary data collection, the quality of Depok City’s water resources is obtained under moderate pollution conditions, so the value for environmental components is 12.15.
Related to the concept of sustainable management that emphasizes quality of life, efficiency, inheritance aspects for the next generation, future needs, and minimizing effects, the division of WSI component levels is carried out equally, that is, all components have a value of 0.2, considering that all components have an equal role in realizing sustainable management of water resources management. Thus, the WSI value for Depok City is 12.29 which indicates that Depok City is experiencing a very critical condition of water.
Based on the results of the WSI, the recommendations can be formulated in the form of a SWOT analysis. The SWOT analysis was carried out through focus group discussions attended by stakeholders, authorities, as well as environmental experts, as well as consumers (representatives of residents of Depok City). From the SWOT analysis it can be seen that the management of water resources is currently in quadrant I, which is a position that indicates a strong condition and has the opportunity to carry out sustainable management. The recommendation of the strategy given is progressive, which means that the management of water resources is currently in prime and steady condition so it is very possible to continue to expand, increase growth and achieve maximum progress to meet the clean water needs of the people of Depok City. The following recommendations can be given so that water resources management can run sustainably:
- The planned program must be consistent towards quality not just quantity and programmed starting from upstream
- The need to increase human resources to carry out engineering/technology to manage water resources
- Optimizing the development of piping networks
- Conducting cooperation programs with related parties to develop the potential of water resources in Depok City
- Conduct environmental campaigns aimed at increasing the capacity of water resources
Through an analysis of water stress indices, it is known that the water stress conditions in Depok City have entered a critical stage. However, when viewed from the aspect of resource management and SWOT analysis carried out, results were obtained that the management of Depok’s water resources had a very good opportunity to be able to develop in accordance with the principles of sustainable management. Aside from the government’s commitment to strive for sustainable development programs for water resources, community participation is also very much needed in terms of preserving the existing water resources. Thus, early education related to sustainable principles needs to be done.
We thank our colleagues who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research, the colleagues are: Experts and Academics related to Water Resources Management, Regional Development Planning Agency of Depok City, Department of Environment and Cleanliness of Depok City, Department of Public Works and Spatial Planning of Depok City, and Water Supply Forum of Depok City.
- Depok City Statistics Agency (2015). Subdistrict in Figures. Depok: Author.
- Depok City Health Office (2016). Profile of Depok City Health Office. Depok: Author.
- François Molle & Peter Mollinga. (2003). Water poverty indicators: conceptual problems and policy issues, Water Policy, 5:529–544.
- Loja, Tajar, H., & Mesia, V. (2011). SWOT Analysis on Water Management in High Genil Lower River Basin. Granada: European Regional Development Fund.
- Steven D. M. Mlote, Caroline Sullivan and Jeremy Meigh. (2002). Water Poverty Index: a Tool for Integrated Water Management. Paper presented at 3rd WaterNet/Warfsa Symposium ‘Water Demand Management for Sustainable Development’, Dar es Salaam.
- Sullivan, Caroline, Jeremy Meigh, and Peter Lawrence. (2005). Application of the Water Poverty Index at Different Scales: A Cautionary Tale. Agriculture Ecosystems and the Environment.
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