Energy Crisis In Pakistan Environmental Sciences Essay

3580 words (14 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Environmental Sciences Reference this

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Pakistan has been facing an energy crisis since the last few years, which has seriously affected its people. The gap between demand and supply has been constantly widening. People are spending sleepless nights in summer. Shortage of power supply has assumed the role of a fundamental necessity, becoming a serious policy dilemma. It needs sustained efforts and long-term policies to overcome this crisis. Sincere effort is required to ensure sustained and consistent supply of energy. Pakistan is generating 48 percent of its electricity from gas, 33 percent from hydel, 17 percent from oil, two percent from nuclear and one percent from coal. If we examine the figures, it is clear that Pakistan is underutilizing its natural resources to generate electricity. The power crisis is proving to be unbearable day by day. The sad state of affairs is that despite having enormous renewable resources of energy, Pakistan has to import a huge amount of hydrocarbons from abroad to meet its energy needs. Pakistan, a country blessed with many natural resources for the past few years has been facing the problem of load-shedding due to the electricity demand being more then the production capacity of the national power grid. The first thing to do about it is to look at the recent power history of the country to get a better idea of how it was created and its many causes.

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In 1996 Pakistan had the ability to produce about 15000 Megawatts of electricity which was more then enough for our own needs and we had a surplus of power present in the country and talks were taking place with neighbouring countries in which we would export electricity to them. So considering that how is that after just 14 years later we have reached such a condition that we don’t even have enough power to meet our needs? The first and foremost issue is that the rulers since 1996 did not bother to make any new power projects and to add additional power to the natural grid. In 14 years our production capacity has increased by just 1000-2000 Megawatts which reflects poorly on us as a country and our leadership for not having the foresight to see this issue looming.

The other is that the country is rich in natural resources and we have not all invested in the alternative sources available to make our power generation . We have sun for the most part of the year in majority parts of the country and one alternative is to tap into the potential of solar power to produce energy since in it the cost of producing energy is very less as the biggest source (SUN) is free and using its heat wont cost anything.

The other alternative available to us is the wind source in which we can make wind mills or wind turbines and have power generated from them which will again be quite cheap as we are just using the energy of the wind costing nothing to use.

Since we generate about 40% of our total power by hydro electricity we can look at this source to produce power as well. It has a start up cost and after that producing electricity from it is very cheap aswell since we are just using the water to produce electricity. This might not be the best choice for us since in winter when the water supply gets low then we wont be able to produce electricity by it and which can lead to a power shortage.

Nuclear Reactors are another option available for us to produce electricity by using them but its not very advisable for us since they have a very high building cost and generating that much capital to make a lot of nuclear power plants will be almost impossible for a developing country like us which already has a shortage of funds and capital. But having a little of our total production by nuclear power can be seen as a good thing.

Most of our electricity is produced by thermal power plants which burn oil or gas and then produce electricity. Since the country is deficient in oil resources we import oil for this purpose and pay a heavy import bill for the oil. The intelligent thing is to move away from the power production from oil and gas since the raw material necessary for the functioning of the power plant is so expensive to get. And seeing the gas crisis in the country currently with a gas shortage predicted to worsen in the coming years we should start moving away from the gas power plants as well and use our gas for more important purposes.

We have one of the largest coal deposits in the world in Tharparkar Desert, Sindh so why we have not started utilizing that remains a mystery. The power generation in the thermal power plants can be switched to coal (which is present in a very large quantity locally) and extracted from Tharparkar to meet the demand of the country in the power sector. By doing all this we can save a lot of money for the country and use it in other sectors. End our dependence on expensive foreign oil and become self-reliant on the coal and then consequently the power sector. Now the real question which comes to mind is that were the people in the government sleeping for the past 14 years? Did they not realize that the power needs of the country would increase? (which has increased by about 500 megawatts annually) and so for that they needed to make sure that some power projects were launched ensure the country didn’t face this power problem?

There’s no use in crying over spilt milk so talking about should have happened won’t change anything. But now we should look towards the future and talk about instead of what we HAVE TO DO to end the power crisis.

Now Looking into the administrative causes of the energy crisis, lack of proper planning is the most important. Lack of proper conservation methods is another cause of the energy crisis. Energy sector of Pakistan is considered to be under-developed; It is because of our poor management and planning System, with untapped potential for development growth of the Pakistan. Now we will highlight how energy consumption is in the Pakistan and were our energy is consuming.

Here we are dividing it in the 5 sectors those are consuming our energy of the Pakistan and how much their consuming percentage. Our some government sectors and some big Industrial sectors are wasting our energy because they consume it but they do not pay its dues So there for our Country Pakistan is facing the Energy crises which we will discuss here below that why our country Pakistan is going to face the energy crisis still. So here we are talking about the 5 sectors whose using energy. Those 5 sectors names are Domestic Sectors, Commercial Sectors, Industrial Sectors, Agriculture Sectors and Other Sectors. these Sectors are using energy with the different roles of dues that their unit rates are different and their taxes are also different which they should pay. In the 2003 Pakistan total energy consumption was 52.7 GWH and in the 2009 Pakistan Energy consumption was 70.4 GWH and now In the Pakistan Energy consumption is more than 80 GWH So you can judge that why Pakistan is facing the Energy Crisis now a days.

.Now we will discuss how Pakistan is generating electricity from sources of energy .We are generating electricity from 4 sources in Pakistan. One is Gas, second is hydel third is nuclear and fourth is oil. These four sources are used in Pakistan to for the production of electricity. Now we will discuss the companies who are generating electricity actually basically there are 9 companies who are working for the production of energy (electricity).These 9 companies are WAPDA, UCh, KAPSO, KESC, other IPP”S and LIBERTY,PAEC,ROUSCH and HUBCO. They are working for energy producing tasks.

As recently as 2001, the country had 4,000 megawatts of excess power capacity. Today unfortunately the situation has gained threatening prospects. According to a research most of the high enthalpy geothermal resources of the world lie within the seismic belts passing through Pakistan. The major resources of energy are oil, gas, petroleum products, coal, nuclear, solar, biomass and wind energy. Let us chalk out the reasons for shortage of energy. Bad priorities, poor management and lack of accountability can be denoted as the reasons for dearth of energy in Pakistan. The number of consumers of electricity are now increased owing to the rapid urbanization process. The facility of electricity is now provided to the remote villages. We waste a lot of energy, about 15 to 20 percent through poor distribution system. Industrial, transport and domestic sectors are the three important consumers of energy. Few years back Pakistan used to get half of its electricity from hydel power and remaining from thermal generation. However there is a limit to the extent of exploitation of hydel resources and thermal power plants due to environmental and other concerns. To meet the challenge there is a dire need to go to the alternate sources of energy. Some people suggest that process of converting coal into product gas underground can be a good alternate source of energy. Technically this process is called as underground coal classification. Through this the underground deposit of coal is treated with controlled fire. Gradually the coal turns into gas. The largest coal reserves of Pakistan exist in Thar. There this source can be encashed. Besides coal, the renewable energy as biomass has solutions to our problems. Biomass, material derived from plants or animals, includes wastes, agricultural residues and garbage. It is suggested that subsidies and tax concessions must be provided for importing machinery for establishing biogas power plants in Pakistan. It can prove to be a great source of energy for us as Pakistan is an agricultural country. Come to solar energy panels, though initial cost of installing solar panels is comparatively high but through them the highest levels of efficiency can be reached. I visited Baluchistan recently and was really surprised to see the great solar potential there. It is not only the valley of minerals but it has a lot of wind and solar energy, having a scattered habitat and ample sunshine. But to my utter dismay the number of solar panels installed there were very few. Some important advantages which favor the use of solar energy use in Pakistan include low operational and maintenance cost, environment friendly dimension etc. similarly the wind energy is also in excess and we can harness this energy in a much more effective way. Wind can be utilized to produce electricity at the coastal areas. If power plants are set up driven by the wind energy along the coastline and this venture is handed over to foreign investors, the results can be quite satisfactory. Manufacture of wind generators can be made indigenously. Still other sources apart from hydel and thermal which can meet the growing demand nuclear energy can also overcome the energy needs. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has developed a large infrastructure to manufacture equipment for power but even then we are not able to make considerable progress in the nuclear field. 

More and more nuclear reactors for power generation must be built. Similarly, hot climatic conditions of some areas of upper Sindh and Southern Punjab may prove to be a source of solar energy. We have to devise bold and concrete ways on a war footing to overcome the electricity deficit coupled with an instant change in attitude at the earliest. The Quaid-i-Azam said: “Let us mobilize all our resources in a systematic and organized way and tackle the grave issues that confront us with grim determination and discipline worthy of a great nation.”  A collective national effort is needed to face the challenge .Prompt measures need to be taken by the government. One other suggestion is that the existing thermal power plants running on expensive imported furnace oil can be converted into natural gas and afterwards to coal. The government can go for establishing a government body for fixing targets for development of power sectors. Ways must also be devised to stop power theft besides transmission and distribution losses. The long transmission lines connecting grid with hydel stations are faced with transmission losses. These hydel stations are located mostly in the north of the country while thermal units are mainly installed in the centre and southern areas of Pakistan. 

Political controversies relating to Kalabagh dam must be resolved. In this connection seminars and media can play a good role. The energy crisis has led to a negative impact on direct foreign investment. Investors require a sustained, secure and cheap power supply in any country. In Pakistan, no such facility is available because of which many investors are not willing to come forth. The long-term solution of the energy crisis is to build mega dams to store water and generate electricity. Government power bodies like WAPDA and KESC should initiate plans to supply energy.

In a nutshell, energy is the lifeline of a nation and plays a vital role in national progress and economic development of any country. It needs sincere and dedicated efforts of our policy makers to find solutions to meet the energy requirements of the nation

Causes of Energy Crisis: Pakistan’s energy crisis traces its roots to following distinct

causes:

i. Growing Energy Demand

Over the years there is greater need of energy because of;

• increase in population,

• enhancement in lifestyle

• industrial and agricultural growth

• greater transportation needs

ii. Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energy:

Pakistan has had wider potentials to tap energy, however, due to lack of any

integrated/proactive planning, very less number of power producing plant were installed to

meet futuristic demands. Resultantly, over the years, the gap between energy demand and

supply drastically grew and now against demand of 20000 MW, we are having around 11500

MW. iii. Imbalanced energy energy mix

Energy mix in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, with greater

reliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43.7 %) and oil (29 % – majority of which is

imported). Prices of petroleum products/crude oil fluctuate and in current Afro-Arab political

crisis, the oil prices are likely to increase manifold affecting oil prices in Pakistan.

A rational energy mix planning ought to be developed giving greater dependency to

renewable (hydel power), indigenous (coal) and alternative energy resources (wind and

solar energy). Nuclear energy can

iv. Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources

.

Consequences of Energy Crisis:

i. Economic Factors: Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of

energy directly influences all other sectors of the economy. The economic progress is

Hampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations of

Industries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in

recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply.

ii. Agriculture Sector: Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision

of energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers

and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity.

iii. Industrial Sector: Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in

energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result of

decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the

existing industrial units are gradually closing.

iv. Unemployment: By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new

employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is

shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisis

contributes towards unemployment.

v. Social Issues: This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy

(cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and frustration

amongst the people and results in agitation against the government.

vi. Poverty: Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity,

unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty.

Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line and

this ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield in

curbing the menace of poverty.

Energy Crisis has, moreorless, plagued all sectors of Pakistan’s machinery ranging from

economy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hampering

national progress in a drastic manner. Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can be

overwhelmed by government through making effective policies and its proactive

implementation. Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, to utilize the available energy astutely and wisely to play our due role for progress of the

country.

Causes of Energy Crisis: Pakistan’s energy crisis traces its roots to following distinct

causes:

i. Growing Energy Demand

Over the years there is greater need of energy because of;

• increase in population,

• enhancement in lifestyle

• industrial and agricultural growth

• greater transportation needs

ii. Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energy:

Pakistan has had wider potentials to tap energy, however, due to lack of any

integrated/proactive planning, very less number of power producing plant were installed to

meet futuristic demands. Resultantly, over the years, the gap between energy demand and

supply drastically grew and now against demand of 20000 MW, we are having around 11500

MW. iii. Imbalanced energy energy mix

Energy mix in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, with greater

reliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43.7 %) and oil (29 % – majority of which is

imported). Prices of petroleum products/crude oil fluctuate and in current Afro-Arab political

crisis, the oil prices are likely to increase manifold affecting oil prices in Pakistan.

A rational energy mix planning ought to be developed giving greater dependency to

renewable (hydel power), indigenous (coal) and alternative energy resources (wind and

solar energy). Nuclear energy can

iv. Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources:

Consequences of Energy Crisis:

Economic Factors: From all other sectors of the economy Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of energy directly influences. The economic progress is

hampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations of

industries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in

recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply.

Agriculture Sector: Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision

of energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers

and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity.

iii. Industrial Sector: Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in

energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result of

decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the

existing industrial units are gradually closing.

iv. Unemployment: By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new

employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is

shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisis

contributes towards unemployment.

v. Social Issues: This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy

(cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and frustration

amongst the people and results in agitation against the government.

vi. Poverty: Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity,

unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty.

Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line and

this ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield in

curbing the menace of poverty.

Energy Crisis has, moreorless, plagued all sectors of Pakistan’s machinery ranging from

economy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hampering

national progress in a drastic manner. Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can be

overwhelmed by government through making effective policies and its proactive

implementation. Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, to

Pakistan has been facing an energy crisis since the last few years, which has seriously affected its people. The gap between demand and supply has been constantly widening. People are spending sleepless nights in summer. Shortage of power supply has assumed the role of a fundamental necessity, becoming a serious policy dilemma. It needs sustained efforts and long-term policies to overcome this crisis. Sincere effort is required to ensure sustained and consistent supply of energy. Pakistan is generating 48 percent of its electricity from gas, 33 percent from hydel, 17 percent from oil, two percent from nuclear and one percent from coal. If we examine the figures, it is clear that Pakistan is underutilizing its natural resources to generate electricity. The power crisis is proving to be unbearable day by day. The sad state of affairs is that despite having enormous renewable resources of energy, Pakistan has to import a huge amount of hydrocarbons from abroad to meet its energy needs. Pakistan, a country blessed with many natural resources for the past few years has been facing the problem of load-shedding due to the electricity demand being more then the production capacity of the national power grid. The first thing to do about it is to look at the recent power history of the country to get a better idea of how it was created and its many causes.

In 1996 Pakistan had the ability to produce about 15000 Megawatts of electricity which was more then enough for our own needs and we had a surplus of power present in the country and talks were taking place with neighbouring countries in which we would export electricity to them. So considering that how is that after just 14 years later we have reached such a condition that we don’t even have enough power to meet our needs? The first and foremost issue is that the rulers since 1996 did not bother to make any new power projects and to add additional power to the natural grid. In 14 years our production capacity has increased by just 1000-2000 Megawatts which reflects poorly on us as a country and our leadership for not having the foresight to see this issue looming.

The other is that the country is rich in natural resources and we have not all invested in the alternative sources available to make our power generation . We have sun for the most part of the year in majority parts of the country and one alternative is to tap into the potential of solar power to produce energy since in it the cost of producing energy is very less as the biggest source (SUN) is free and using its heat wont cost anything.

The other alternative available to us is the wind source in which we can make wind mills or wind turbines and have power generated from them which will again be quite cheap as we are just using the energy of the wind costing nothing to use.

Since we generate about 40% of our total power by hydro electricity we can look at this source to produce power as well. It has a start up cost and after that producing electricity from it is very cheap aswell since we are just using the water to produce electricity. This might not be the best choice for us since in winter when the water supply gets low then we wont be able to produce electricity by it and which can lead to a power shortage.

Nuclear Reactors are another option available for us to produce electricity by using them but its not very advisable for us since they have a very high building cost and generating that much capital to make a lot of nuclear power plants will be almost impossible for a developing country like us which already has a shortage of funds and capital. But having a little of our total production by nuclear power can be seen as a good thing.

Most of our electricity is produced by thermal power plants which burn oil or gas and then produce electricity. Since the country is deficient in oil resources we import oil for this purpose and pay a heavy import bill for the oil. The intelligent thing is to move away from the power production from oil and gas since the raw material necessary for the functioning of the power plant is so expensive to get. And seeing the gas crisis in the country currently with a gas shortage predicted to worsen in the coming years we should start moving away from the gas power plants as well and use our gas for more important purposes.

We have one of the largest coal deposits in the world in Tharparkar Desert, Sindh so why we have not started utilizing that remains a mystery. The power generation in the thermal power plants can be switched to coal (which is present in a very large quantity locally) and extracted from Tharparkar to meet the demand of the country in the power sector. By doing all this we can save a lot of money for the country and use it in other sectors. End our dependence on expensive foreign oil and become self-reliant on the coal and then consequently the power sector. Now the real question which comes to mind is that were the people in the government sleeping for the past 14 years? Did they not realize that the power needs of the country would increase? (which has increased by about 500 megawatts annually) and so for that they needed to make sure that some power projects were launched ensure the country didn’t face this power problem?

There’s no use in crying over spilt milk so talking about should have happened won’t change anything. But now we should look towards the future and talk about instead of what we HAVE TO DO to end the power crisis.

Now Looking into the administrative causes of the energy crisis, lack of proper planning is the most important. Lack of proper conservation methods is another cause of the energy crisis. Energy sector of Pakistan is considered to be under-developed; It is because of our poor management and planning System, with untapped potential for development growth of the Pakistan. Now we will highlight how energy consumption is in the Pakistan and were our energy is consuming.

Here we are dividing it in the 5 sectors those are consuming our energy of the Pakistan and how much their consuming percentage. Our some government sectors and some big Industrial sectors are wasting our energy because they consume it but they do not pay its dues So there for our Country Pakistan is facing the Energy crises which we will discuss here below that why our country Pakistan is going to face the energy crisis still. So here we are talking about the 5 sectors whose using energy. Those 5 sectors names are Domestic Sectors, Commercial Sectors, Industrial Sectors, Agriculture Sectors and Other Sectors. these Sectors are using energy with the different roles of dues that their unit rates are different and their taxes are also different which they should pay. In the 2003 Pakistan total energy consumption was 52.7 GWH and in the 2009 Pakistan Energy consumption was 70.4 GWH and now In the Pakistan Energy consumption is more than 80 GWH So you can judge that why Pakistan is facing the Energy Crisis now a days.

.Now we will discuss how Pakistan is generating electricity from sources of energy .We are generating electricity from 4 sources in Pakistan. One is Gas, second is hydel third is nuclear and fourth is oil. These four sources are used in Pakistan to for the production of electricity. Now we will discuss the companies who are generating electricity actually basically there are 9 companies who are working for the production of energy (electricity).These 9 companies are WAPDA, UCh, KAPSO, KESC, other IPP”S and LIBERTY,PAEC,ROUSCH and HUBCO. They are working for energy producing tasks.

As recently as 2001, the country had 4,000 megawatts of excess power capacity. Today unfortunately the situation has gained threatening prospects. According to a research most of the high enthalpy geothermal resources of the world lie within the seismic belts passing through Pakistan. The major resources of energy are oil, gas, petroleum products, coal, nuclear, solar, biomass and wind energy. Let us chalk out the reasons for shortage of energy. Bad priorities, poor management and lack of accountability can be denoted as the reasons for dearth of energy in Pakistan. The number of consumers of electricity are now increased owing to the rapid urbanization process. The facility of electricity is now provided to the remote villages. We waste a lot of energy, about 15 to 20 percent through poor distribution system. Industrial, transport and domestic sectors are the three important consumers of energy. Few years back Pakistan used to get half of its electricity from hydel power and remaining from thermal generation. However there is a limit to the extent of exploitation of hydel resources and thermal power plants due to environmental and other concerns. To meet the challenge there is a dire need to go to the alternate sources of energy. Some people suggest that process of converting coal into product gas underground can be a good alternate source of energy. Technically this process is called as underground coal classification. Through this the underground deposit of coal is treated with controlled fire. Gradually the coal turns into gas. The largest coal reserves of Pakistan exist in Thar. There this source can be encashed. Besides coal, the renewable energy as biomass has solutions to our problems. Biomass, material derived from plants or animals, includes wastes, agricultural residues and garbage. It is suggested that subsidies and tax concessions must be provided for importing machinery for establishing biogas power plants in Pakistan. It can prove to be a great source of energy for us as Pakistan is an agricultural country. Come to solar energy panels, though initial cost of installing solar panels is comparatively high but through them the highest levels of efficiency can be reached. I visited Baluchistan recently and was really surprised to see the great solar potential there. It is not only the valley of minerals but it has a lot of wind and solar energy, having a scattered habitat and ample sunshine. But to my utter dismay the number of solar panels installed there were very few. Some important advantages which favor the use of solar energy use in Pakistan include low operational and maintenance cost, environment friendly dimension etc. similarly the wind energy is also in excess and we can harness this energy in a much more effective way. Wind can be utilized to produce electricity at the coastal areas. If power plants are set up driven by the wind energy along the coastline and this venture is handed over to foreign investors, the results can be quite satisfactory. Manufacture of wind generators can be made indigenously. Still other sources apart from hydel and thermal which can meet the growing demand nuclear energy can also overcome the energy needs. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has developed a large infrastructure to manufacture equipment for power but even then we are not able to make considerable progress in the nuclear field. 

More and more nuclear reactors for power generation must be built. Similarly, hot climatic conditions of some areas of upper Sindh and Southern Punjab may prove to be a source of solar energy. We have to devise bold and concrete ways on a war footing to overcome the electricity deficit coupled with an instant change in attitude at the earliest. The Quaid-i-Azam said: “Let us mobilize all our resources in a systematic and organized way and tackle the grave issues that confront us with grim determination and discipline worthy of a great nation.”  A collective national effort is needed to face the challenge .Prompt measures need to be taken by the government. One other suggestion is that the existing thermal power plants running on expensive imported furnace oil can be converted into natural gas and afterwards to coal. The government can go for establishing a government body for fixing targets for development of power sectors. Ways must also be devised to stop power theft besides transmission and distribution losses. The long transmission lines connecting grid with hydel stations are faced with transmission losses. These hydel stations are located mostly in the north of the country while thermal units are mainly installed in the centre and southern areas of Pakistan. 

Political controversies relating to Kalabagh dam must be resolved. In this connection seminars and media can play a good role. The energy crisis has led to a negative impact on direct foreign investment. Investors require a sustained, secure and cheap power supply in any country. In Pakistan, no such facility is available because of which many investors are not willing to come forth. The long-term solution of the energy crisis is to build mega dams to store water and generate electricity. Government power bodies like WAPDA and KESC should initiate plans to supply energy.

In a nutshell, energy is the lifeline of a nation and plays a vital role in national progress and economic development of any country. It needs sincere and dedicated efforts of our policy makers to find solutions to meet the energy requirements of the nation

Causes of Energy Crisis: Pakistan’s energy crisis traces its roots to following distinct

causes:

i. Growing Energy Demand

Over the years there is greater need of energy because of;

• increase in population,

• enhancement in lifestyle

• industrial and agricultural growth

• greater transportation needs

ii. Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energy:

Pakistan has had wider potentials to tap energy, however, due to lack of any

integrated/proactive planning, very less number of power producing plant were installed to

meet futuristic demands. Resultantly, over the years, the gap between energy demand and

supply drastically grew and now against demand of 20000 MW, we are having around 11500

MW. iii. Imbalanced energy energy mix

Energy mix in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, with greater

reliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43.7 %) and oil (29 % – majority of which is

imported). Prices of petroleum products/crude oil fluctuate and in current Afro-Arab political

crisis, the oil prices are likely to increase manifold affecting oil prices in Pakistan.

A rational energy mix planning ought to be developed giving greater dependency to

renewable (hydel power), indigenous (coal) and alternative energy resources (wind and

solar energy). Nuclear energy can

iv. Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources

.

Consequences of Energy Crisis:

i. Economic Factors: Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of

energy directly influences all other sectors of the economy. The economic progress is

Hampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations of

Industries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in

recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply.

ii. Agriculture Sector: Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision

of energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers

and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity.

iii. Industrial Sector: Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in

energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result of

decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the

existing industrial units are gradually closing.

iv. Unemployment: By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new

employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is

shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisis

contributes towards unemployment.

v. Social Issues: This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy

(cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and frustration

amongst the people and results in agitation against the government.

vi. Poverty: Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity,

unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty.

Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line and

this ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield in

curbing the menace of poverty.

Energy Crisis has, moreorless, plagued all sectors of Pakistan’s machinery ranging from

economy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hampering

national progress in a drastic manner. Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can be

overwhelmed by government through making effective policies and its proactive

implementation. Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, to utilize the available energy astutely and wisely to play our due role for progress of the

country.

Causes of Energy Crisis: Pakistan’s energy crisis traces its roots to following distinct

causes:

i. Growing Energy Demand

Over the years there is greater need of energy because of;

• increase in population,

• enhancement in lifestyle

• industrial and agricultural growth

• greater transportation needs

ii. Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energy:

Pakistan has had wider potentials to tap energy, however, due to lack of any

integrated/proactive planning, very less number of power producing plant were installed to

meet futuristic demands. Resultantly, over the years, the gap between energy demand and

supply drastically grew and now against demand of 20000 MW, we are having around 11500

MW. iii. Imbalanced energy energy mix

Energy mix in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, with greater

reliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43.7 %) and oil (29 % – majority of which is

imported). Prices of petroleum products/crude oil fluctuate and in current Afro-Arab political

crisis, the oil prices are likely to increase manifold affecting oil prices in Pakistan.

A rational energy mix planning ought to be developed giving greater dependency to

renewable (hydel power), indigenous (coal) and alternative energy resources (wind and

solar energy). Nuclear energy can

iv. Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources:

Consequences of Energy Crisis:

Economic Factors: From all other sectors of the economy Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of energy directly influences. The economic progress is

hampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations of

industries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices in

recent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply.

Agriculture Sector: Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provision

of energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizers

and pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity.

iii. Industrial Sector: Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage in

energy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result of

decline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also the

existing industrial units are gradually closing.

iv. Unemployment: By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, new

employment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower is

shredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisis

contributes towards unemployment.

v. Social Issues: This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy

(cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and frustration

amongst the people and results in agitation against the government.

vi. Poverty: Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity,

unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty.

Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line and

this ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield in

curbing the menace of poverty.

Energy Crisis has, moreorless, plagued all sectors of Pakistan’s machinery ranging from

economy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hampering

national progress in a drastic manner. Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can be

overwhelmed by government through making effective policies and its proactive

implementation. Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, to

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