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This research paper explores about waste management and effects of improper waste disposal. This paper defines and elaborates the importance of having waste hierarchy or the 3R's (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) as the concept of waste management. In the resource article, they define waste management as recycling and monitoring of waste products. In other resources, they have the same definition. It also tells about the proper way of doing of waste hierarchy by giving examples. Different types and forms of waste are indicated in this paper. According to some articles that were read, human activities are the main cause of the calamity in our country. Ignorance of people brought large amount of garbage to our place. And since effects of improper waste management is the main topic, it gave emphasize to those effects according to the resource articles. Effects to humans and environment are cited in this paper. Proper waste management is not just doings of government for us but we are also assigned to do it inside and outside our place for our safety. Each and every one of us must have sense of responsibility in terms of garbage disposal to prevent any disaster that might come.
Waste Management refers to the recycling, processing, transport, assortment, and monitoring of waste products. The waste products are mainly of three types: solid, liquid or in gas state. Solid waste is known as non-biodegradable waste
Materials and discards that come from sources like:
Businesses and Commercial establishments
Manufacturers or Industrial sites
Biomedical sources like hospital and clinics.
For Example: plastics, Styrofoam containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash Solid wastes are generally composed or made of non-biodegradable and non-compostable Biodegradable materials.
What is Pollution Caused by Solid Waste?
Solid waste pollution caused when the environment is filled with non- biodegradable and Non- compostable biodegradable waste that is capable of emitting greenhouse gases, toxic fumes, and particulate matters as they accumulate in open landfills. These waste are also capable of leaching organic or chemical compositions to contaminate the ground where such waste lay in accumulation.
Solid wastes thrown in streets, highways, and waterways can cause pollution when they are carried off by rainwater run-offs or by flood water to the main streams or drainage, as they contaminating residues will reach larger bodies of water. Liquid waste is waste in liquid form.
For example: Domestic washing, chemicals, oils, waste water ponds, manufacturing industries, hospital waste, agricultural waste, nuclear waste and other resources.
What Is Pollution Caused by Liquid Waste?
Cause by flows out as waste waters from the toilets, kitchens and bathrooms of residential houses, toilets and canteens of commercial establishments. Such wastewater is termed as sewage. (Pongrácz, 2002)
Concepts of waste management
Human activities also donate to increase the waste. Different process are used to handle each state. There are lots of concepts about waste management which differ in their usage as per the varying regions or countries. Some of the widely used concepts include waste hierarchy: reduce, reuse, and recycle.
II. STATISTICS OF WASTE PER DAY
According to MMDA Chairman Francis Tolentino, they have collected over 1,000 tons of garbage in just 4 days. They have dredged 1,200 tons of garbage from the eight creeks that scope of their flood control management. The highest volume of garbage according to them came from Pinagsabugan and Longos creeks in Malabon. It's about 76 over 173 truckloads of waste. Imagine the volume of garbage in just only eight creeks. How about the total of volume of waste in the Philippines? In just statistics, we can see what calamity it can cause when these garbage are not being collected.
III. FORMS OF WASTE
There are two forms of Garbage: Bio-degradable and Non- Biodegradable.
Biodegradable is known as materials that decompose through by of bacteria, fungi, and other living organisms. In everyday living substances that are biodegradable or can be degraded include food refuse, dried leaves, grass clippings, woods, animal, human flesh and others.
Non-Biodegradable is materials that do not decompose or cannot be degraded for so many years. This form of garbage is the main reason of the clogging of drainage. Waste Hierarchy is the only way to avoid these: reduce, reuse, and recycle. Common examples of non-biodegradable garbage are plastics, bottles, old machine, cans, Styrofoam containers and others. Most plastics are made of petroleum-based, meaning they are made from oil and other petroleum substances. Until recently, plastics have been non-biodegradable.
IV. SEGREGATION OF WASTE
Segregation is specifically separation of garbage according to their groups. It is easily for them to manage the recycling process of the garbage. This way the waste hierarchy is needed, the 3R's (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle).
The first R is reducing. Waste reduction is "conservation"- using natural resources in right manner, and using things less than they usually do to avoid large amount of waste in future. They can practice reduction of waste through buying products that do not need to be added to waste stream in general. They can start making wise package selection.
Second R is for reusing. They can reuse materials from their original form rather than throw it. They may not cost much to replace, but at least, number of waste will be decreased. Instead of buying new durable materials (washing machine, dryers, refrigerator, etc.) when the old one breaks or damaged, why not repair? Or maybe they can give it to those who can use it. Most of the times the item can be repair by those people. That is also form of reusing. New is not always better, nor it is always necessary. They can save money and they will be helping their environment.
Last R stands for recycling. Do not just toss everything in the trash. Lots of things such as cans, bottles, paper, and cardboard can be remade into either the same kind of thing or even new products. Making new items from recycled ones also takes less energy and fewer resources than making products from brand new materials. There is nothing wrong with it. Recycling is not impossible. In fact, it is very easy to do. Do not throw anything that can be recycled. Here is a list of things you may be able to recycle:
Glass (particularly bottles and jars)
Glass (particularly bottles and jars)
Grocery's Plastic Bags
Damaged or corroded roof
Old toys (you can donate it)
Scrap wood or furniture
They can use their imaginations in order to create new usable materials. There is so much we can do with every little effort. And most important, we can save ourselves and a lot of money when we are at it.
Determine the things that must be reduced, keep those can be reuse, and set aside those can be recycled. In that case, we can avoid so many disasters that might come.
Contributing causes of improper waste management are:
Ignorance: Ignorance of people about proper waste disposal. People are unaware of consequence of their unwise acts.
Laziness: Can cause improper garbage disposal because People not following the correct rules of proper waste disposal their always throw it what place they want and they have no care what will be the effect of it.
Greed: Can cause improper garbage disposal for example burning of tires of wheel and plastic instead of keeping it or trade the excess automobile car tires to maximize on it.
VI. EFFECTS OF IMPROPER WASTE DISPOSAL
Affects our health
Like lung diseases, Heart problems, skin irritation, problem or abnormality in breathing and more.
Affects our coastal and marine environment
Hazardous waste, if dumped into the environment, leeches into the ground - and the ground water. The ground water is used for lots of things you may not realize, like watering the local fields, which grow the food people eat. And worst part is most communities get their drinking water from down there, too. Like in marine environment improper waste disposal can affect too like floating of contaminated killed fish in the sea and due to excessive excretion of the sea can be infested by mosquitoes that may scattered to numerous diseases in humans and can cause death of hundreds of people living near it like Manila bay.
Affects our climate
As some waste decomposes, it releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Like trapping of heat on earth that may effect of abnormality of weather condition like more storm or typhoon coming per year is happening until now. The earth is suffering it already.
The open burning of waste causes air pollution or greenhouse effect. For example burning of rubber and plastic.
Landfill gas (which is produced by the decomposition of wastes) which can be explosive and may harm people around on it if it is allowed to accumulate in confined spaces (such as the cellars of buildings).
Methane gas (one of the main components of landfill gas) is much more effective than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas, leading to climate change that may effect of destruction of atmosphere of the earth or abnormality of weather condition.
Fires on disposal sites can cause major air pollution, causing illness like cancer and reducing visibility or may lead in eye irritating thus making disposal sites dangerously unstable. May cause explosions of cans, and possibly spreading to adjacent properties.
Soil contamination is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals, the softness of the ground, having smelly soil vapor and other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the leaching of wastes from landfills or incorrect disposal of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals.
Human Health Impacts
The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste includes the population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method or no proper disposal area, especially the pre-school children; waste workers; and workers in facilities producing toxic and infectious material. Other high-risk group includes population living close to a waste dump and those, whose water supply has become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill sites.
Infections to humans
Skin irritations and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste, and transmitting bacteria from waste to infected wounds.
Eye irritations and respiratory malfunctions resulting from exposure to infected dust, especially during the process of disposing garbage.
Pest and Insects that carry bacteria comes from dirty waste:
a. Flies breed in some constituents of solid wastes, and flies are very effective vectors that can spread disease to humans.
b. Mosquitoes breed in blocked drains and in rainwater or dirty sea's that is retained in discarded tires, cans and other objects. Mosquitoes spread disease, including malaria and dengue that killed thousands of people in every year.
c. Rats find shelter and food in waste dumps and canals. Rats consume and spoil food and can damage the crops of farmers or crops of people that have business on it, spread disease, damage electrical cables and other materials and inflict unpleasant bites to humans.
It is very sad to know that many lives have been sacrificed because of these calamities that have come. Many places in the Philippines are down to flood every time when typhoon comes. And worst, a large number of families have lost their shelters and have nothing left for them. Their wealth was ruined by those storms, floods, etc. We are experiencing very hot weather because of greenhouse effect and global warming. Many kinds of diseases occur because of untidy surroundings. Others can no longer smell the breath of fresh air. All of these are the effects of improper waste management. There are still many of them actually. Imagine a single piece of candy wrapper can cause a flood to a certain area when you throw it anywhere and others do it also. One car can cause air pollution for it emits smoke. A single lighted cigarette also will do. Dynamite fishing can not only kill fish and corals, but also those who will eat it because of the chemical came from the dynamite they used. These are all cause by human activities. And now they are asking themselves why it is happening to them? Others have the guts to accuse our government for poor response. How pathetic! Yes, our government has their own failures but they are not only the one to blame. Ask yourself first how much waste you throw anywhere you want before blaming others. Only immature people will think that they are innocent on what is happening to our country in terms of improper waste management.
Proper waste management can be successfully done not only by the program of the government. We can also do it inside and outside our place. If we know how to use it by the concept of waste hierarchy, fewer problems will be encountered. Stop barking at the people and do our thing first. The cleanliness and orderliness of our country is in the hands of every Filipino. Let be our doings be the model of proper waste management.