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Pollution in India

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Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

Published: Thu, 13 Jul 2017

Most Indian cities are experiencing rapid urbanization and a majority of the India’s population is expected to live in cities within a span of next two decades. The rapid development in urban India has also resulted in a tremendous increase in the number of motor vehicles and in some cities this has doubled in the last decade. Which is the main source of air pollution and poor ambient air quality impacting millions of citizens. This report presents a review of the main causes of this phenomenon and the various measures adopted for their reduction. Also, cleaner fuels have been introduced along with improved emission control devices. Future strategies like use of alternative fuels and spreading awareness amongst citizens will further help reduce emissions that led to air pollution.

Introduction

India has the worst air pollution in the entire world, and this problem has attracted special attention in India due to the increase in population, industrialisation and urbanisation. Air pollution has been just below , tobacco smoking, indoor air pollution, blood pressure, diabetes among the top ten killers. This phenomenal has affected many aspects in India and the most crucial aspect is the health side of it population. However, Indian’s government has made huge steps to reduce the consequences and spread knowledge between citizens.

  • Air Pollution

Natural component of fresh air are consist of 78.1 percent Nitrogen, 21 percent Oxygen, 0.95 percent Argon and 0.04 percent Carbon di-oxide. When these typical percentage of air component irregular due to the influence of several ruinous gases then our surrounding environment become polluted. There are some example of harmful elements of air like hydrocarbon gases, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen and some greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and many more.http://www.thehindu.com/multimedia/dynamic/00905/toxic_air3_905565g.jpg

  • What Causes Air Pollution?

Air pollution caused directly through use of electricity, fuels, and transportation.

http://www.drishtikone.com/wp-content/uploads/Pollutants.png

Increase in industrial activity

India has made fast strides in industrialisation, and it is one of the ten most industrialised nations worldwide. However this status, has brought with it unwanted and unexpected consequences such as unplanned urbanisation and pollution.

Domestic pollution

Pollution from different types of cooking using coal, fuel wood, and other biomass fuels contributes to some extent, to the overall pollution load in urban areas.

Electricity

Major reason to increase pollution in the air is the industrial emissions because burning fossil fuel to produce electricity emissions about 40% of carbon dioxide and many harmful gases.

Power plants

India and specifically Delhi produces much of its electricity depending on different coal-fired plants for industries and supplying for Delhi’s major projects.

http://respromask.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/three-wheelers-india1.jpg?w=288&h=198

Transportation

Vehicles contribute up to 35% of air pollution in the large cities of India like Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai .Also, Engine exhaust (diesel and gas) carries more than 40 dangerous air pollutants.

  • Vehicular Pollution

Between 1951 and 2011, the urban population has multiplied, from 62.4 million to 377.1 million, and its percentage has increased from 17.3% to 31.16%. In 1991, there were 18 cities with a population of over 1 million, in 2012 this is estimated to expand to 46 cities . This rapid increase in unplanned urban population has resulted in an increase in consumption patterns and a higher demand for transport and energy.

Between 2005-2006,there were about 8.9 million vehicles sold and it reach 15 million in 2010-2011 which show that the number of vehicles sold in India is increasing fast during the past few years. And as studies shows that when the number of vehicles increased that lead to increase of harmful emissions which will finally be so affected in air quality(air pollution).In addition, vehicles are estimated to be the responsible of producing about 70% of CO2, 50% of HC,30-40% of NOx,30% of SPM and 10% of SO2 of the overall air pollution in cities.

 

The most air pollution rise in Indian cities

Despite the fact that the 51 Indian cities suffer from an extreme high level of air pollution, Bangalore , Mumbai ,Nagpur ,Hyderabad and Pune are certainly topping the list. Also, all 51 Indian cities don’t meet the prescribed Respirable Particulate Matter (RSPM) levels, specified under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

As researches shows that Bangalore have the most rise in air pollution , then Pune coming after and Hyderabad, Nagpur and Mumbai respectively are the next three position.C:UsershpDesktopME!Principles Environmenttal ScCase Study30_11_pg10a.jpg

Kanpur and Delhi are the most polluted cities in India.

(According to the national summary report on air quality monitoring and emission inventory for Indian cities of the Ministry of Environment and Forest)

Effects

Outdoor air pollution has emerged as a major health risk in developing countries, contributing to some 3.2 million premature deaths worldwide and 74 million years of healthy life lost in 2010 and India is particularly at risk.

Delhi population directly hit by air pollution

Decaying air quality in India can transform into 3,000 additional “premature deaths” annually because of diseases related to air pollution . Delhi government, estimated that about 55 per cent of Delhi’s population is directly affected by air pollution as they live in a radius of 500 meters of “urban roads” where pollution level was found to be maximum.

Health Impacts of Air Pollution

  • Increase in mortality due to urban air pollution.
  • Induction or revival of diseases.
  • Respiratory illness / disorders.
  • Systemic & Immune alterations.
  • Cardiovascular problems.
  • Brain damage.
  • Retardation of fetal growth.
  • Increases prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms.

Fact

Bangalore holds the title of being the asthma capital of the country. Studies estimate that 10 per cent of Bangalore’s population and over 50 per cent of its children below 18 years suffer from air pollution- related ailments.

Chennai: Exhaust from vehicles, dust from construction debris, industrial waste, burning of municipal and garden waste are all on the rise in the city. So are respiratory diseases, including asthma.

Pune: air pollution in Pune has become a serious problem. The respiratory suspended particulate matter in the air is more than the standard national level. About 93,000 commercial properties which include hotels, malls and hospitals emit 204 tone every year.

Children – the target

{Both in rural & urban areas, children are the most vulnerable group due to}

  • Lower breathing zone.
  • Greater oxygen consumption.
  • More susceptible target organs.
  • Immunity not fully operational.

Environmental impacts

Environmental impacts are not limited to local air quality, but global climate change as well. Greenhouse gas emissions from vehicular traffic damage the ozone layers on a global level and also have local impacts. Increased greenhouse gas emissions damage nearby soil, vegetation, forest areas, aquatic systems, and groundwater . With two-thirds of India’s population depending directly on climate sensitive sectors such as agriculture, fisheries, and forestry , it is essential that these problems are totally researched and addressed in the near future.

Air pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels like coal and diesel has contributed to a worrisome slowdown in rice harvest growth in India in the past two decades.

How to reduce air pollution

Major efforts needed to reduce air pollution

A lot of effort is needed in reducing emission of pollutants and greenhouses gases to improve the quality of air. Predict Air quality is required to provide information to the public to help them manage their health and welfare better.

Modern day fuel alternatives for nations keen on becoming energy independent

Modern life is closely associated with the need to reduce risk and enhance dependability. Concern for a fleetly-depleting environment has also caused a interest in the emergence of substitute fuels. The aim is to notch fewer vehicle emissions that contribute to smog, air pollution.

Green Court launched

India launched a “green” court on October 19, 2010 to make polluters pay damages as it steps up its policing of the country’s environmental laws. India was only the third country in the world after Australia and New Zealand to set up such a court. “This is the first step of its kind in India to apply the polluter pays principle and the principle of sustainable development.

India switches over to cleaner petrol and diesel

The country has fully switched over to cleaner Euro-III and Euro-IV petrol and diesel.

India’s tough new rules to fight air pollution

The government has almost reduce the acceptable limits for polluting gases to the half, gases like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. The key bits are that residential and industrial areas will have the same limits. After a long gap of 15 years we have notified the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. It brings the air quality standards to European levels and in many cases it even exceeds the standards in the USA. Consequences of these standards will be on clean fuel and this will have major implications on Green House gas emission as well,” said Jairam Ramesh, Environment Minister.

Kolkata begins clean-air campaign

Kolkata began its campaign to clean up its air with 1500 policemen taking to the streets to seize polluting buses, taxis and autos.

Conclusion

Urban air pollution has long been a serious problem in the India , reflecting both the importance of highly polluting industries for the national economy and political factors such as the low priority of environmental issues and lack of public participation. Also, it affecting every things including environment such as public health in India is in serious risk and environmental impact on the climate which is a important factor for agriculture that Indians depend on for living. However , Indian government has some solutions ,for example switching to a cleaner fuel, set rules to reduce the emissions , and do campaign to spread knowledge about the effects of pollution and about how they can personally help out will be important to create a culture that values the environment.

Resources

1) www.gits4u.com

2) www.indyatour.com

3) www.ipcbee.com

4) www.articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com

5) www.ndtv.com

6) ww.twocircles.net

7)www.drew-urban-travels.blogspot.com

8)www.pals.in

9) www.rrcap.ait

10) www.theicct.org


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