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Solid Waste Management Techniques For Jalgaon City Environmental Sciences Essay

3525 words (14 pages) Essay in Environmental Sciences

5/12/16 Environmental Sciences Reference this

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Solid waste management in India has become a major environmental issue of study increasing environmental concerns and interest in material and energy conservation have lead to increasing advancement in management of solid waste over the past two decades. This paper attempts to put together available information and analyze the problem of solid waste. Proper management of solid municipal waste can play an important role in generation of social, economic and environmental benefits. This paper revolves around the urban solid waste also outlines a solid waste management in Jalgaon city. This paper discusses various future projections for estimating the growth of MSW and the impact of such growth. This paper concludes about collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste for Jalgaon city. The conclusion and recommendation will helpful in disposing of solid waste in scientific manner for Jalgaon City.

Keywords: Solid waste management, Environmental issues, future projections.

INTRODUCTION

In last few years in Jalgaon city the increase in solid waste management plays significant role. This is because of rapid economic development and rapid increase in population in Jalgaon city. This trend is due to change in the living standards of Indian peoples, changing lifestyle and food habits. The municipal council in Jalgaon city therefore, facing the problem of reinforcing their available manpower, equipments and machineries for excellent municipal solid waste management.

Solid waste management is undoubtedly an increasingly important element in terms of efficiency and profitability for any municipality, particularly in Jalgaon City. Its especially complex dimension is a result not only of the direct relationship with a number of factors that originate the living standard of a society, but also of our continuously rising consuming lifestyle which analogically enhances the existing operational difficulties. Waste collection & transportation is one of the major parts of the process of solid waste management which consists of generation, collection, transportation, treatment and final disposal [3]. It is statistically proved that a major proportion of the total cost for solid waste management is spent into municipal solid waste collection & transportation and disposal. Having pinpointed the economic significance of waste collection & transportation and disposal, it is equally important to underline that it is also one of the most difficult operational problems faced by local authorities in Jalgaon city. The sheer enormity of the project dictates that well organized, well managed teams perform the necessary duties on a daily basis, in order to sustain the demanding hygienic standards that are expected by the Jalgaon city’s residents.

URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Due to rapid industrialization in urban areas huge quantity of municipal solid waste and e-waste is generated. During the mid seventies the per capita solid waste generated lies in between 100 to 350 gm/day for Indian cities whereas in late eighties, it ranges in between 300 to 530 gm/day. Presently the per capita solid waste and e-waste generated daily in developing country like India ranges about 150 gm in small villages to 550 gm in large town [1]. The urban population is currently about one quarter of total population.

The collection of waste is tedious problem as house hold waste are thrown outside in the streets and also due to narrow lanes, the smaller vehicles to collect the waste can reach only to the selected accessible points. Hence, unskilled labours are used to sweep the narrow streets and collect the waste and garbage. Though unskilled labours rates are relatively less due to large scale manpower it is estimated that India spends five times as much on sweeping as on refuse collection[2]. Poor motivation of workers, inadequacy of supervisory and management skills at local government levels are leading causes of low productivity. The problem needs to pay attention at proper levels.

The three R’s of waste management namely Reduce, Recycle and Recover. The recycling is achieved through kabaries (peoples handling waste) who goes to door to door and collect bottles, broken plastics, metals, waste papers, etc. this material is recycled for manufacturing the secondary product.

2.1 Land filling

Like other cities in Jalgaon city most of the waste is used for land filling. The methods followed are not in keeping with modern practices for sanitary land filling. The municipal solid waste is directly dumped on land filling area. This dumping is normally done in depressions which are prone to flooding. Due to this surface water contamination causes due to flooding of such low laying areas and also the ground water pollution causes due to dumping of such waste. Diversion of land for waste disposal is impossible since areas with the largest concentration of solid waste would also be the areas with serious scarcity of vacant lands. This causes ill-effect on the health on the community residing nearby, causes bad odor and the community nearby liable to fear of explosion of methane gas that can accumulated at land fill sites[3], which significantly contributes to global warming.

2.2 Composting

The excellent option for solid waste management is composting for urban solid waste in India [4]. The composting may be by aerobic or anaerobic decomposition. In urban solid waste in India a huge quantity of organic content and moisture is present. Conceptually, the idea of composting is appealing as it helps to recycle the nutrients back to the land. Composting process requires segregation of material which is achieved by recycling by kabadies.

The composting however still remains strong option for small and medium towns. Semi-mechanized aerobic composting is suitable to reduce the waste volume in the towns.

2.3 Incineration

Incineration is the most important treatment method for destruction of all high calorific and highly toxic solid waste. High temperature incineration at 12000C mineralizes all kinds of organic material in solid waste [4]. Nearly 99.99% of various compounds are destructed. Incineration serves dual purpose of reduction of toxicity and the volume of the waste which is an important consideration when the disposal of waste is finally destined for landfills. The technology for incineration is not available indigenously and import options are highly capital intensive.

2.4 Anaerobic digestion [4]

For high moisture and organic content of Indian Wastes, the anaerobic digestion is another suitable option. However, there are no ready technologies for processing heterogeneous material such as urban solid waste. The existing methods are suitable to homogeneous materials. The cost of cleaning and separating mixed heterogeneous wastes are likely to be high.

A good way to avoid these problems is to intercept suitable wastes at the point of generation before it is mixed with other wastes. Kitchen and vegetable market wastes are largely suited for this purpose. These wastes can be collected and treated at source, if space permits. The resulting bio-gas can be used for captive energy use such as lighting and cooking etc. few bio-gas systems are currently available to treat wastes of fruit and vegetable origin. Though currently unfeasible as a large scale option, bio-gas systems can effectively handle localized and specific wastes and contribute to environment friendly disposal of wastes.

THE CASE OF JALGAON CITY

The Jalgaon Municipal limit covers an area of 68.24sqkm, out of which 11.45sqkm is the old municipal limit and 56.79sqkm is the extended additional area. This indicates that the Municipal territorial jurisdiction has increased more than four times i.e. from 11.45sqkm to 68.24sqkm. The overall population density of Jalgaon city, according to 2001 census5 is 53.94 inhabitant/hectares. The population of Jalgaon city will grow from 3, 68,000 in 2001 to 8,55,821 in 2033 as per the table 1 shown below. The population of Jalgaon city will increase nearly 43% till 2033. The municipal solid waste generated in the city is 226 tons/day as shown in Table (3).

TABLE (1) Population Projection [6]

Method

Population Projection

Geometric rate of increase

2001

2006

2011

2021

2033

368000

430903

530607

693214

855821

With rapid urbanization, industrialization and population growth the municipal solid waste (MSW) which has been a problem in past has become a serious threat in recent years and the situation is going to be worst in coming years if appropriate measures are not taken immediately, keeping in view the seriousness of the issue and its linkages with the economic growth, environmental degradation and health hazards. Dumping the waste as a waste has two fold negative implications. On the other hand, it pollutes the air, water and land resulting in diseases and destruction of human habitat. Garbage collection and disposal, as SWM was known earlier, constituted an obligatory function of the municipalities and continues to be so. As per the guidelines of Honorable Supreme Court of March 1999 and Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, September 2000, solid waste management system has been recognized. However, comprehensive rules at the national level came to be framed only after the Supreme Court passed orders in the public interest. The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) notified the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules in September 2000 and they are applicable to every municipal body in the country. It was mandatory for the city of Jalgaon also to revamp its SWM services, since there is a need to make substantial improvement in the SWM practices prevailing in the city to meet the standards.

It was necessary to address this problem systematically by going into all aspects of the Solid Waste Management (SWM) and devise a simple but cost effective system which must ensure desired level of collection, transportation and disposal. The civic services in the city of Jalgaon are managed by Jalgaon City Municipal Corporation. Managing solid waste generated in the city – collection, transportation and its safe disposal is one of the most priority area of attention for improvement of the Municipal Solid Waste Management in light of the MSW Rules 2000. Like most of the cities & towns in India, this service falls short of the desired level in Jalgaon as the present systems adopted are outdated and inefficient to meet the standards (MSW Rules 2000). Lot of factors contribute to this present status, the main being lack of knowledge and improper choice of technology coupled with a lack of long term planning. Jalgaon City Municipal Corporation has initiated the process of taking corrective measures by implementing a new collection and transportation system along with processing and disposal system comparable to those of modern era.

Figure. 1. Solid Waste Disposal Sites [5]

3.1 Existing Status of Collection and Disposal

The Jalgaon City Municipal Corporation is responsible for collection, disposal and management of MSW within the city. Due to rapid urbanization and increase in population waste collection and its transportation and disposal is a challenging task to the urban local bodies. No specific land was reserved for compost depot in the sanctioned development plan of the old city limits. The waste generated is disposed in an unscientific manner. The manpower and transport system is inadequate for the waste management of the city. The solid waste generated in the city mainly consists of domestic refuse (including slum area), waste from commercial areas, vegetable and fruit markets, slaughter houses, bio-medical wastes, wastes from hotels and restaurants and industrial solid wastes [7]. The waste generation is large in the high-income groups followed by middle and low-income group.

TABLE (2) Physical composition of solid waste in

Jalgaon city[5]

Sr.

No.

Physical Composition

Income Groups (%)

LIG

MIG

HIG

1

Compostable

45.0

72.2

68.0

2

Paper

4.5

4.25

5.5

3

Plastic

3.5

2.9

3.6

4

Glass

0.9

0.0

09.0

5

Metal

0.5

0.0

0.5

6

Rag

5.4

0.13

1.7

7

Earthen matter

40.0

20.3

11.4

8

Leather

0.2

0.22

0.3

The average collection efficiency for MSW in Indian Cities is about 72.5% and around 70% of the cities lack adequate waste transport capacities (TERI 1998). Open dumping of garbage facilitates the breeding for disease vectors such flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats and other pests (CPCB 2000)

FUTURE SCENARIO

Waste generation and its impacts in India, the amount of waste generated per capita is estimated to increase at a rate of 1% – 1.33% annually [8]. The calculated value of per capita waste generation in 1997 is 0.468 kg. It is estimated that the total waste quantity generated in 2047 would be approximately above 260 million tones – more than five times the present level.

Generation of waste in Jalgaon City

The Jalgaon Municipal area is subdivided in 16 health units for collection and transportation of waste. The average per capita waste generation is 0.491kg/capita/day [12]. The amount of waste generated is about 226 tons per day as shown in Table (3).

Proposed Technological Inventions

Jalgaon city has lagged behind in terms of adopting technologies for solid waste management. In particular, collection, treatment and disposal of waste require urgent consideration.

Collection of waste

The preferred option would be to revamp the existing collection service structure to provide community with waste bins, conveniently placed for the people to deposit domestic waste, and door to door collection of waste [9].

Solid waste treatment and disposal techniques

Disposal is a “no alternative” option because it is the last functional element in the solid waste management system and ultimate fate of all waste that are of no further value. Proper segregation of waste would lead to better options and opportunities for its scientific disposal [10]. Recyclable for example, could be straightway transported to recycling units, which, in turn, would pay the corporation for it, thereby increasing their income. Finally, the inert material that will be required to be sent to landfill would be of much lower quantity compared to un-segregated waste, consequently increasing the life of our existing disposal facilities.

Segregation should be done into following ways for Jalgaon city,

Wet organic matter – Composting

Dry organic matter – Fuel bricks

Plastic items – Recycling

Construction waste – Paving blocks

Scrap materials – Recycling

Inert & other materials – Land filling

Strategic Planning (Flow Diagram) For SWM For Jalgaon City

Dry Organic Matter

Plastic Items

Construction Waste

Scrap Materials

Inert and other Building Materials

Wet Organic Matter

Composting

Fuel Bricks

Recycling

Paving Blocks

Recycling

Land filling

Segregation

Waste Disposal Site

TS- 1

TS- 1

TS- 1

TS- 1

HU-2

HU-12

HU-13

HU-14

HU-1

HU-3

HU-4

HU-16

HU-5

HU-6

HU-7

HU-8

HU-9

HU-10

HU-11

HU-15

Figure 2. Strategic Planning (Flow Diagram) For SWM For Jalgaon City

Solid Waste Collection, Transportation Model for Jalgaon City

Collection

Home to Home Collection

Mechanical Road Swiping

Manual Road Swiping

Bulk Generator

Litter Bins

Transfer Station (Compactor)

Transportation

Processing and Disposal

Processing Unit

Segregation

Wet Organic Matter

Wet Organic Matter

Dry Organic Matter

Plastic Items

Construction Waste

Scrap Material

Inert and other Building Material

Fuel Bricks

Recycling

Paving Blocks

Recycling

Land filling

Figure 3. Solid Waste Collection, Transportation Model for Jalgaon City

Composting

Composting is one system which transforms the biodegradable organic material into biologically stable material and in the process reduce the organic volume of waste; to destroy pathogens, insects eggs and other unwanted organisms and weed seed that may be present in municipal solid waste and to retain the maximum nutrient (NPK) content and to produce a product that can be used to support plant growth and as soil amendment [11].

The solid waste from Jalgaon city has been found to contain on an average range of 30 to 40% biodegradable matter. Apart from it, the CN ratio of waste (i.e. 20) on average is within range required for composting i.e. 20 to 25% [11]

It was estimated that depending on locality and climate 450 to 500kg of compost can be produced from 1 tons of waste. Based on above discussion it is recommended that composting can be considered as safe, economic disposal method of municipal solid waste generated from Jalgaon city.

Dry organic matter may be used for preparation of fuel bricks as energy source. After segregation of solid waste recyclable items are separated out and resource can be utilized for paving blocks.

Land filling

Solid waste management may be used to improve natural features by raising the level of low lying land to enable it to be used for cultivation or industrial development. The percentage of inert, inorganic and non-biodegradable organic matter is present in adequate quantity in solid waste of Jalgaon city and as for as this quantity is concerned the use of sanitary land filling seems alternative to use as means of disposal land filling method is cheapest method of refuse disposal.

TABLE (3)

Total Waste Generation for Jalgaon City [5]

Health Unit

Nature of Generators And Expected Quantity in Kilograms – 0.491 / Capita / Day

Residents Families

Commercial Property

Hotels

Road Sweeping & Debris

Nos

Quantity of

Waste

Generated in Kg

Nos

Quantity of

Waste

Generated in Kg

Nos

Quantity

of Waste

Generated in Kg

Length of

the Road in Km

Quantity of Waste

Generated in Kg

1

7555

14221

22

5.87

4

72.28

21.37

1942.11

2

7020

10377

265

70.76

10

180.7

39.49

3588.85

3

5821

10474

2704

721.97

44

795.08

24.26

2204.75

4

5012

9019

4569

1219.92

45

813.15

15.6

1417.73

5

4456

8020

163

43.52

1

18.07

9.06

823.37

6

5714

10286

589

157.26

40

722.8

31.52

2864.54

7

3766

6639

1490

397.83

75

1355.25

16.81

1527.69

8

6166

11096

747

199.45

30

542.1

27.12

2464.67

9

3905

8604

379

101.19

5

90.35

22.07

2005.72

10

11565

20277

1354

361.52

18

325.26

30.62

2782.75

11

6633

11939

209

55.8

11

198.77

28.81

2618.25

12

8374

14653

372

99.32

40

722.8

34.67

3150.81

13

3430

6173

766

204.52

27

487.89

23.05

2094.78

14

10726

19307

383

102.26

9

162.63

29.23

2656.42

15

2375

3816

823

219.74

14

252.98

27.76

2522.83

16

6070

12066

144

38.45

9

162.63

38.12

3464.35

98588

176967

14979

3999.39

382

6902.74

419.56

38129.61

Total Waste Generation in Tones: 226

CONCLUSION

Based on physical composition and characteristics of solid waste in Jalgaon city composting can effectively handle solid waste containing wet organic matter in Jalgaon city. For collection of solid waste door to door collection system will be effective one, vehicle. For that purpose Jalgaon city must be divided into 16 health units four transfer stations are recommended. After segregation of solid waste wet organic matter must be used for composting dry organic material to be used for for fuel bricks, plastic items, iron items, scrap material to be used for recycling pupose. Inert and other building material should be used for land filling.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The literature reviewed in this paper is the part of ongoing thesis work named “Solid waste management techniques for Jalgaon city” at SGB University, Amravati under the guidance of Prof. M. Iqbal. The author thanks the Principal, J. T. M. C. O. E. Faizpur, Dist- Jalgaon for extending all facilities for conducting the research work.

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