Water pollution is the presence of any substances in water which can be harmful for plants and animals that live in water or people who use it. In other word it is the change in the chemical or physical properties of the water and this change can lead to cause damage and health hazards to animals and plants that live inside it or organisms that use it. (1)
Importance of the Nile River for Egypt
The Nile River is the primary water resource in Egypt, where it represents more than 95% of the total water resources in Egypt and it is the lifeline for Egypt and there are many reasons for its importance which are:
Egyptians depends on it to acquire fresh water to use it for various purposes such as drinking, cooking, cleaning and other household uses.
Use it for agriculture where fertile land formed around the Nile River and they irrigated by Nile River.
The Nile River is an important source of fish.
It is used in water transportation because it passes from south to north Egypt.
Industry in Egypt depends a lot on the waters of the Nile River.
Recently after the construction of the High Dam became the Nile River is an important source for generating electricity to Egypt. (2)
Causes of pollution
There are many sources of water pollution in Nile River.
Industry is an important user of water. In same time is an important producer of pollution. Water is very important in industry. Water demand for industry was 3.6 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year in 2000. And they expect to be 5.5 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year in 2017. So, when industry increases, the water demands increase.(1)
In the city, the water which used by people going down through various treatment processes to make it healthy as possible before release it back to environment. Treating water is help to minimize the negative effects of wastewater on the environment. However, some poor cities along Nile River cannot use treatment facilities which are expensive for them. The only way they can use it is dumped in the river without treated. (2)
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Statistics show that, all governments generate 3.5 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year of wastewater. Of these wastewater 1.6 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year receives treatment. In 2017, 1.7 Billion Cubic Meters BCM/year will receive treatment. Although the capacity will increase but it will not be able to covers all wastewater. As it is show in table (1) the number of people serves increase and number of people not served increase because increasing in population. (3)
So, it will not be able to decline the amount of wastewater that is not receiving treatment. (1)
Agriculture is larger consumer of water. And it is in same time contributed in water pollution. Runoff from the agricultural sector frequently contains pollutants that may have an adverse effect on the river. Pollutants such as salts, nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and pesticide residue can be found in this runoff. Agricultural runoff often is a â€œnon-pointâ€ pollutant, in that it can come from anywhere in a region, and not from a specific drain. This can make it difficult to There are also problems associated with agricultural runoff seeping into the groundwater as well. (2)
Effect of population
There are many effect of Nile river pollution. Some of these effects are:
The presence of oil on the surface of the river works as a buffer between the sun and the plants. This leads to death of fish and Lack of food for humans. In addition, that will decrease the number of fishermen â€œMany fishermen have either left their jobs altogether or migrated,â€ el-Fikky said. (3)
The solid waste thrown in the river hinder the movement of fishermen net and torn nets which reduces the amount of fish and increase the cost on the fishermen. Saed said he usually catches 2kg of fish a day that equal to US$165 a month, but over the past few months he has had an additional headache: his net needs replacing not every month as in the past but every few days, costing him up to $144 a month.
The Nile river is source for drinking but because it polluted by human that could cause a harmful effect on human and cause a dangerous diseases. Not only for people whose drink from it but also for people who eat fish or plant from it. (1)
Water pollution is a serious problem for the all world. And it is considered to be one of the most harmful problems affecting Egypt. The pollution of Nile River is increase especial in the past few decades.
Although the Egyptians love the Nile River a lot and it is important for them, not only in economic terms but it has a significant meaning for them. But this did not protect it from pollution.
In this report I will explain the meaning of water pollution. Then, I will take about the important of Nile River. After that, I will talk about causes of Nile River pollution which are industry wastewater, municipal wastewater and agriculture wastewater. Final, I will take about effect of Nile River pollution.
Water covers more than two thirds of the Earth’s surface; and the rest taken up by land. When the population are increase, the demand for water sources are increase. One of these fresh water resources is Nile River. As we know water is essential for life. No organism can live without it. Water pollution is problem effect human, animals and plants. And it caused by different resource. In these report I will try to find the main causes of water pollution in Nile River and the effect of that pollution.
In the summary, as you see all water pollution in Nile rive and in any place in the world created by human and then he try again to solve it what he already create. I advice all people to maintain the environment. And keep the water clean.
In conclusion, I learn from these report that human create problem. Then, it is adversely affecting our life. For that, I think that the maintain of the environment is a joint operation between all members of the community.
Faculty of Science
Department of Biology
Principles of Environmental Science
Done by: Shaikha Mohammed.
Instructor: Dr. Tarek Youssef.
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