Our world is shrinking gradually from last couple of centuries due to globalization which is defined, as per my understanding, as a type of relationship or rapport build amongst the different countries due to exchange of goods and other technologies. Both developing and the developed countries have been satisfying their needs in terms of globalization.
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But this increasing pattern of globalization has also put forth consequent effects on our ecosystem. Countries become more industrialized and increased the production of their goods in order to overcome to demand. These industries in turn emitted various green house gases, which acted as a major contributor in the climate change. It is been assumed that this change in climate is due to human activities, hence alerted everyone and made it a global issue. The even composition of the atmosphere is altering due to the emission of tones of GHG (green house gases) through various activities like production, transportation, agriculture and consumer practices. Our atmosphere is gradually warming due to the accumulation of these gases. The impact of this climatic change can cause increase in drought conditions, floods are taking place frequently, also rising sea-levels and extreme temperatures are experienced.
Globalization and environment are intriguely interconnected. Apart from the consequent effect of globalization onto the climate, it also has some positive impact. In order to develop the awareness of this global treat, industrialized countries should limit their GHG emission level. Governments, industries and individuals in industries nations have collectively begun continual steps of actions to reduce the emission of green house gases. But still it has to be quantified that this dramatic change in climate and increase in the rate of global warming is due to globalization that is transportation of goods around the world and the trade agreement such as Multilateral Agreement on Investment has restricted the capacity of countries to widen the environmental regulations.
In my opinion, all the countries are linking with each other for the further exploitation of the resources and that is what I think makes this globalization to acquire its standing at the very first place. Resources are limited and are restricted to country specific, for an instance Asian countries are rich in human resources where as countries like South Africa, Australia, New Zealand are rich in mineral resources. So as a whole, countries do complement each other globally.
As mentioned above that there is limited resources so it would be wise to use these resources intelligently within the balance of the nature and environment, as over exploitation of resources may cause to extinction of the resources for further use, which can be seen with the oil resources. Therefore proper balance of globalization and environment is required. Due to lack of knowledge of environmental issues and its impact on climate due to various reasons like increase in greenhouse gas emissions, clearing of the forest lands, loss of agricultural lands etc are affecting the climate globally in one way or other.
Eventually globalization and its effects on climate have gained priority and consideration is given to spread the awareness and the knowledge considering the environmental issues also. Government and non-government institutions and bodies are participating actively to regulate the factors affecting it. In my opinion concern about the climate is for real and steps has to be taken to apply these regulations to keep a check for a healthy living within the reasonable limits and causing minimum damage to the environment.
ANNOTATION – 1
Journal of World-System Research: Globalization and the Environment
This paper mentions about the impact of globalization to the environment, also it explains the factors affecting the climate change. It can be understood that major constituent of the greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide and it is believed that carbon dioxide is altering the global climate. Therefore this article explains the applied world-system theory to environmental damage. Hence it is an interesting fact that carbon dioxide intensity released in the environment is the measurement of the economic output.
As stated above there is a strong correlation between the total economic outputs of any nation to their carbon dioxide emission. As it has been understood that the developed countries pollute more as compared to developing countries and under developed countries whose contribution to polluting the environment and adding the amount of carbon dioxide to the environment is insignificant. This also concludes that the economic growth and energy consumptions are also directly related. The more energy you consumed the more resources it requires to generate the energy to meet the ever increasing needs and hence adding more pollution to the environment in the form of various dangerous, poisonous gases, and other pollutants getting released directly into the environment.
So developed countries and developing countries are contributing majorly to this shift in climate. These deviations from general trend shows that the generation of these greenhouse gases is not solely from technologies but the human intentions also plays an important part. Moreover companies are much more interested in producing wealth at the cost of the environment. Harming the environment means causing climate change and also compromising with the safer and better habitat that environment is providing us. The globalization acts as a fuel to speed up this process of exploiting the environment.
Though government is becoming concerned and enforcing laws to take control of this over exploitation of the resources and release of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, as now the direct impacts of this negligence can be seen even though these impacts took decades to appear but now it is appearing at the rapid rate and causing everyone to draw their attention. It took 30,000 – 40,000 years to raise the temperature of the atmosphere to few degrees but now because of the globalization and industrialization temperature has risen to couple of degrees in last few decades. Exploitation of the natural resources has led to the depletion in the natural resources. Climate has changed now natural disaster occurs more often which used to occur rarely including cyclones, hurricanes, and earthquakes.
The paper also concludes that globalization is an inevitable function therefore it has to be accepted that is will have both the faces that both good and bad. So now it is not only government’s responsibility to keep a check on the issues that are going on along with the globalization which in turn affecting the environment but also it is the responsibility of each and every individual to check upon their own actions which further adds to the polluting the atmosphere and the environment and hence choosing the path of worsening the climate conditions as well as causing harm to their own life in a long run. Though it is also necessary for the government to keep an eye on the companies and corporations who are trying to either break the law or trying to bend it for their own benefits without giving any considerations to the fact that how adverse effects it might bring to the environment and on the society.
ANNOTATION – 2
Double exposure: assessing the impacts of climate change within the context of economic globalization.
The paper discuss about the two global processes, climate change and globalization. It explains that the major cause of climate change is because of the greenhouse gas emissions and the rapid change in climate is the result of the on-going process of economic globalization. According to it TNCs are major contributors of greenhouse gas emissions globally. It segregated the results into winners and losers and stated that winners will be those countries, regions or social groups, which will be benefited by the change in climate and or globalization and losers will be those who will be adversely affected by it. However a win refers to the improvement in the economics performance, measured by gross domestic product (GDP) and foreign direct investment (FDI).
While discussing about the wins and loss, a message could be clearly understood this indicates that the process of GHG will continue and will keep on worsening the condition until some serious measures are adopted to control such activities which are unleashed. The change in climate reveals the fact that sooner or later everyone is going to be affected. There will be areas which will be face the cooler temperature under the global warming but there will be other areas which receive the extreme rise in temperature. It explains that climate change, environment and greenhouse gases are interconnected. The topic discussed in this article was quite interesting and supportive to make me realize that how globalization is co-related to global inequality and how the climate change makes the situation worse.
The paper explains that how people from developed countries contribute more towards the greenhouse emission as compared to underdeveloped countries. It explains that the major pollutant in the greenhouse gases is the carbon-di-oxide, which gets trapped in the environment and in turn absorbs the heat from the sunlight and prevents it from escaping the environment, though previously it used to occur naturally and comparatively it was low. But now it happens because of the industrialization and also because of other globalization factors and is comparatively way too high as anticipated.
As the climate change is taken into account both the biophysical and social vulnerabilities are considered. Though this globalization is not equally distributed but affect it is casting will have impact on everyone. Globalization has its positive effects but along comes it negativities. Both globalization and climate changes can be co-related as both of it are happening simultaneously. Since natural ecosystem is considered susceptible to climate change may also be affected by the globalization.
Since it is not possible to stop or pause the ongoing development and since global economy and climate change are inter related therefore there is an urgent need for implication of development strategies along with the policies to make the development sustainable also by abiding the regulations, which might bring the win-win situation for everyone.
ANNOTATION – 3
Fueling Injustice: Globalization, Ecologically Unequal Exchange and Climate change
This annotation provides the fact that the globalization is causing unequal contribution of GHGs emission from various part of the planets but all of them are suffering from equal dramatic change of climate even though they have very less or no contribution at all. It is also been observed from the previous annotations that the main cause of the environmental pollution and that of the climate change is from the emissions of the greenhouse gases which is mainly constituted from the developed and developing countries. But the question arises that who is really most responsible for the occurrence of this problem and who is really going to address these problems and whether people responsible for the occurrence for this climate change issue are really suffering or is it the people who have no contribution to it are dealing with problems caused by the others.
The paper also reveals a new and relatively under-utilized theory of ‘ecologically unequal exchange’ and therefore applies it to the case of globalization and climate change. It explains the four unique principles that have been projected to consign accountability for carbon emissions. It also suggests combining hybrid proposals with environmental aid packages that help poorer nations shift from carbon-intensive pathways of development to more climate-friendly development paths. In the context of deadlock over a completely inadequate Kyoto Protocol, it also argue that fairness principles, climate science, and an understanding of globalization and development must be integrated.
It also explains that climate change crisis caused by the globalization fundamentally depends upon the mutual acceptability and understanding that what deed is right and what is wrong, what actions are causing damage to the environment, which is completely irreversible and which way they are closing the doors for the next generation to use the similar resources. But it seems incorrect to stop countries from developing when they think that they are entitled to go for the cheap economic growth using the fossil fuel and other natural resources when the other developed and wealthy nations have done the same. Stopping them from opting such path would result in the argument of injustice when the other developed countries have done the same at their own early stage of development.
Therefore the paper explains that how complicated the matter of globalization and its effect on climate has become. Someone has to take the initiative but the question arises who? No nation would like to compromise their development and no other nation has the right to stop any other nation from progressing. Therefore it then falls into the hands of the government to make some policies ruling the causes for excessive emissions of GHGs and other factors affecting the environment. As it does not seems reasonable to put the natural resources and nature at stake for the sake of development. So it becomes important to make corporations understand about their social responsibilities and as how they could minimize the factors affecting the environment.
The paper suggests the implication of the hybrid proposals which sounds to be most promising and in favour of everyone. It also suggest that constructive partnership between the developing countries over the various issues can create a better understanding and sense of responsibility for their actions for development. Moreover it will make the situation better for both the nations as well as for the natural environment.
ANNOTATION – 4
Impacts of Climate Change on Marine Organisms and Ecosystems
As discussed in the above annotation the effect of globalization on the environment is having adverse effect on the atmosphere and hence causing climate change. The earth’s climate has begins to shift into a hotter and less predictable period. This is also causing the rising level of water in the oceans but it is more important to notice the fact that globalization is not only polluting the atmospheric air but also the other resources. Human activities are pouring tones of carbon to the atmosphere. It is the direct consequences of the cumulative post-industrial emissions.
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This paper also reveals the fact that due to globalization we have now pollutants getting released to the ocean water which in turn resulting in the acidifying ocean. It is know that atmospheric cycle causes the rainfall which is the result of evaporated ocean water but with the acidified water now acid rain is taking place moreover depleting nutrient loads and altered ocean circulation. Scarcity of fresh water is increasing and which can be readily be seen globally. These constituents are adversely affecting the entire ecosystem. Although these effects cant be seen directly but results have started appearing. Lands are turning into barren lands, ground water levels are dropping, increased pollution level decreasing the productivity, extensive use of fertilizers and chemicals to increase the production level raising the alarm for food securities. The figure 1 explains the rise in temperature of the marine surface and it can be clearly noticed from the figure that last couple of decades there is a abrupt change in the surface temperature due to the intense globalization activities.
Figure1. Annual and smoothed combined global land and marine surface temperature anomaly (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/info/warming/)
Figure2. Ocean surface pH calculated from CO2[atm].
The figure 2 above shows that how the acidic level of the ocean water is rising from 1960 to year 2000 there is a steep decline in the pH level. The paper explains that there is a direct relationship between carbon dioxide and ocean pH, as the carbon dioxide level increases, pH drops increasing the acidic nature of water. It also explains that over past 200 years, the ocean have absorbed almost half of the anthropogenically-generated CO2, but the current rate is nearly 1 million tones of CO2 per hours which is makes it 100 times as rapid as at any time over the past hundreds of millennium.
Considering the present situation it could be understood that how globalization is not only affecting the atmosphere but also responsible for the pollution of the ocean and other water resources and thus affecting the marine organism and ecosystem. This is again directly related to the environmental hazards and affects the climate in one way or other. Hence explains that immediate reduction in the CO2 emission is essential for minimizing the future human provoked climate change. And this would further require the policy makers to draw their attention towards the factors mentioned and to come up with a response plan for the safety of the environment.
ANNOTATION – 5
Globalization and Climate Change
The paper provides many environmental impacts of economic globalization: TNCs moving their operations to the other developing countries so as to cut the cost as well as to avoid the implications of the stricter environmental regulations of their own country where they were having their operations. The issue of climate change with the globalization is one that is predominantly interesting because it comprises various ecological, social, economic, political and ethical aspects.
Now considering the fact that climate change is an issue recognized globally. The atmospheric composition surrounding the planet is varying, which is the result of the emissions of tones of polluting gases (greenhouse gases) GHGs which is again the output from the industries, agriculture, transportations and also the consumer practices. With the increase in the volume and the intensity of the gases, the climate is changing resulting in the gradual increase in the temperature and hence warming up of the planet. The planet as a whole will be affected by the climatic changes and consequences, which are predicted example severe droughts and frequent floods, rising sea-levels, extreme and harsh temperatures, depletion of the ozone layers, radiation effects etc.
Issues have been raised after the awareness of the consequences not only locally but also globally as every individual is responsible for their part of contribution in polluting the environment. The countries around the world are willing to cooperate in the negotiation of treaties, so that this global problem could be addressed. Intensive discussions over an 18-month period before the 1992 Rio Earth Summit led to the adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Negotiations continued subsequently for the further development of agreement so that there could be more specific reduction in the GHG emission could be targeted for industrialised developed and developing countries.
Since it has been understood that change in climate change is a global problem and people are also responsible for it. Also the industrialized nations, represents less than 20% of the world’s population, but they do account for nearly 90% of annual greenhouse gas emissions over the last century, and mostly through the burning of fossil fuels. So when the UN Climate Change Convention at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 was signed, the industrialized countries dedicated themselves not only reduce their emission levels but also to reach the efficiency levels though which they could generate more output with the same about of resources and emitting considerably less amount of GHGs.
Due to globalization and increase in demand in import and export the emission levels from industrialized countries are rising rapidly as they pursue economic development to meet the fundamental needs of their community. This globalization points to one of the vital ethical scope of the climate change issue in the perspective of the global community. It is of great importance that now we must make a division among the emission for luxury that is for the fulfillment of the leisure activities and emission for the survival that is for the fulfillment of the basic day to day necessities. As there is a great difference between the lifestyles of the people in industrialized countries from the people living in the third world countries. Thus people living in the industrialized countries are responsible for disturbing the atmospheric balance and intimidating the world with main climatic disturbances. Therefore I believe that most of the solutions to these globalization problems lie at the level of local, regional, national and international decision-making.
In developed and developing industrialized countries, there is a wide scope for the improvements as steps could be taken to increase awareness for the conservation and energy efficiency hence significantly reducing the amount of GHGs which is resulted from the use of the fossil fuels. Advanced technologies do exists and because of the globalization these technologies could be exported to the other developing countries, which do not posses such technologies for the efficient use of electricity with increased efficiency, automobiles and for other technological developments. Also renewable energy sources are gaining popularity which does not affect the damage the environment and hence does not contribute to climate change; instead it is one of the outcomes of the globalization which is making it more economically viable.
The paper also concludes that this kind of efficiency revolution is not only necessary but also needed as the part of the sustainability and the long-term solution but it will not be sufficient. Within industrialized societies, it is also needed to realize that what would be adequate for a healthy and quality of life. I have realized that there is a growing awareness and that an ever ever-increasing level of material utilization is not adding to an enhanced value of life anymore. Governments, corporations, industries, societies, families and individuals in industrialized countries would have to make mindful choices to move in the right directions to achieve greater efficiency and quality and also acceptance of limits of sufficiency which would surely result in considerable reductions in energy use and hence lower greenhouse gas emission levels ultimately result in preserving the environment and preventing dramatic changes in the climate.
Climate and the variation in climate have direct effect of the environment which in turn influences the human life and their life style accordingly. The way we live is directly related to the environment we are living in and which is again directly related to the climate which is affecting it. Change in climate greatly change the way we live. For an instance the people living in dense rainfall area live their lives differently from the people living in area where rainfall is very scarce. Hence the way globalization affects the climate is very critical for the people who gets affected in return from the change in living conditions. Hence the picture is very clear that anything that is affecting the climate has a global effect as the climate and environment is not enjoyed by any single individual rather it is shared by everyone whether it is locally, nationally or internationally.
It is been tried to elucidate the various proportions of the globalization. Globalization in simple words can be explained as the process through which economies, cultures, societies, environment, technologies, trade and politics become integrated through a global network via transportation, communication and trade. But at all time times environment plays an important part in globalizing the world into one and climate change in one of its key factors. Change in climate can have adverse effect not only in our food chain but also in our way of living life. Hence it is of critical importance to have the knowledge of factors affecting the climate and it is also important to understand that ignoring such factors will have adverse effect sooner or later.
Now globalization process has become unavoidable, therefore it has to be continued for the progress and well being of the people, societies, cultures, nations and companies. But just like every other things even globalization has both its positive and negative aspects. Therefore the primary endeavor is to bring out the positivity of the globalizations and to always keep a check on its negative aspect by enforcing rules, regulations and policies wherever possible. Though with the increase in the competition it has become very difficult to regulate effects affecting the environment and climate. But everyone has to understand their social responsibilities. Everyone has to understand that exploiting the environment is not going to improve their life rather because of their actions everyone has to suffer. Hence it is very important to set an example for others by not only improving the life for everyone and taking the due responsibilities of environment and the factors affecting the change in climate.
Globalization is also one of the major factors in the increase of the GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions. GHG emissions have risen dramatically with the industrial revolution also with the increase in the competition. It has also been noticed that developing contributes majorly to GHG emissions and also in polluting water and land. All these development is basically dependant on the natural resources available and by exploiting these resources will result in the depletion in the natural resource stocks which will in turn bring down the living standard and will increase the cost of living. Therefore care has to be taken to use these resources carefully and also taking care that no damage or least possible damage is been done to the environment which balances that nature and climate.
The major concern which is affecting the environment and causing the change in climate is the increase in the considerable amount in the pollution from various different sources. Globalization has caused increased competition therefore industries are producing more and more number of products and releasing huge amount of poisonous gases. Then the transportation is next in the queue which adding more and more amount of CO2 in the environment. CO2 is one of the major components of the greenhouse gases which helps in trapping the heat from sunlight and prevents it from escaping the earth’s atmosphere thus raising the temperature. But before globalization emission of CO2 remained the major concern for environmentalists either as a global warming or as a global cooling. Therefore it requires new technologies which would help in minimizing the carbon emission by increasing the output of the process and making it less pollutant.
The environmental damage causing climate change is the result of the constant exploitation resources, which caused irreversible changes to the environment and also due to constantly neglecting the consequences that will be brought by the environment. Climate change does not only means rising temperature but also resulting in other affects such as melting ice, change in a particular ocean current and or weather system, oxygen depletion and also accounts for the acid rain, which directly or indirectly enlightens its effect globally.
Climate change is not only affects lives by causing flood, drought and severe fluctuations in the temperatures but also it has some adverse effects which affects the food supply and also cause health related issues. As climate change greatly affect the agriculture and food production associated with it across the world. Decrease in rainfall and increase in weeds, pests and pathogens results in low yielding crops is enough to create global crises in the food production. Also exposure to climate change through changing weather conditions causes changes in ecosystems, agriculture and industries, thus affecting the health of the human beings. Change in climate causes new infectious diseases, increased in the heatwave related deaths, and causing many other problems.
To conclude, globalization is a mix of both good and bad effects. Even though there are negative effects attached to the globalization but at the same time its positive side and benefits from it cannot be ignored. And it should also be considered that through globalization the awareness for environmental issues, climate change and exploitation of natural resources were brought in consideration. Globalization has helped human being to receive quality education and progress. It also helped the nations to come together over the serious issues and help each other by forwarding global policies and protocols that will in turn preserve the environment and will help to revive it, which has been continuously exploited by us for decades.
Globalization also helps in the invention of new technologies which will help to use our limited resources in a very efficient way. It is not possible to stop the development we are going through but it would be wise to preserve the environment and the resources and also to maximize the positivity of the globalization and regulating the negativity so that it has the lease possible impact.
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