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90% of large species, like tuna, Swordfish, cod are subject to the impact of industrial fishing, has been facing varying degrees of extinction risk. Seafood is a major motivation led to overfishing, even though more and more people are aware of the seriousness of this problem. To prevent and reduce overfishing, the government has to implement some measures to stop fishermen from fishing in danger areas. The government had set up a marine conservation area, and the number of restrictions on fishing. We have to coexist with marine limit overfishing, fish natural recovery, to ensure the sustainable development of fisheries and marine. (Greenpeace 2012)
Global biomass of predatory fish
Source: Nippon foundation 2010
As populations and food consumption have grown, the total catch in the world’s oceans has quadrupled over the half-century since the 1950s; this has resulted in global-scale overfishing. It is important that scientific knowledge is built up and the state of marine resources should be monitored at an early stage, before these resources and the ecosystem become threatened. Faced with the collapse of large-fish populations, commercial fleets are going deeper in the ocean and father down the food chain for viable catches. Many scientists say most fish populations could be restored with aggressive fisheries management, better enforcement of laws governing catches, and increased use of aquaculture (National geographic 2012).
Source: Angier, J. 2011
One may wonder how the world’s fishermen have seemingly caused such a large overfishing problem. Over 25% of all the world’s fish stocks are either overexploited or depleted. Another 52% is fully exploited; these are in imminent danger of overexploitation (maximum sustainable production level) and collapse. Thus a total of almost 80% of the world’s fisheries are fully- to over-exploited, depleted, or in a state of collapse. Worldwide about 90% of the stocks of large predatory fish stocks are already gone. They operate as individual companies and within a generally uncoordinated multi-nation framework. In other words, companies and countries are competing for the world’s fishes, and there is little incentive for any individual entity to catch fewer fish (Angier, J. 2011). A team of researchers spent four years studying the world’s fish populations and determined that if we don’t stop overfishing, all of the planet’s fish will have been caught by 2048. A United Nations’ study estimates 70% of the world’s fisheries are now fully exploited. The use of long-lines, with sixty miles of hooks, bottom trawling, that captures as well as destroys everything in its wake, by catch and illegal fishing, are mostly to blame(Kolbert, E 2010). It’s not only the fish that is affected by fishing. As we are fishing down the food web the increasing effort needed to catch something of commercial value marine mammals, sharks, sea birds, and non commercially viable fish species are overexploited, killed as by catch and discarded (up to 80% of the catch for certain fisheries), and threatened by the industrialized fisheries(Alexander & Fairbridge 1999).
Overfishing is a global disaster nowadays. Overfishing is caused by several factors. One of the reasons is that the world’s population is rising very fast, and people increase in the demand for seafood. There are too many boats to catch fish with modern fishing technology and capacity, the overfishing problem comes out easily. They catch too many fish that leads to the fish cannot sustain their population. The fish get fewer and fewer, until finally there are none to catch. Overfishing is a non-sustainable use of the oceans. Examples of overfishing problem exist in areas around the world such as the Grand Banks of North America, the East China Sea of Asia and North Sea of Europe. In these locations, overfishing has not only to the fishing communities relying on the harvest but also proved disastrous to fish stocks. Like other extractive industries such as hunting and forestry, fisheries are susceptible to economic interaction between ownership, stewardship and sustainability otherwise would be known as the tragedy of the commons. The effects of overfishing are food supply shortage; unemployment; income reduction; marine ecosystems damaged; destructive trawlers; fish extinction, etc. Due to overfishing is more and more serious, dwindling global fish stocks, so the food shortage problem is increasingly more and more serious also, especially for developed countries, then they will think of ways to catch more fish. The results will show the problem vicious cycle of famine in the future; Overfishing makes so many people engaged to sell enough quantities in fishing and it leads to decrease in revenue. It is difficult for fishers to earn money for living; Fishing boat trawling destroy deep-sea coral reef damage the seabed, and destroy all the life in the deep sea, etc. Egypt even found that overfishing is causing the shark attacking people (Youngthinker 2010).
When fish stocks decline and fisheries become commercially unviable the damaged stock gets some rest and generally struggles along on a pathetic level compared to its pre-fishing level, but doesn’t go biologically extinct. A damaged system is struggling and shifting, but can still be active (e.g. filled with jellyfish instead of cod). Every long-term successful and sustainable fishery, especially at near-shore or high-seas, needs to be managed according to some basic ground rules. From government aspect are protection of pristine and important habitats; establish a closed-fishing period; limit total annual fish catch, limit the size of the fishing boat, limit the time of the fishing season, limit fishing areas; monitoring and Enforcement. From individual aspect are be informed; know what you eat; spread the world(Greenpeace 2012).
When thinking about possible solutions to the overfishing problem, it may initially seem that the problem is simply that we are pulling too many fish out of the sea. That’s certainly a big part of it, but there are a number of other factors to consider as well: the unintentional removal of non-targeted species during fishing operations; Destruction of coastal and ocean-floor breeding habitats; pollution and climate change.
All of the recent studies on our ocean problems recommend a comprehensive, ecologically based approach to fisheries management, not just simply trying to limit catch numbers. Let’s hope that our governing officials have the wisdom to follow this advice. As consumers, one thing we can start doing immediately is choosing fish for our dinner plates that are not in danger of being overfished. (Grinning planet 2012)
Below the pie chat is different fisheries around the world
(Source: World daily 2012)
Such as in China, overfishing and increasing pollution is destroying one of the world’s great fisheries in the East China Sea; new studies show, confirming the fears of fishermen and environmentalists. China has made many efforts for the sustainable development of fisheries. They launched an intelligent equipment challenge to encourage fisheries equipment manufacturers make a relatively small harmful fishing tools-such as circle hooks, this tool is a significant possibility of reducing the by catch of endangered species of sea turtles. China accordance with international conventions, and limit the number of boats allowed at some seasons out to sea; control the size of the nets, to ensure that the fish are not being salvage; see sales strictly prohibited fishing animals would fines and criminal penalties and strengthen the management of sea areas.
In Canada is a major fishing country, it has strict quotas of fishing purposes. To protect cod, salmon and other valuable fish species, whales and other marine animals, the government has invested heavily in the establishment various institute and protection facilities. Canada has developed a marine water quality standard and the marine environment pollution limits of the standard. The establishment of a coastal convoy is responsible for the protection of the marine environment (World daily. 2012)
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