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Biodiversity is defined as the set of all living organisms and species on land and all natural things around them such as: oceans, rivers, mountains, deserts, land, forests, jungles, animals, plants, atmosphere, heaven and humans. Climate change: climate change is affecting biodiversity so that this becomes a major threat to biodiversity in the coming decades. Since this originated? Although throughout the history of the Earth climate has always changed with the ecosystems and species that came and went, rapid climate change affects ecosystems and the ability of species to adapt and thus increases the loss of biodiversity. While the loss of biodiversity increases the life of humans at risk enters e.g. climate change can dry the water taking into account global warming, and if no water, no human, this would also affect plants as without water, photosynthesis cannot be performed, also with animals and plants not animals without human life disappears. So if biodiversity has this enormous threat we are under this threat also already there are evidence of how species are responding to global warming. Some examples are as follows: In Costa Rica’s golden toad May Have Become Extinct Due to Their Inability to Adapt to Changing temperature Birds like the blue jay in Arizona are starting to reproduce early. Alpine plants are moving to Higher latitudes in Austria Such mammals as Arctic polar bears are feeling the ravages of global warming on ice decline The surface temperatures of the Seas Have produced a Phenomenon of coral bleaching, Yielding by an alga (Which Gives color to the coral) by high temperature, alters nutrient production Penguin Populations Have fallen by 33% in parts of Antarctica In Antarctic poles are melting because of climate change, and this at a major threat to the world as these poles melting caused sea level rise and it will cause flooding and losses till some cities on the coast, I chose these two themes primarily for their long relationship and secondly by providing extensive information with which I can learn and study the origins of biodiversity loss and that I can do to avoid it
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Why biodiversity is important?
Life has been able to adapt to the most diverse places on earth, from microscopic creatures that habit in the icy landscapes of the poles to creatures that live in warmer places, since the birds that fly at high altitudes than fish living in depths of the ocean, our planet is full of living organisms. All of them are part of the history of the world in the last 3.5 billion years, which means since the onset of the first cell. Just the study of early life forms, has allowed us to see how they have evolved from the simplest of bacteria to the most complex. And even though we all know that in reality we are only able to identify with a name 10 percent of them, the remaining 90 percent are still a mystery to humans.
The vast majority of them are not easily visible to us, but its importance is vital to our existence, are responsible for shifting the balance between different components of the atmosphere, purify the air we repair, recycle wastes of nature to that from dead organic matter can be reborn, and is that the distribution of tasks necessary for the maintenance of ecosystems is very complex and requires the activity of all its components. While more species living more productive and stable the ecosystem will be, and have greater capacity for recovery if there is a drought, fire or any other threat to this. Scientists have begun to realize how much of this, in 1997 a group of economists and environmental scientists tried to measure in economic terms, the services that the environment gives without asking anything in return, and results they achieved almost double the GDP of all countries in the world. We should not be surprising considering all the tasks that nature solves: regulate the atmosphere and climate, fresh water purifies, enriches the soil, recycles nutrients, decodes the waste, is responsible for the pollination of crops, produce fuel wood, food, fuels and humanity, as well as important is the planet’s biodiversity.http://danierap.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/biodiversidad3.jpg
Climate change linked to human activity
In the world, human activities have caused and will continue causing wear on biodiversity due to, among other things, changes in use and surface soil, pollution and land degradation and air pollution; the diversion of water into heavily altered ecosystems and urbanization, environmental decay, exploitation of species, introduction of alien species, ozone depletion and weather. The current rate of biodiversity loss is greater than the natural extinction. A fundamental question is how much can change (either natural or human-induced) increase or prevent such loss of biodiversity?
The changes in climate create a secondary alteration to biodiversity that has begun affecting it. Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased since preindustrial times due to human activities, particularly fossil fuels and changes in use and on the surface of the soil. For example currently rain fall on the northeast of Europe and the eastern United States and Canada that is considered acidic. The more acid rain in Europe signed up to Scotland.
Observed Changes in climate
Earth throughout the twentieth century: the temperature has raised land surface and marin patterns have changed spatial and temporal rainfall, has raised sea level, and increased frequency and intensity of phenomena associated with El Niño. These changes, particularly the rise in temperatures in some areas have affected the timing of reproduction of animals and plants and / or migration of animals, to the extent of growing season, distribution of species and population size and frequency of pest and disease outbreaks. Some coastal ecosystems have also been affected by changes in regional climate.
Loss of species by climate change
The extinction of species increases the biodiversity loss, and with them our existence. For example: bees are disappearing, disappear. The consequences are disastrous this can cause the pollination is what has made it possible for millions of years, to ensure the reproduction from the plant to flower. In addition, 35% of our diet depends on pollination: fruit and vegetables. The most famous food recommended by dieticians. Moreover, in certain regions of the world, the disappearance of pollinating insects forces from Polish farmers to pollinate by hand.
Researchers and beekeepers are moving in different scenarios, it has not yet been clearly identified the main cause of the extinction of bees. All pressures on the ecosystem and the health of bees have been revised: GMOs, electromagnetic waves, pesticides, pollution, climate change, scarcity of flowers, viruses, diseases, parasites, fungi, etc. http://img.over-blog.com/299×189/0/55/19/29/abejas_transg__nicas.jpg
What is expected of climate change?
It is expected that climate change affects all aspects of biodiversity. However, these changes must take into account impacts from human activities, past, present and future, including increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide to the wide range of scenarios of CO2 increase is forecast that the average temperature Earth’s surface to rise between 1.4 and 5.8 ° C by the end of the century, land areas experiencing the highest warming oceans and high latitudes will warm more than the tropics. It is estimated that sea level rise associated with such changes falls 0.1 to 0.9 m. In general, it is expected an increase in precipitation in high latitudes and equatorial areas and decrease in subtropical areas but increased heavy rainfall.
It is expected that climate change directly affecting individual organisms, populations, distribution of species, and ecosystem functioning, for example due to increased temperatures and changes in precipitation and in the case of marine ecosystems coastal and expected changes in sea level and strong storm surges, and indirectly, including through the impact of climate change in the intensity and frequency of phenomena such as forest fires. The loss, modification and disintegration of the environment and the introduction and spread of alien species will affect the impacts of climate change. A realistic projection of the future state of terrestrial ecosystems should take into account patterns of land use and water, which will greatly affect the ability of organisms to respond to climate change through movement. Percentage of variation of precipitation over the average forecast for global next 100 years on America. It is expected a decrease in central Chile
and an increase in the extreme south.
Melt poles by climate change
Tropical, subtropical, Mediterranean, continental, desert, polar, mountain high … Nobody can predict what weather will need to consider children in 100 years. The warming will force change textbooks because, even worse, alter the ecosystem of more than 60 percent of the land surface. The impact will suffer the most severe tropical forests. If you escape to deforestation, it is likely that the warming stopped. The poles will be reduced, and high mountain climates are also at risk of disappearing. Among all possible future scenarios, scientists have taken two extremes. The first, in which nothing is done to curb the emission of greenhouse gases, the result would be up to 39 percent of the Earth’s surface, would experience a change in temperature and rainfall that would result in a new climate. Therefore, 48 percent of current climates disappear. In the best case, with an emission control, the change will affect 20 percent of the land surface. The most affected area is the tropical, equatorial forests of Africa, Amazonia and Southeast Asia as a major hit. According to the model, the equatorial forests could move to the tropics, the deserts (Sahara, Gobi, New Mexico, Kalahari and northern Australia), to the current temperate zones, including Spain, “and thus chain, to poles.http://ecodiario.eleconomista.es/imag/_v2/ecodiario/medio_ambiente/225×250/cambio_clima.jpg
Climate change consequences
Changes in biodiversity at ecosystem and landscapes, in response to climate change and other pressures (such as deforestation and changes in forest fires), could further affect the global and regional climate through changes in absorption and emission of greenhouse gases and changes in the reflection. Similarly, structural changes in biological communities in the upper layers of the oceans could alter the absorption of CO2 by the ocean or the emission of precursors for cloud condensation nuclei, causing positive or negative reactions or in the climate change. The simulation of changes in biodiversity in response to climate change presents some significant challenges. The data and simulations needed to estimate the extent and nature of future changes in ecosystems and changes in the geographical distribution of the species are incomplete, which means that these effects can be quantified only partially.
Flooding in Concepción by the overflowing of the river Bío Bío, July 2006. Because of climate change
March 30, 2007
Effects of the drought of 2007 in Vegas Cayucupil, Cañete. The image shows the same place a year apart
As I explained earlier biodiversity plays a very important in us as this is vital for human life, and this is being eroded by many factors, but here in this project. Mainly I just said the climate change, we cause rapid climate change which becomes a threat to biodiversity, bone for us, but we can do something to prevent it?
Yes, there are many things you can do to help or participate in improving the current condition of the Earth and future conditions are:
Improving the efficiency of cars. Be achieved through better technology, lightening the structure, improvements in engines and transmission, reducing aerodynamic drag, decreasing resistance of the wheels, etc.
Accelerate improvements in energy efficiency of industries, residences and commercial establishments and public, through effective policies.
Stimulate and accelerate research and development of technologies based on energy sources of renewable energy.
Ending deforestation and encourage reforestation
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