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Climate Change Biodiversity And Ecosystem Loss Environmental Sciences Essay

1784 words (7 pages) Essay in Environmental Sciences

5/12/16 Environmental Sciences Reference this

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Climate change is a problem that is having a big impact in biodiversity and ecosystem loss, this is a problem that comes from decades and it is getting bigger and bigger and unstoppable, climate change is having a big impact in some parts of the ecosystem, like arctic zones, oceans, and other parts of the ecosystem, but climate change is now by the humans as “Global Warming”.

Global Warming have a simple meaning, the climate is changing, the earth is warming up, the habitats of some species are changing this causes their extinction, the temperatures around the world are increasing causing that the glacier-melt, the oceans level increase. The climate change occurs because the increase of “greenhouse” gases that are Carbon Dioxide (CO2), this gases are produces by the humans and globalization, the “greenhouse effect” is when the energy from the sun drives the earth’s, In turn, the earth radiates energy back into space; Some atmospheric gases trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse.

The Humans are the reason why the biodiversity and the ecosystem is loss, we are the ones that produces this gases, and we are the only ones that can stop the Global Warming, this is a problem with the past of the years is getting every time bigger and its time to the humans stop this problem, a 39% of species around the world all in danger of extinction, and the ecosystem in which the animals and we (Humans), are leaving is in danger, the increase in temperatures in the last years, are melting the poles, and increasing the level of the ocean, the effect of the increase of the temperature, causes natural disaster, that affects the environment and killing many peoples, but this have many solutions.

Chapter 1: Why biodiversity is important? Why is important don’t lose it?

Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. For example:

A larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops

Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms

Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters.

And so, while we dominate this planet, we still need to preserve the diversity in wildlife.

While there might be “survival of the fittest” within a given species, each species depends on the services provided by other species to ensure survival. It is a type of cooperation based on mutual survival and is often what a “balanced ecosystem” refers to.

Chapter 2: Climate change impact on arctic an oceans biodiversity:

The link between climate change and biodiversity has long been established. Although throughout Earth’s history the climate has always changed with ecosystems and species coming and going, rapid climate change affects ecosystems and species ability to adapt and so biodiversity loss increases. The climate change have more impact in some areas likes the arctic and the oceans. The Arctic, Antarctic and high latitudes have had the highest rates of warming, and this trend is projected to continue, as the above-mentioned Global Biodiversity Outlook 3 notes, In the Arctic, it is not just a reduction in the extent of sea ice, but its thickness and age. Less ice means less reflective surface meaning more rapid melting.

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3, May 2010

The extent of floating sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, as measured at its annual minimum in September, showed a steady decline between 1980 and 2009 according to National Snow and Ice Data Center, graph compiled by Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3, May 2010. They are some species that need this sea ice like the polar bears.

Other problem is the increasing of ocean acidification, Although it has gained less mainstream media attention the effects of increasing greenhouse emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, on the oceans may well be significant. Scientists are finding that on the one hand oceans have been able to absorb some of the excess CO2 released by human activity. This has helped keep the planet cooler than it otherwise could have been had these gases remained in the atmosphere. However, the additional CO2 being absorbed is also resulting in the acidification of the oceans: When CO2 reacts with water it produces a weak acid called carbonic acid, changing the sea water chemistry. As the Global Biodiversity Outlook report explains, the water is some 30% more acidic than pre-industrial times, depleting carbonate ions – the building blocks for many marine organisms.

In addition, “concentrations of carbonate ions are now lower than at any time during the last 800,000 years. The impacts on ocean biological diversity and ecosystem functioning will likely be severe, though the precise timing and distribution of these impacts are uncertain.” (See p. 58 of the report.)

This change is also occurring rapidly, so some marine life may not have the chance to adapt. Some marine creatures are growing thinner shells or skeletons, for example. Some of these creatures play a crucial role in the food chain, and in ecosystem biodiversity.

Chapter 3: Human impact in biodiversity.

3.1 Massive extinction.

For a long time , human activities has been causing massive extinctions, A major report, released in March 2005 highlighted a substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth, with some 10-30% of the mammal, bird and amphibian species threatened with extinction, due to human actions. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), notes that many species are threatened with extinction. In addition,

75% of genetic diversity of agricultural crops has been lost

75% of the world’s fisheries are fully or over exploited

Up to 70% of the world’s known species risk extinction if the global temperatures rise by more than 3.5°C

1/3rd of reef-building corals around the world are threatened with extinction

Every second a parcel of rainforest the size of a football field disappears

Over 350 million people suffer from severe water scarcity

Extinction risks out pace any conservation successes. Amphibians are the most at risk, while corals have had a dramatic increase in risk of extinction in recent years.

3.2 Declining ocean biodiversity:

In the past century, commercial whaling has decimated numerous whale populations, many of which have struggled to recover. Commercial whaling in the past was for whale oil. With no reason to use whale oil today, commercial whaling is mainly for food, while there is also some hunting for scientific research purposes. Japan is the prime example of hunting whales for the stated aim of scientific research while a lot of skepticism says it is for food. Greenpeace and other organizations often release findings that argue Japan’s whaling to be excessive or primarily for food, other example is almost in japan the trap the white shark only for get his tail.

3.3 Loss of forest.

A 20-year study has shown that deforestation and introduction of non-native species has led to about 12.5% of the world’s plant species to become critically rare (An example is the Amazon damage), A report from the World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development suggests that the forests of the world have been exploited to the point of crisis and that major changes in global forest management strategies would be needed to avoid the devastation. There are somes species that haven been discover, if this problem continues, the habitat of this species would be loss and they would been extend.

Brazil, which is estimated to have around 55,000 species of flora, amounting to some 22% of the world’s total and India for example, which has about 46,000 and some 81,000 animal species (amounting to some 8% of the world’s biodiversity), are also under various pressures, from corporate globalization, deforrestation, etc. So too are many other biodiverse regions, such as Indonesia, parts of Africa, and other tropical regions.

Graphic 2. Comparing actual area of Brazilian portion of the Amazon deforested each year between 1990 and 2009. Source: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2010) Global Biodiversity Outlook 3, May 2010, p.33

The significant decline noted in the Brazilian Amazon is not enough to prevent the World Bank worrying about the future. The Global Biodiversity Outlook report notes that “According to a recent study co-ordinated by the World Bank, 20% Amazon deforestation would be sufficient to trigger significant dieback of forest in some parts of the biome by 2025, when coupled with other pressures such as climate change and forest fires.”

Furthermore, some of the reversals in deforestation is because of reforestation, but the report raises the same concerns as also noted further below. Namely, “Since newly-planted forests often have low biodiversity value and may only include a single tree species, a slowing of net forest loss does not necessarily imply a slowing in the loss of global forest biodiversity. Between 2000 and 2010, the global extent of primary forest (that is, substantially undisturbed) declined by more than 400,000 square km, an area larger than Zimbabwe.”

Conclusion

The animals habitat are disappearing because human, nature give all to humans but humans never gave him back, this is why the biodiversity is disappearing, climate change is altering all the habitat, the temperature are increasing, the pollution on is increasing every day, but the reason why all of this is happening is because humans, the environment is increasing in a 100%, and the humans don’t take care about the forest or the animals.

This would affect the humans in a future, an example is the water, without forest, no water, and if humans don’t have water, it would be a several problem, like conflicts by countries looking for water, this is why I take climate change and biodiversity loose, Because this is a problem that affects humans all the days.

Sources

Global Biodiversity Outlook 3, May 2010

Our choise, Al Gore, 2010

An Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore, 2006

Human Impact Triggers Massive Extinctions, ST. LOUIS, Missouri, August 2, 1999 (ENS)

Jaan Suurkula, World-wide cooperation required to prevent global crisis; Part one- the problem, Physicians and Scientists for Responsible Application of Science and Technology, February 6, 2004 [Emphasis is original]

Index

Chapter 1: Why biodiversity is important? Why is important don’t lose it?……………PG3

Chapter2: Climate change impact on arctic an oceans biodiversity:………………PG3-5

Chapter3: Human impact in biodiversity……………………………. ……………PG5-9

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