Analysing Corporate Social Responsibility Of Leather Industries Environmental Sciences Essay

2180 words (9 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Environmental Sciences Reference this

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Introduction

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a body; which covers all departments and sections of the industries. There are rules to run it internally, and rules and responsibilities with respect to society and world at large. Like other industries, leather industry has many responsibilities with regards to environment. Leather industry is one of the archaic industries in the world. It is contributing many hazardous wastes to environment like all other industries. Deterioration of environment is the cause of concern for world, and for environmentalists; leather industry produces all three kinds of waste: gaseous, liquid, and solid. Leather industry is a very profitable and lucrative business for a country; however, it is intervened by the government to cut its pollution. This industry follows rules of corporate social responsibility (CSR). World organizations like WTO, European commission on environment watches it with vigilant eye.

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Pakistan is primarily an a grain economy, agriculture sector comprises almost one fourth of the total GDP.The manufacturing sector has over the past several years remained stagnant with a share of 17% in the GDP.The GDP,currently at US$ 63 billion ranks 160the in the world, has not been able to achieve a sustainable growth of 5%.The total population of the country exceeds 140 million, with dismal economic performance the per capita income has hovering around US $ 450.The population growth rate of Pakistan is one of the highest in the world, between 2.2% and 2.5%.According to the world Development Report 2000-01, over 30% of the population survives below poverty line i.e. earns less than one dollar/day. Almost 85% of the population earns less than two dollars/day. Only 45% of the total population is literate, which also includes persons who only have the capability to read and write their names. The exports of the country have over the past twenty years been struggling to surpass the psychology barrier of US $ 10 billion. Every year major portion of the annual outlay is spent in debt servicing both domestic and foreign with little fiscal space for the government to initiate development programmes. [3] 

Environmental matters cannot be taken in isolation from leather making, as every facet of pollution or residual material is a direct function of manufacture. This is largely outside the tanner’s direct control: drastic changes are required in linkages between slaughter houses and tanners, new techniques for environmentally friendly preservation, or relocation of tanneries for saline discharge to the sea. As 85%-90% of the leathers are chrome tanned, these leathers in themselves create a problem. Chrome compounds are safe in tanning and chrome containing solid waste and sludge’s are manageable. However, leather goods are dispersed by the end of a useful life. They will not biodegrade, and simple incineration can convert some of the chrome into the dichromate form. [4] Carbon dioxide emissions have been predicted by world energy council to rise from the 1990 level of six Giga (60,000,000) tons a year to proximately 8.2-9.4 Giga tons a year by 2050 this is based on assumption that major technological advances will limit emissions despite a significant rise in energy demands. [5] 

Waste water treatment takes place in adjacent building where spent waters from the columns are received in two separate streams. This is to optimise treatment, taking place in three main stages:

After separation of the sludge, the quenching water is combined with spent water from the wet slag discharge, for the elimination of heavy metals. The combined stream is first pre-neutralised with lime slurry, the fluorides and phosphates being precipitated as calcium salts. The pH-value is raised further, followed by dosing with organ sulphide to precipitate the heavy metals as hydroxide or sulphides.

The pH value of the water stream containing the sulphate from the removal of sulphur dioxide is regulated with caustic soda to avoid the precipitation of large quantities of gypsum. The heavy metals are then precipitated with organo-sulfide, as described, for the quenching water.

The heavy metal precipitates from both streams are combined in”sludge thicker “and dewatered periodically in a filter press to a cake of around 30% dry solids content. [6] 

The elements of the periodic table have a diverse and interesting history. All matter is made of atoms and is found in three phases solid, liquid, and gas (plasma is fourth phase).Elements are groups of atoms that are characterised by the number of protons (positively charged atomic particles) in its nucleus, and similar physical and chemical properties .The atom consists of a solid nucleus that contains protons and neutrons atomic particle) surrounded by cloud of electrons (negatively charged particles) as shown in picture. [7] 

NATURAL REACTIONS IN A NEW CONTEXT.

It is useful to turn to nature to find new technologies and tanning is no exception.Biomimetic tanning chemistries have the characteristic of using natural reactions in a new context. Such organic tanning reactions are of interest from three points of view as they:

1. Offer new methods of making leather, to yield new products, which may contribute to lessening the environmental impact of tanning.

2. Offer new opportunities for high hydrothermal stability tanning, by acting as new linking agents, then allowing manipulation of the chemistry of the locking step.

3. May involve the novel use of enzymes in tanning operating as catalysing activating agents, so the rate of reaction is highly controllable. It is instructive to examine three examples. [8] 

In the korangi distric to karchi, Pakistan, there is a cluster of 166 tanneries on a single industrial site.

The total volume of effluent generated by this grouping is estimated at 36,000m3 per day. At present this effluent is untreated, and mixes with various other industrial effluents including textile dyeing and metal plating’s, before flowing into the Arabian Sea. [9] 

It is estimated from different sources that about 20 lac pieces of garment leathers have been processed in Pakistan. Out of which about 15 lac pcs have been either exported as garment leather or leather garments. It is presumed that out of this 15 lac pieces of garment leather about 30-50 thousand pcs are exported as aniline finished. However if the share of aniline finished garment leathers and jackets/coats etc is raised to 50% country’s foreign exchange earnings could be nearly doubled what is being earning today. [10] 

Three basic types of pollutants are associated with tanning and finishing operations. They are: preservatives and pesticides, chemical pollutant and organic materials. The challenge for a policy maker is to identify the right mix of incentives and regulations for each target group and for each set of environmental conditions. Regulatory measures which impact on the industry deal with at least six different subject areas.

These include:

Land-use planning and zoning;

Environmental impact assessments and risk assessments for new plants;

Controls on effluent discharges, air emissions and solid-waste disposal;

Occupational health and safety standards;

Requirement for storage,transport,labelling and packing of chemicals;

Restrictions on the use of certain chemicals like biocides or dyes. [11] 

The eco-label on your products means that they have the following assets.

1. Reduced water and air pollution during fibre production.

2. Limited use of substances harmful to the environment and in particular to the aquatic environment and health.

3. Guarantee of shrink resistance during washing and drying.

4. Guarantee of colour resistance to perspiration, washing, wet and dry rubbing and light exposure.

5. Whole production chain covered.10

AUDINTING AS A COMPONENT OF EVONROMENTAL MANAGEMENT:

An environmental management system is the frame work for method of guiding and industry to achieve and sustain performance in accordance with established goals and in response to constantly changing regulations, Social,financial,economic, and competitively pressures, and environmental risks, when operating effectively, a corporate environmental management system provides management and the board of directors with the knowledge that,

1. The Industry is in compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations.

2. Polices and procedures are clearly defined and promulgated thought the organizations.

3. Corporate risks resulting from environmental risks are being acknowledged and brought under control.

4. The company has the right resources and staff for environmental work, us applying those resources and is in control of its future.11

ISO (INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZSATION) 14000 SERIES AND INDUSTRIES IN PAKISTAN.

The international competition forces this class firms to constantly improve quality in order to stay competitive in the global market place. More than 8,000 industrial establishments are registered under the factories Act 1934 with the Government of Pakistan.ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certified industrial establishments only comprise 17% of the total. In absolute term 13, 56 ISO 14000 certified organisations are operating in the country.

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NATIONAL CONSERVATION STRATEGY (NCS)

The NCS was adopted in 1992 after a long consultative process involving various stakeholders including government agencies, academia, NGOs and civil societies. The NCS plan of action can be classified into four broad components:

1. Strengthening of institutions.

2. Creation of supportive framework of regulation and economic incentives.

3. Broad based communications campaign of mass awareness.

4. Implementation of projects in NCS core areas.

The core areas of interventions identified in the NCS include the following:

I. Maintaining soils in cropland

2. Increasing irrigation efficiency.

3. Protecting watersheds.

4. Supporting forestry and plantations.

5. Restoring rangelands and improving livestock.

6. Protecting water bodies and sustaining fisheries.

7. Conserving biodiversity.

8. Increasing energy efficiency.

9. Developing and deploying material and energy renewable.

10. Preventing/abating pollution.

11. Managing urban waste.

12. Supporting institutions for common resources.

13. Integrating population and environment programmes

14. Preserving the cultural heritage.

PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT.

THE Environment Protection Ordinance of 1983 was replaced by a new Act of Parliament in 1997 i.e. Pakistan, Environmental Protection Act 1997. Under the new law various rules. Regulations and institutions have been established to ensure proper implementation of environmental laws in the country. The following actions have been taken by the Ministry for Environment, Local Governments and Rural Development:

1. National Environmental Quality Standards (Self-monitoring and Reporting by Industries) Rules, 2001.

2. Environmental samples Rules, 2001.

3. Provincial sustainable Development fund (Procedure) Rules, 2001.

4. Provincial Sustainable Development fund (Utilization) Rules, 2001.

5. Pollution charge for Industry (Calculation and Collection) Rules.2001.

6. Composition of Offences and Payment of Administrative Penalty Rules 2000.

7. Hazardous Substances Rules, 2000.

8. National Environmental Quality Standards (Environmental Laboratories Certification)

Regulations.2000.

9. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Review of IEE/EIA Regulations, 2000). 12

Introduction

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a body; which covers all departments and sections of the industries. There are rules to run it internally, and rules and responsibilities with respect to society and world at large. Like other industries, leather industry has many responsibilities with regards to environment. Leather industry is one of the archaic industries in the world. It is contributing many hazardous wastes to environment like all other industries. Deterioration of environment is the cause of concern for world, and for environmentalists; leather industry produces all three kinds of waste: gaseous, liquid, and solid. Leather industry is a very profitable and lucrative business for a country; however, it is intervened by the government to cut its pollution. This industry follows rules of corporate social responsibility (CSR). World organizations like WTO, European commission on environment watches it with vigilant eye.

Pakistan is primarily an a grain economy, agriculture sector comprises almost one fourth of the total GDP.The manufacturing sector has over the past several years remained stagnant with a share of 17% in the GDP.The GDP,currently at US$ 63 billion ranks 160the in the world, has not been able to achieve a sustainable growth of 5%.The total population of the country exceeds 140 million, with dismal economic performance the per capita income has hovering around US $ 450.The population growth rate of Pakistan is one of the highest in the world, between 2.2% and 2.5%.According to the world Development Report 2000-01, over 30% of the population survives below poverty line i.e. earns less than one dollar/day. Almost 85% of the population earns less than two dollars/day. Only 45% of the total population is literate, which also includes persons who only have the capability to read and write their names. The exports of the country have over the past twenty years been struggling to surpass the psychology barrier of US $ 10 billion. Every year major portion of the annual outlay is spent in debt servicing both domestic and foreign with little fiscal space for the government to initiate development programmes. [3] 

Environmental matters cannot be taken in isolation from leather making, as every facet of pollution or residual material is a direct function of manufacture. This is largely outside the tanner’s direct control: drastic changes are required in linkages between slaughter houses and tanners, new techniques for environmentally friendly preservation, or relocation of tanneries for saline discharge to the sea. As 85%-90% of the leathers are chrome tanned, these leathers in themselves create a problem. Chrome compounds are safe in tanning and chrome containing solid waste and sludge’s are manageable. However, leather goods are dispersed by the end of a useful life. They will not biodegrade, and simple incineration can convert some of the chrome into the dichromate form. [4] Carbon dioxide emissions have been predicted by world energy council to rise from the 1990 level of six Giga (60,000,000) tons a year to proximately 8.2-9.4 Giga tons a year by 2050 this is based on assumption that major technological advances will limit emissions despite a significant rise in energy demands. [5] 

Waste water treatment takes place in adjacent building where spent waters from the columns are received in two separate streams. This is to optimise treatment, taking place in three main stages:

After separation of the sludge, the quenching water is combined with spent water from the wet slag discharge, for the elimination of heavy metals. The combined stream is first pre-neutralised with lime slurry, the fluorides and phosphates being precipitated as calcium salts. The pH-value is raised further, followed by dosing with organ sulphide to precipitate the heavy metals as hydroxide or sulphides.

The pH value of the water stream containing the sulphate from the removal of sulphur dioxide is regulated with caustic soda to avoid the precipitation of large quantities of gypsum. The heavy metals are then precipitated with organo-sulfide, as described, for the quenching water.

The heavy metal precipitates from both streams are combined in”sludge thicker “and dewatered periodically in a filter press to a cake of around 30% dry solids content. [6] 

The elements of the periodic table have a diverse and interesting history. All matter is made of atoms and is found in three phases solid, liquid, and gas (plasma is fourth phase).Elements are groups of atoms that are characterised by the number of protons (positively charged atomic particles) in its nucleus, and similar physical and chemical properties .The atom consists of a solid nucleus that contains protons and neutrons atomic particle) surrounded by cloud of electrons (negatively charged particles) as shown in picture. [7] 

NATURAL REACTIONS IN A NEW CONTEXT.

It is useful to turn to nature to find new technologies and tanning is no exception.Biomimetic tanning chemistries have the characteristic of using natural reactions in a new context. Such organic tanning reactions are of interest from three points of view as they:

1. Offer new methods of making leather, to yield new products, which may contribute to lessening the environmental impact of tanning.

2. Offer new opportunities for high hydrothermal stability tanning, by acting as new linking agents, then allowing manipulation of the chemistry of the locking step.

3. May involve the novel use of enzymes in tanning operating as catalysing activating agents, so the rate of reaction is highly controllable. It is instructive to examine three examples. [8] 

In the korangi distric to karchi, Pakistan, there is a cluster of 166 tanneries on a single industrial site.

The total volume of effluent generated by this grouping is estimated at 36,000m3 per day. At present this effluent is untreated, and mixes with various other industrial effluents including textile dyeing and metal plating’s, before flowing into the Arabian Sea. [9] 

It is estimated from different sources that about 20 lac pieces of garment leathers have been processed in Pakistan. Out of which about 15 lac pcs have been either exported as garment leather or leather garments. It is presumed that out of this 15 lac pieces of garment leather about 30-50 thousand pcs are exported as aniline finished. However if the share of aniline finished garment leathers and jackets/coats etc is raised to 50% country’s foreign exchange earnings could be nearly doubled what is being earning today. [10] 

Three basic types of pollutants are associated with tanning and finishing operations. They are: preservatives and pesticides, chemical pollutant and organic materials. The challenge for a policy maker is to identify the right mix of incentives and regulations for each target group and for each set of environmental conditions. Regulatory measures which impact on the industry deal with at least six different subject areas.

These include:

Land-use planning and zoning;

Environmental impact assessments and risk assessments for new plants;

Controls on effluent discharges, air emissions and solid-waste disposal;

Occupational health and safety standards;

Requirement for storage,transport,labelling and packing of chemicals;

Restrictions on the use of certain chemicals like biocides or dyes. [11] 

The eco-label on your products means that they have the following assets.

1. Reduced water and air pollution during fibre production.

2. Limited use of substances harmful to the environment and in particular to the aquatic environment and health.

3. Guarantee of shrink resistance during washing and drying.

4. Guarantee of colour resistance to perspiration, washing, wet and dry rubbing and light exposure.

5. Whole production chain covered.10

AUDINTING AS A COMPONENT OF EVONROMENTAL MANAGEMENT:

An environmental management system is the frame work for method of guiding and industry to achieve and sustain performance in accordance with established goals and in response to constantly changing regulations, Social,financial,economic, and competitively pressures, and environmental risks, when operating effectively, a corporate environmental management system provides management and the board of directors with the knowledge that,

1. The Industry is in compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations.

2. Polices and procedures are clearly defined and promulgated thought the organizations.

3. Corporate risks resulting from environmental risks are being acknowledged and brought under control.

4. The company has the right resources and staff for environmental work, us applying those resources and is in control of its future.11

ISO (INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZSATION) 14000 SERIES AND INDUSTRIES IN PAKISTAN.

The international competition forces this class firms to constantly improve quality in order to stay competitive in the global market place. More than 8,000 industrial establishments are registered under the factories Act 1934 with the Government of Pakistan.ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 certified industrial establishments only comprise 17% of the total. In absolute term 13, 56 ISO 14000 certified organisations are operating in the country.

NATIONAL CONSERVATION STRATEGY (NCS)

The NCS was adopted in 1992 after a long consultative process involving various stakeholders including government agencies, academia, NGOs and civil societies. The NCS plan of action can be classified into four broad components:

1. Strengthening of institutions.

2. Creation of supportive framework of regulation and economic incentives.

3. Broad based communications campaign of mass awareness.

4. Implementation of projects in NCS core areas.

The core areas of interventions identified in the NCS include the following:

I. Maintaining soils in cropland

2. Increasing irrigation efficiency.

3. Protecting watersheds.

4. Supporting forestry and plantations.

5. Restoring rangelands and improving livestock.

6. Protecting water bodies and sustaining fisheries.

7. Conserving biodiversity.

8. Increasing energy efficiency.

9. Developing and deploying material and energy renewable.

10. Preventing/abating pollution.

11. Managing urban waste.

12. Supporting institutions for common resources.

13. Integrating population and environment programmes

14. Preserving the cultural heritage.

PAKISTAN ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT.

THE Environment Protection Ordinance of 1983 was replaced by a new Act of Parliament in 1997 i.e. Pakistan, Environmental Protection Act 1997. Under the new law various rules. Regulations and institutions have been established to ensure proper implementation of environmental laws in the country. The following actions have been taken by the Ministry for Environment, Local Governments and Rural Development:

1. National Environmental Quality Standards (Self-monitoring and Reporting by Industries) Rules, 2001.

2. Environmental samples Rules, 2001.

3. Provincial sustainable Development fund (Procedure) Rules, 2001.

4. Provincial Sustainable Development fund (Utilization) Rules, 2001.

5. Pollution charge for Industry (Calculation and Collection) Rules.2001.

6. Composition of Offences and Payment of Administrative Penalty Rules 2000.

7. Hazardous Substances Rules, 2000.

8. National Environmental Quality Standards (Environmental Laboratories Certification)

Regulations.2000.

9. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Review of IEE/EIA Regulations, 2000). 12

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