Ocean Fisheries as Commons

5066 words (20 pages) Essay in Environmental Sciences

23/09/19 Environmental Sciences Reference this

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Contents-

 

 

List of image ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

 

1) INTRODUCTION

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 


 

2) Common pool resource

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 


 

3) Tragedy of commons

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 


 

4) Governance

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 


 

5) Problems associated in ocean fishery due to open access

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

 

6) Impacts

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

 

7) Cause of depilation of ocean resource (Fishery)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 


 

8)
 Human’s impact on ocean

 

………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………..13

 

9) Strategies to sustainable ocean fishery

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

 

10) Conclusion

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

 

11) References

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

List of Images

 

1) Image 1. Overfishing. (From toasted1961, 2014)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

 

2) Image 2. Impact of overfishing. (From Maureen Berry, n.d.)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

 

3) Image 3. Dependency of peoples on ocean for fishes or fishery (From WWF global, 2017)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

 

 

4) Image 4. Global fishery subsides. (From Lindsay, 2016)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

 

5) Image 5. Marine protected area of Ross Sea in New Zealand. (From Foreign affaires & trade, 2016)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

 

6) Image 6. Marine protected areas increased from year 1990 to 2014 (From Pirlea, 2016)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

 

7) Image 7. Increased in aquaculture production comparing it with ocean fishery (Pirlea, 2016)

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

 

8) Image 8. Effective governance for sustainable ocean fishery (From North pacific seafood, n.d.)

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

Introduction

According to site (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2016) we see that globally that demand for fish is increasing per capita fish consumption rises for a year 20 kilogram. Globally the total fish production for year 2014 was 93.4 million tones. The main fishes, which are captured, are tunas, lobsters, shrimps & cephalopods. Fish is a good source of proteins, vitamins, calcium, zinc & iron, which make it more helter food. Developing countries accounts over 60% fishery production and the main fish producing countries are India, China, Peru, Indonesia and Chili. Total employment in fishery is mainly in Asia is 84% (Arthur, 2005) According to government site (Department of economic and social affairs, 2015) we see that population is increasing day by day by which the demand or pressure on the natural resources will increase, it is estimated that in year 2050 the population will reach up to 9.7 billion. Out of all the food commodities, fish is the top most commodities in terms of trading, consumption etc. (Praveen, 2014). Even if aquaculture is growing, marine animals are been caught in a traditional way directly from the ocean, due to such illegal fishing some species of fishes are in danger and there is a big challenge for future fishes. It’s important to keep the balance of nature and ecosystem. Fishery management in a sustainable way is much important.

In this essay, we look at the fishery as open resource or common pool means in which they are shared publicly and there is not a proper control on particular individual to exclude it. These will be related by the tragedy of the common, which can be termed as the common pool resource is a natural or constructed resources that are been shared by different individuals (Ostrom, 1990). It will be the overview in related to governance, socially & cultural views. As ocean has a big widespread area due to which it’s hard to keep a control over it. If these resources are been used in excesses the resource will become scares, which will ultimately affect the people depending on these resource. The management of the resource by government and public will be effective, like a co-management by both the ways and help to conserve common pool resources in effective way.

Common pool resource

According to site (Investopedia, 2018) we see that common pool resources are the resources which benefits the group of people, but which provides diminished benefit to everyone, if each individual pursue his or hers self-interest. The over use of the resources can lead to the tragedy of commons problem were each individual wants the maximum outcome, relating it to ocean as a common pool resource.

Tragedy of commons

According to site (Gurteen, 2018) we see that Aristotle a Greek philosopher who stated that the anything that is common for the greatest number get least amount of care, according to him men’s pays more attention to what is there own and they care less for what is common, men’s are more prone to neglect there own duties, when they think that there are another people to look at it. Tragedy of commons can be explained as that, “degradation of the environment to be expected to whatever the individual use a scares resource in common”. (Ostrom, 1990) These can be effectively related to ocean fishery as it open access and each individual want maximum benefits from fishing. 

Governance

Governance plays an important role in conservation of fish according to particular nations rules and regulation to conserve the fishes. Governance can be explained, as it’s a whole of public as well as private interaction taken to solve societal problems and as per create a solution accordingly, it includes the formulation and application of different principals which support those interaction and care for institutions that enable them (Jan et al., 2005). Different countries have different policy for ocean fishery to conserve the fishes, which will help to maintain the ecosystem in a proper manner. Some of the countries policy for the fishery management is as follows.

New Zealand

According to government site (New Zealand foreign affairs & trade, n.d.) we see that total ocean boundaries covered or protected under Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is around 1.7 million square kilometers. New Zealand is surrounded with south & west Pacific Ocean. This country has one of the largest exclusive economic zones in the world, relating to tuna fish were the country is more focused on. According to site (New Zealand foreign affairs & trade, n.d) we see that New Zealand is registered with Regional Fisheries management organization (RFMOs), which is the international organization from by the different countries in terms of interest in fishery. They are the members of three RFMOs, which are Commission for conservation of Southern Bluefin tuna (CCSBT) the second one is Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) mainly focused on tuna fishery to conserve them effectively there, main focus is tuna fishery to conserve them effectively. The third member is South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO) it is responsible for non-highly migratory fish stock. Organizations such as Pacific Islands Forum Fisheries Agency and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are the organizations, which help in improving the fishery governance. Niue treaty is the important initiative taken by New Zeeland government against illegal fishing.

United states of America

According to site (NOAA Fisheries, 2017) the NOAA fisheries are the authority body to manage the Ocean fishery in United States. It has the support of US laws like Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which deals with preventing overfishing, increasing long-term benefits etc. According to Government site (California ocean protection council, n.d.) the ocean protection council in California in United Sates of America was been established in 2004 in aim to protect, maintain and conserve healthy ocean and coastal ecosystem. There are different types of programs taken for uplifting the local communities with in mind of sustainable fishing.

India

According to site (Fisheries & Fishing communities in India, 2018) we see that India has the coastline of 8,000 kilometers and over 2 million sq. kilometers of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Marine Fishing Regulation Act (MFRA) is the act, which has a perfect control over illegal fishing, overfishing etc.   

 

 

Problems associated in ocean fishery due to open access

Ocean been a biggest source of life on the earth. There are variety of different types of sea animals and due open accesses they are on the way of decreasing there population. These problems are due to different reasons that are as follows (Jaymi, 2009)

Overfishing

According to site (WWF, n.d.) we see that overfishing occurs when more fishes are caught than the population, in other terms gathering as much fish as possible for the human benefits. Around 30% of the world’s fisheries are been pushed beyond their biological limit. Overfishing have been affected badly on the ocean animals, there is imbalance in the ecosystem as there are some marine animals, which depend upon those fish for survival (Patrick, 2016). 

Image 1. Overfishing. (From toasted1961, 2014)

According to site (Oceans of fun, 2018) we see that researcher has estimated that around 90% of the large predators like shark, cod, tuna are been removed from the oceans, the possibility of the recovery is much harder than it is removed.

By catch

According to site (WWF, 2018) we see that by catch can be explained as the incidental catch of non-target species like turtles, dolphins, sharks etc. Modern types of gears that can catch any of fish in an effective way. The figures tell that around 300,000 small wales, dolphins etc. dies due to fishing nets every year.

Image 2. Impact of overfishing. (From Maureen Berry, n.d.)

Illegal fishing

According to site (World ocean review, 2013) we see that fishing activities done by the foreign vessels without proper permission in water of particular region or state were fishing and does not follow any law or regulations can be termed as illegal fishing. It is estimated that in world the illegal fishing is done about 26 million tonnes, which is equal 11 to 33 percent of total legal fish catch. (Krysten Jetson, 2014)

Impacts

There will be negative impact if we overuse the resources; some of the impacts are as follows

Reduction in targeted fish’s

It has been seen that due overfishing there will be reduction in the fish population and which will take a big time to recourse these setback. The ultimate goal will be reducing of fishing activities to recover the fish density.

Ecosystem change

There will be big effect on the Marine biodiversity; each and every character has the important role in ecosystem, like as plant and animal in terms to balancing the ecosystem. They are depending on each other for the purpose of food to survive For example tuna fish depend on shrimps, flying fish etc. (Alexis Kezirian, 2017) which is a continuous food cycle and if it is disturbed by human intermissions it can effect the population of tuna fish.

Socio economic effect

According to site (Earth eclipse, n.d.) we see that around million of peoples live their live hood on it can effect finically because lots of people earn form fishing.

Causes of depilation of ocean resource (Fishery)

According to site (Earth eclipse, 2018) we see that there different types of reasons which are responsible for the over depilation of ocean fishes. The causes are as follows

Improper fisheries management

The biggest challenge in fishery management is lack of traceability. Lack of rules and regulation by the government.  The existing rules and regulation are not that effective to control overfishing or exploitation of fishes.

Improper way of fishing

Catching of ship unsustainably in which use of big nets, fishing gears, which catches lots of fishes and also unwanted fishes making the level of the fishes, endangered. All these unwanted fishes are called as by catch in which they are destroyed or discarded into sea. Some of the discarded fishes include turtles, young fishes, sharks, starfishes etc. According to site (Overfishing, 2013) we see that there are different types of equipment’s that are considered to be unsustainable methods for fishing are as follows

  • Purse seining- A net is been spread at the bottom in the water and in some time the whole net is been collected in which all the fishes as well as unwanted fishes are been tangle.
  • Demersal otter trawl- Large cone shape which is dragged near the seafloor, in these the fish get exhausted in these methods there are also discards like turtles.
  • Dredging- It’s a metal frame basket, which catches the fishes.
  • Pelagic pair trawl- The net gets suspended in the water, some fishes like dolphin while feeding on the same fishes are been cached getting the dolphin in the net.
  • Drift net- It’s a biggest net up to 2.5 kilometers in its size, huge amount of fishes are been caught in which making the it difficult to maintain the reproduction cycle of fish.

These types of unsustainable methods of catching the fish can lead to make the ocean fish life more in danger.

Economic & Food Needs

According to site (The World Bank, 2018) we see that, ocean contributes $1.5 trillion to the overall economy around 10 to 12 percentage of population depends on fishery. In 2014, total fishing was 167 million tones, which generated of US$148 billion. The demand for the fishes is been increasing its important to maintain the balance in the ecosystem and looking at the demand of the fish its hard for ocean to replace it again. The economic important of tuna fish is big; it’s the main food for many people. Tuna is been possessed for canned food, and also eaten raw or fresh as the fish flesh is of good quality relating it to other fish species (Reddy, M. 2007).    

Image 3. Dependency of peoples on ocean for fishes or fishery (From WWF global, 2017)

Government support

The worldwide amount of subsidies to the fishing sector is nearly $30 billion per year, much higher than the previous estimate used by the World Bank (Jeremy, Jackson, Karen, & Enric, 2011)

In the world there are many countries were subsides are provided on fishing equipment’s, which leads to unprofitable fishing and then overfishing is also done. According to site (Nereus program, 2016) we see that total world expenditure on giving the subsides to fishery accounts $35 billion yearly. Top subsiding countries are Japan, China and United States of America. Subsides are even given on fuels in terms of tax break which almost half, here the fisher have will use the source efficiently which will ultimately leads to overfishing. Subsides may support the fish industries but not the sustainability of fish stocks.

Image 4. Global fishery subsides. (From Lindsay, 2016)

Open access nature

According to site (Investopedia, n.d.) we see that open access resources are the resources that provide users the tangible benefits. The major concern with common access resource is its overuse due to poor management system to protect particular source.

Human’s impact on ocean

According to site (Marine science, 2006) we see that humans have a big impact on oceans and the marine life in it, as ocean is a open access source or comes under commons it have cause a big problem in all.

According to site (Ocean health index, n.d.) we see that around eight million metric tones of plastic enter the ocean each year, which can cause the seviour damage for ocean animals. Floating material can attract the sea animal and by consuming it can get die.

Oil spills in ocean it’s a big problem for marine animals. According to site (National ocean service, 2018) we see that oil spills can affect fish in different manners like reduction in growth, change in respiration rate, reproduction impairment etc.   

Relies of chemical in ocean, which includes harmful pesticides, which get in ocean by runoff by agriculture. It is estimated that around 1.5 million tons of DDT was been used worldwide in the year 1940s to 1970s which has an adverse effect on the marine animals (Richard, 2010) 

Ocean acidification is the big issue related to ocean the decrease in the pH level of ocean, which is caused by the uptake of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (Davor & Peter, 2011)

Strategies to sustainable ocean fishery

 

There are different strategies that can help to conserve marine animals, they are as follows –

Enforcement of laws and rules against illegal or overfishing, it’s much important to ensure effective steps, which will support to maintain the effective balance of marine animals. Europe is a world biggest importer and it can’t tolerate illegal fishing, they have making sure to take actions against illegal fishing (Enrico, 2015)

Developing protected marine areas.

Marine Protected Area (MPA) is the area in the ocean were government have the full control over ocean and in that are human activities are restricted  (Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries Staff, 1999) According to site (National geographic, n.d.) we see that the main reasons to establish these MPA is to conserve the natural resource and the species of fish, which in endanger. There are around 5000 MPA in the world, covering 0.8 percent of area in total Ocean. According to government site (Foreign affaires & trade, 2016) we see that New Zealand contains worlds largest marine protected areas (MPA), which is fully protected.  

Image 5. Marine protected area of Ross Sea in New Zealand. (From Foreign affaires & trade, 2016)

Image 6. Marine protected areas increased from year 1990 to 2014 (From Pirlea, 2016)

Aquaculture

Today’s world is been advanced in its technology and aquaculture is one of the efficient innovations to do fish farming, with the increase in population every year the pressure on the ocean resources is too much. The experts in the field say that half the world’s wild caught fisheries are fully exploited (Jean, 2014). Aquaculture have increased now days and now accounts more than a half than the seafood production (Pirlea, 2016)

This chart shows the effects and outcome of aquaculture faming in an effective way.

Image 7. Increased in aquaculture production comparing it with ocean fishery (Pirlea, 2016)

Effective governance

Local authority or local government of each country is important, as the people they represent, plays an important role in managing the ocean resource effectively. There are different types of groups that can be related to ocean fishery such as indigenous people, Non governmental organization (NGOs), workers and there trade union, Business and industry, farmers, Scientists and technology community’s. All these groups are linked with ocean fisheries. The proper management of ocean fishery in sustainable way is only possible by the mutual and proper understanding with each of the different groups, all these lead to effective governance (Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Sustainable Development, 1999)

Image 8. Effective governance for sustainable ocean fishery (From North pacific seafood, n.d.)

 

 

 

 

Ostrom’s principles

These is the third option besides, private ownership or government management that can help in conserving the common pool resources effectively by the people, community etc (Jeremy, 2018) The eight principles which the Ostrom have made to help to sustain or manage CPRs, which are as follows (Sirak, Alice, John, & Maria, 2017)

  • Defined boundaries.
  • Proper agreement between the local communities.
  • Collective choice agreement.
  • Proper monitoring.
  • Graduated sanction.
  • Conflicts resolution.
  • Less recognition of right
  • Nested enterprise.

According to Ostrom these principals should be followed in common pool resources for proper benefits to each individuals in more sustainable way.  

 

Conclusion

Ocean or marine ecosystem is big and complex due its big area, which will requires governance and institutional arrangement that can work effectively and should be multiscale. Common pool resource or open accesses resource are important for each countries in terms of economic growth and it’s a natural capital of that country. Its possible to keep the ocean ecosystem in a balanced condition by applying proper management practices like many of the international countries like USA, New Zealand etc. are have strict and effective law to conserve ocean resource in a effective manner and which will help in economic growth and development of each of the individual country. At present there is overexploitation of ocean resource due to improper management by the fishers in which there are lots of by catch, overfishing for extra margin etc. There two main sources, which can help in improving the ocean fishery in proper, way that is making effective policy, proper guideline for fisher man stating them effective fishery management in a sustainable way and also following of Ostroms principal by the local communities to conserve the resources, its more like the co- management were government and the public will help in managing the resource in a sustainable way.

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