This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Revenge is one of the prominent and stronger issues in the novel Wuthering Heights. Emily Bronte has discussed the cruel and wicked nature of human beings. Novel was set in the harsh, rough and isolated atmosphere of Yorkshire moors in northern England. There are many reasons of emergent revenge amid the characters. People were bounded and restricted due to their class systems. One of the causes of Heathcliff's vindictive nature is his belonging of lower class. Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw was failed to maintain equality between Hindley and Heathcliff. Throughout their life's, both suffered and thus became as a victim of injustice. Character of Catherine is the true representation of Victorian women. One way Catherine pretends that she loves Heathcliff but on the same way she cheats him. If she chose Heathcliff for marriage, revenge would not have raised and automatically lives of many people would have saved. Edgar, Hindley and Catherine's behaviour towards Heathcliff seems inhumane and disrespectful, therefore their brutal behaviour becomes the reason of Heathcliff's hurtful nature. Heathcliff proves himself that extreme of love is equally dangerous than as extreme of hate. His desire of taking revenge is superior to his love for Catherine. Edgar, Hindley, Catherine and Heathcliff have evenly participated in destroying lives of many people. By showing Heathcliff's devil style look, description of Wuthering Heights as haunted place, lack of religion, elements of ghost, Catherins and Heathcliff madness in love makes the story affected by supernatural elements and it also gives us contemplation that there is a super power around them who does not like peace and instructs them to take revenge from others. Showing the characters of Isabella and young Cathy, Emily has given us the lesson of morality as well. If both ladies obeyed Edgar's suggestion, they would not become fools. Despite the fact that the revenge moves from one generation to another but in my perception characters like young Cathy and Hareton presents as the hope of peaceful future. Their sincere bonding abolishes the revenge completely at the end. Though my research topic seems pessimistic but I have ended up it an optimistic note. God does not take revenge from us. We all have to go to God with empty hands, only our deeds will go with us. Now it depends on us, either we want to die peacefully or not.
Emily Bronte belongs to the Victorian age. Her novel "Wuthering Heights" is one of the classical novels of this age, although she died very young but Emily's work still have its uniqueness. The novel basically set in the harsh and isolated Yorkshire moors in northern England. Emily discussed very mature and bold issues. For example she wrote on escapism from religion which was totally against the customs of Victorian age. The people of this age were very strict and conservative about their religion. Women were also confined to their houses even they did not have the rights to choose their partner for marriage. We see Emily's own perception and imagination in this novel. According to the novel "Wuthering Heights" it depicts, that she was against the norms of Victorian age.
The love triangle between Heathcliff, Catherine and Edgar seems very complex and complicated. Writer has revealed to the readers in earlier chapters that Catherine and Heathcliff both fall in love but Catherine chooses Edgar for marriage just for the sake of money and temporary physical attraction. After some time when Heathcliff gets wealth Catherine again gets closer to Heathcliff that is quite ironical. The character of Hindley represents as a jealous and a wicked person. He was the first person who started the vengeance. Revenge travels one generation to next generation. Characters like Hareton, Cathy and Linton are shown as the symbols of Victim. They suffered because of their parents. On the other hand Nelly Dean and Lockwood are shown as the narrators of the story.
Since my research is qualitative so the only source of my research is reading. My research thesis has consisted on four chapters. First chapter is about "The Issue of Class System". Difference between the classes of the characters is one of the main issues of the novel. The novel was written at a time when the people of England were affected not only with the economy and Industrial revolution but also with the traditional class structure of this age. The orphan Heathcliff suffered due to his lower class.
Second chapter has covered "The Role of Revenge and Vengeance" in the novel. Because of the revenge, Hindley used to torture Heathcliff. Heathcliff's education was stopped by Hindley, he did not get a chance to raise his social class. Although Catherine loved Heathcliff but she got fascinated by the wealth and life style of Edgar and decided to marry with him. Catherine's rejection made him cruel, selfish and arrogant.
Third chapter is about the "Impacts of Violence and Obsession" that rotate around the characters of the novel. Hindley's jealousy and the ill- treatment with orphan Heathcliff raised aggression in him. As a result Heathcliff did not spare anyone. The violent and jealous behavior of Hindley destroys his sister's life too. Wuthering Heights is a strong but morbid novel of love and suffering. Through this novel Emily has tried to convey the lesson that why it is important to keep the balance between relationships? We can conclude it at the end of the story in the following way, doing anything in an excess level is not supposed to be a good thing. The obsession of love and revenge both have crossed the limits in the novel. Victim of the destructive influences of the obsession are Isabella, Cathy and Linton. The extremist love of Heathcliff destroyed his own life too.
Fourth chapter has included "The Supernatural Effects" of the story. Wuthering Heights is famous for its gothic elements. The house (Wuthering Heights) itself gives the mysterious, unwelcoming, haunted and old looks. The eighteen century was dominated by supernatural novels. That is why Emily wrote a romantic story along with the gothic effects. Heathcliff has shown as a hero with horror looks.
"The act of harming somebody in return for harm they have done" (Oxford Popular School Dictionary. 2008)
Charles Percy Sanger wrote an essay in (1926). He is the first person, who did detailed examination of the novel Wuthering Heights. Throughout his essay, he was finding an answer of question which had in his mind. Sanger starts an essay with the pedigree of the two families. Sanger notices all the dates. Novel starts with the date 1801. June 1778 was the year of Hareton's birth, 20th March was the date of birth of Catherine. The marriage date of Catherine Earnshaw and Edgar Linton was June 1783. Catherine died at 2 a.m. on Monday 20th March 1784. According to Charles, Emily Bronte did not use a calendar. For him this mistake seems unusual characteristic of novel. I found his research very unique and different but on the same time, he has neglected some major issues of the novel. Revenge is one of the main issues, he has not written a single sentence on it. This seems strange because this was one of the detailed works on Wuthering Heights. At the end of his essay he has accepted that his research is technically dull.
Linda Gold's examined the Wuthering Heights on the basis of Freudin interpretations in (2011). She analysed in depth, the symbiosis of Catherine, Heathcliff and Edgar. In the same way she has made readers mind that how did revenge grown up between them? She has written her research on the interpretations of Freud's id, ego and superego. Heathcliff's id is suspicious. No one knows where he spent three years before coming into Wuthering Heights. Then she comes on Catherine, she had a very social personality. Her id was energetic and sharp minded. Her ego restricted and controlled her life to take changes. Then she discussed Edgar the super egoist. He is a true representative of Victorian era. He uses his wit power to select him rather than to Heathcliff. According to Freud's analysis a male ego person would have the courage to deal successfully with the world, a female egoist person would have to live through males. Gold moves her Freudin Scrutiny to the second generation at the end. She said the whole structure of Wuthering Heights would be read as the development of one personality. If we see Wuthering Heights in the light of Gold's research we will definitely agree with her. Id, ego and superego belong to Heathcliff, Catherine and Edgar respectively.
An entirely different approach has given by Grame Tytler in (2011). He has applied 19th century psychological theory on Wuthering Heights and further wrote an essay on it. Healthcliff was affected by monomaniac. Monomaniac was a very famous disease in Bronte's days. New name of this disease is obsession, specific disorder in someone's personality. Healthcliff had clearly symptoms of monomaniac. The whole research of Grame revolves around Heathcliff and the effects of monomaniac on him. The first symptom of this disease is passion. We all agree with the fact that Heathcliff loved Catherine passionately. When Catherine chose Edgar as her life partner, Heathcliff whole life destroyed. We can compare our self with Heathcliff. What will be our reaction if someone rejects us? Naturally we shout, scold and cry. Simultaneously reaction of Healthcliff seems natural at start but after some time his human nature turned into wild animal. He has taken out all his pain as revenge. He used to torture and harassed Isabella, Cathy and Hareton. Isabella says to Nelly "Is Mr Heathcliff a man? If so, is he mad? And if not, is he a devil?" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:13:135) Tytler described different stages of Heathcliff. He is the true picture of obsession. It could be more beneficial for us if he would emphasis on other characters too.
The readers who were read Wuthering Heights were shocked by the violence in the story. It is true because in 1847 people were not habitual for this kind of violence. Violence enhanced the revenge factor in the story. Violence revolves around many characters. For example it starts with Heathcliff and Hindley fight. We see in every violent scene there was a reason behind it. Hindley did not accept Heathcliff in his house. He used to hate his father when he supported Heathcliff. The relationship between Edgar and Heathcliff were full of revenge. Characters like Isabella and Cathy who suffered a lot, changed into wild and violent characters. Knives, blood on tree, taunts, harsh and aloud sound, whip are symbolisms of violence in the story. It is very important to think why Emily has shown this kind of extreme violence? It can be several interpretations. May be she wanted to reveal the reality of Victorian society or maybe she wanted to give a lesson or by showing violence and revenge she wanted to highlight the inner pain of human being.
Vengeance is the most imminent topic in Wuthering Heights. Many researches and essays have been written on this issue. In this essay critic added Austin O'Malley Statement he said "Revenge is often like biting because a dog bit you" (123helpme.com):(a) O'Malley's quote gives a sense of cruel reality. No one can find peace through revenge. An essay starts with the Heathcliff plan that he wanted to take revenge from Edgar through Isabella. The death of Catherine proves that the plan helps him nothing. Catherine ghost were used to wandering around the earth. For 20 years, visiting Heathcliff and tortured him. "Let me alone, let me alone. Sobbed Catherine, if I have done wrong, I'm dying for it. It is enough! You left me too: but I won't be upbraid you! I forgive you. Forgive me!" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:13:144) .In my opinion the problem maker is Catherine in the story because she does not love Edgar. She chooses social status, fame and popularity instead of Heathcliff's true love. Catherine nature resembles with the poetry of Oliver Goldsmith "When lovely woman stoops to folly and finds too late that men betray, what charm can soothe her melancholy? What art can wash her guilt away? The only art her guilt to cover, to hide her shame from every eye, to give repentance to her lover, and wring his bosom, is - to die". (Goldsmith,O, When lovely woman stoops to folly:1-8) Hindley's revenge destroys his own life. He got bankrupt and his beloved wife died and eventuality he died. Emily story compels her readers to think what Heathcliff achieved at the end? Is he got Catherine? Revenge worked nothing for him. Emily did great work by showing revenge as negative stigma.
Anton has written a thesis on the characterization of Wuthering Heights in (2011). Emily depicts the social code, conventions and challenges of Victorian society. It can also be taken as a deep criticism on Bronte's time. Anton's approach is quite new because he has taken out several important points. Thrushcross Grange symbolises as Edgar personality like decent and full of manners. While Wuthering Heights symbolises as Heathcliff personality like wild and unfriendly. Both houses inhabit dogs. The dogs of Wuthering Heights are wild, chaotic and habitual of natural environment. Grange owns pet dogs. Hindley's personality shows a real man of Victorian era. He is charming, sensitive and emotional but when his father did discrimination between him and Heathcliff, his nature becomes alter. Catherine also affected by the situation and lifted closer to Heathcliff. The whole novel is full of paradoxical and ironical situations. For example, Catherine chooses Edgar instead of Heathcliff however she does not love Edgar. Catherine still loves Heathcliff but tries to bring Isabella and Heathcliff nearer. "My poor little sister-in-law is breaking her heart by mere contemplation of your physical and moral beauty. It lies in your own power to be Edgar's brother! No, no, Isabella, you sha'n't run off,' she continued, arresting, with feigned playfulness, the confounded girl, who had risen indignantly. 'We were quarrelling like cats about you, Heathcliff" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:10:108) Isabella, who is educated and mannered girl and lives with Catherine in one house still un aware with the affair of Catherine and Heathcliff how strange? The whole structure of the novel compels readers to think beyond the imaginations.
According to Eric Solomon Wuthering Heights has an incest theme. He has written a thesis in (1959) in which, he has raised many issues to justify his opinion. He quoted Richard Chase statement. He considers that "Is impossible to imagine such a stormy, undisciplined pair as Cathy and Heathcliff ever setting down to a normal life of domesticity". (Chase,R. quoted in Solomon,E.1959:80) Because of Heathcliff's black skin ton, it is not clear whether he was a gypsy or prince or devil? According to Nelly Dean's narration old Earnshaw brought orphan Heathcliff to his own home. Mrs.Earnshaw did not like her husband's step. She was thinking that her husband is mad or he may be having an illegitimate child. Because it was an old tradition in 18th century the provincial slum, the waif must have had some protector then why this child was wandering alone? Erics philosophy seems right because as brother and sister they could not be get married. As a son of Mr.Earnshaw he had rights to own the property. In the middle of the story we see Heathcliff comes as an owner of Wuthering Heights. The characters of Heathcliff and Catherine can be taken as victims of fate and things were beyond with their control. Eric's research might be true because he closes his research on the Cathy's question. "She is Heathcliff, does she mean that they are one flesh as well as one spirit?" (Solomon, E. 1959:83) Emily has left many questions on readers. Now it depends on us, from which angle of Wuthering Heights do we see?
Arnold Shapiro has compared Wuthering Heights with Great Expectation and Jane Eyre in (1969). His research is based on the ethical and moral traditions of the Victorian period. According to him Dickens, Charlotte and Emily have shown same issues in their writing. Like their characters have to face the problems and at the end they reach into the same conclusion. Heathcliff and Pip both are orphan alone and outcast as much as alien in the novels. Then he compares Mr.Earnshaw with Reeds, they bring stranger to their houses. Characters of Heathcliff and Jane also resembles both are looking different from everyone else therefore seems to bear a threat like Mrs.Earnshaw was ready to fling out Heathcliff and Reeds forced Jane to live with servants. Joe and Mr.Earnshaw both helped Pip and Heathcliff in many ways and it is very interesting to know that both Estella and Catherine betrayed to their lovers. In the Victorian period people were very good christens. In novel Wuthering Heights, Linton's brought up shows that he is good in religion but when Isabella spoiled by Heathcliff and looking towards his brother, Edgar shows no humanity and ill - behavior. "I seek no revenge on you, replied Heathcliff, less vehemently. That's not the plan. The tyrant grinds down his slaves and they don't turn against him; they crush those beneath them. You are welcome to torture me to death for your amusement, only allow me to amuse myself a little in the same style". (Bronte,E.1988,ch:11:114) Both Cathy and Catherine are having different natures. Catherine's nature is greedy therefore she made her house on the grave of her lover while on the other hand young Cathy's nature is sympathetic. As in the same way, the desires of Heathcliff are endless because he has sadistic nature.
According to James Hafley villain and problem maker in Wuthering Heights is Ellen Dean. He has read Wuthering Heights in the light of new experience. Charlotte Bronte said about Nelly "For a specimen of true benevolence and homely fidelity, look at the character of Nelly Dean". (Bronte,C. quoted in Hafley,J.1958:199) In my opinion, Nelly's role in Wuthering Heights is very prominent. She is a nurse and narrator of the story and to write thesis on Nelly is something exceptional. The critic of this paper adds textual evidence in order to make strong his points. Nelly had an objection that why Mr.Earnshaw brought Heathcliff in home? Throughout her life she never liked Heathcliff. Joseph always notices Nelly's facial expression becomes change when she is narrating about Heathcliff. She used to create problems between characters. After Catherine's marriage Nelly moved with her to Thrushcross Grange. She became greedy and acted as a queen over there. "A person who has not done one half his days' work by ten o'clock runs a chance of leaving the other half undone". (Bronte, E.1988,ch:7:69)She never tried to solve the problems of Grange house. "I rang the bell and committed it to a servant care." (Bronte, E.1988,ch:17:164) She knows Heathcliff came back and now he is trying to meet with Catherine but she remained as silent and sees how Heathcliff compelled Isabella to marry him. She is also responsible when Cathy got hostile by Heathclif. I really appreciate James effort but we should remember the fact that Nelly Dean is just a poor servant of house. She has fulfilled all the duties commendably.
Distortion and exaggeration are equally important topic in Wuthering Heights which lifts Heathcliff to take revenge. Heathcliff cries many times for Catherine. "I cannot live without my life! I cannot live without my soul!" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:17:161) Catherine also feels same for him once she spoke to Nelly that "Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same". (Bronte,E.1988,ch:11:86) It shows both of them truly love each other. After Catherine's death her she used to haunt Heathcliff as a ghost. Despite of their physical separation, Edgar could not part them spiritually. Heathcliff shows his vindictive nature and becomes evil more than Satan. After Catherine he decides to take revenge from every one. Only Catherine could have saved because of her death. Heathcliff has tried his best to destroy Isabella, Linton, Cathy, Hareton lives. Emily over exaggerated the fear of death. For example in the beginning it was shocking to read Lockwood injured by the wild dogs. At that time people were not habitual for this kind of tension. Because of this Wuthering Heights had faced criticism but ultimately novel has changed people's mind. Now Wuthering Heights considers as classics of Victorian period.
Critic's appreciated the frame narration of Wuthering Heights a lot. Many researches and essays have been written on Nelly Dean. In another paper critic has expresses his thoughts. Nelly is having a very strong character in novel. She had philosopher type mind Nelly says: "Proud people breed sad sorrows for themselves". (Bronte,E.1988,ch:7:64) She is not only nurse and servant but in addition she is a mother for Catherine and Hindley. She has lived all her life between moors and justified his role whether live in Grange or Wuthering Heights. Whenever Cathy needed help she always did whatever she could. She is a person of wisdom and. dignity. Once she said "A good heart will help you to a bonny face, my lad, if you were a regular black; and a bad one will turn the bonniest into something worse than ugly." (Bronte,E.1988,ch:7:65) Witness of almost every incident but never cheated any one. She used to guide everyone.
Bitirme Tezi's writes thesis in (2009). He emphasizes on the love and isolation of Wuthering Heights. He further elaborates his research and says it can be a cause of destructive relationships in the novel. Our mind starts understanding his point of views when we closely read the novel. Isolation of Wuthering Heights recognises as have the connection of moors and hills and strong natural environment, on the other hand isolation of Thrushcross Grange is connected with the idea of lively atmosphere. Gimmerton society was the high class society in those days. Wuthering Heights had no communication with Gimmerton and they were isolated from society while the Thruchcross Grange had strongly relations with Gimmerton people. That is the reason people of Thrushcross were more educated, mannered and very much affected with the norms of 18th century. Therefore lack of association with high class strongly affected the people of Wuthering Heights. Catherine, who is poor, meets with rich Edgar, she impresses by his wealth and finally they get married. It seems very normal but on the wider imagination it has created differences between many people and became a cause of revenge.
Wuthering Heights was very famous in Victorian period. Some readers like the novel and some not. Many critics have long list for the reasons of disliking. Infanticide and Sadism is one of the reasons. Wade Thompson has criticised the novel. I respect his views and agree with what he said about infanticide. "Catherine Earnshaw is not quite eight when her mother dies; "Cathy Linton's birth coincides with her mother's death; Hareton's mother dies in the year of his birth; and Heathcliff is an orphan by the time he is seven. Even the children who receive motherly care throughout their childhood do not receive it long after they reach puberty. Linton Heathcliff loses his mother when he is not quite thirteen-Linton, of course, is a child all his life-and Isabella Linton is orphaned when she is fourteen. The only exceptions-and these unimportant-are Hindley Earnshaw and Edgar Linton, who are sixteen and eighteen respectively when their mothers die and even their mothers are apparently not very motherly".(Thompson,W.1963:69) but I m not agree when he said about sadism, in my opinion Heathcliff never wanted to have an adult relation with Catherine but for his desire of revenge, he forced Linton to have relation with Catherine. Only Heathcliff and Catherine are not responsible for Linton and Catherine, Isabella and Edgar are equally responsible for the destruction.
Wuthering Heights shows destructive relationships between the characters. In another essay critic has pointed out the characteristics of destructive relationship. He discusses topics like un-caring parents, jealousy and desire of revenge. His research seems right because Mr.Earnshaw was unsuccessful to maintain a balance between Hindley and Heathcliff. Another example is Hareton and Hindley. Hindley never became a good father, he had spoiled his life in drugs and because of him Hareton departed as uneducated person. The primary example of destructive relationship is Heathcliff and Linton. Once Linton says: him"My father threatened me, and I dread him - I dread!" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:27:244) Isabella, Heathcliff and Catherine, Edgar both couples are the example of destructive relationship. In my opinion our brought up make our life good or bad, if we have proper family atmosphere we won't be get jealous which creates ultimately a desire of revenge.
The influence of childhood pervades throughout the novel. In another essay, critic has compared two generation's childhood behaviour. Heathcliff, Catherine and Hindley have shared childhood together. According to Steve Davies "The childhood of both protagonists Heathcliff and Catherine, haunts them in their adult lives thus affecting their interactions with and their behavior towards other people in a negative way."(customwritings.com):(b) They used to dinning and sleeping together. But because of many quarrels and jealousy their relation became dejected and vengeful. At one time Heathcliff said "I'm trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I don't care how long I wait, if I can only do it at last. I hope he will not die before I do!" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:7:69) In my point of view Emily has fully justified with the plot. One way she has shown negative impacts of these people at the end of the story then on the same way, she has opened a door of new life by showing Catherine and Hareton marriage. They are the hope of new generation. They have overcome their bitter memories.
In another essay critic expresses his views and says Wuthering Heights is a silly love story. He has given this title on the basis of two books one is written by Robert McKibben, and second is Control of Sympathy in Wuthering Heights written by John Hagan. I totally agree with his perception that only Catherine and Heathcliff should not be blame for the disasters in the story. They were passionately in love. But we all know in every love story there is always a third person who creates problems between lovers life. Edgar has played third person's role in the story. After the death of Catherine, Heathcliff used to cry and scold most of the time. "Come in! come in!" he sobbed. "Cathy, do come. Oh, do -once more! Oh! My heart's darling, hear me this time - Catherine, at last!"(Bronte,E.1988,ch:3:41) Wuthering Heights gives us lesson that revenge is dangerous and harmful for our life.
To conclusion, Emily Bronte has created a new world in one novel Wuthering Heights. She has shown influence of childhood, social problems, destructive relationships, violence, isolation and many others. The root cause of all these problems is Revenge. My research focuses on finding the reasons behind any act of revenge because I truly believe that God has not created men with the negative nature it is the circumstances that creates human being nature as vindictive. Since those researches which I have discussed in literature review are not adequate, therefore I have done this research. My research is not the last research on this topic I hope it will link towards new beginning.
RESEARCH QUESTION: How does revenge rotate around the characters of Wuthering Heights?
Whenever we read word "revenge" something negative comes in our mind and we usually fixed our mind on it. There is always a reason behind any negative behavior and that is why I have chosen this topic. My target is to find out the reasons that make the human being hard hearted and contemptuous. The Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte is the perfect example of "Revenge". We see revenge starts from the beginning of the novel and stays throughout the story. My research will compel people to change their minds and they will get to know how harmful and dangerous revenge is. If Earnshaw maintained the equality between Heathcliff and Hindley, revenge would not be raised. My research has ended on an optimistic message and people will surely take a lesson from it.
The Issue of Class System
The social and class structure of 18th century were the same as it is today. Classes were confined into Lower, Bourgeois and Aristocrat. People from lower class were feeling reluctant because they did not get respect from the society. Bourgeois people used to degrade these people and that was the reason, both sides of people were feeling jealous for each other.
Emily has created a new world by writing Wuthering Heights. She shows the actual game of our society in which everybody is running after lust. Acquiring of everything is not a new habit of human being. When we see Wuthering Heights under the roof of class structure, the cruel reality of human being comes in front of us. We see a selfish world, in which clever, arrogant, self centered and selfish people lives they think only for themselves. Everyone seems greedy for money.
Let's take firstly the house of Wuthering Heights. People who lives in the house, belongs to middle class. The live of these people grows very well but one day Mr. Earnshaw brings a boy in his home by the name of Heathcliff. He does not get a warm welcome by the family members. "Mrs Earnshaw was ready to fling out of doors: she did fly u, asking how she could fashion to bring that gypsy brat into the house". (Bronte,E.1988,ch:4:48) Even after so many years he fails to make strong relations with them. According to them, a black hair boy with dirty clothes comes and disturbs the smooth life of Wuthering Heights. Once Catherine says, "Poor Healthcliff! Hindley calls him a vagabond and won't let him sit with us, nor eat with us anymore; and he says, he and I must not play together and threaten to runs him out of the house if we break his order". (Bronte, E.1988,ch:3:36) A very first question arises here why family members did not accept Heathcliff in the house? An answer of this question is, he belongs to lower class or he has a black colour. Because of this weakness he did not get a chance to learn education, he lost his lover Catherine and the whole life of Heathcliff turned as disaster.
Time passes, Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw dies. Catherine and Heathcliff come nearer on the other hand Hindley appears as an enemy of Heathcliff. Catherine loves Heathcliff but she decides to marry with Edgar. Heathcliff is a poor man with no money no assets no land. On the other hand Edgar is a rich boy with everything which any girl wants after marriage. Catherine expresses her feelings with Nelly as "He will be rich and I shall like to be the greatest woman of the neighbourhood, and I shall be proud of having such a husband" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:8:83) "If Heathcliff and I married, we should be beggars? Whereas, if I marry Linton, I can aid Heathcliff to rise, and place him out of my brothers power" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:8:87) Catherine shows her greedy nature, she thinks she will live lavishly with Edgar. Heathcliff won't give her high standard living which she used to live in Wuthering Heights.
Nelly was also in favour of Edgar. She thinks Heathcliff is a "Worthless friend" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:11:113) of Catherine. According to Derek Traversi "Reflection, aided by Nelly, presents Heathcliff as what he undeniably is: a brutal creature whom she could certainly abandon with social advantage to marry the young, rich and attractive Edgar Linton. Nelly guided by her inherent good nature and by long if not particularly imaginative experience of life, maintains that Edgar is a good match, that he is socially speaking acceptable and likely to bring her to normal domestic happiness, where as her devotion to Heathcliff can only end in disaster and degradation" ( Traversi,D.1977:266)
When we read Wuthering Heights closely, only Heathcliff seems infected by the poor class structure of 18th century. Otherwise all the characters have the reputed background but it is interesting to examine that really class difference makes problem in the story? If we consider this statement as true then why Edgar, Hindley sacrifices in their life's? They both have money then how did they get wretch? Heathcliff said to Nelly "I wish I had light hair and a fair skin, and was dressed and behave as well, and had a chance of being as rich a he will be!" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:7:65)
According to Arnold "Apart from Heathcliff, he is the nearest approach to a tragic hero which the early Victorian novel permitted itself" (Kettle,A1977:181) Victorian period dazzles upon all the periods because many writers have written exigently on the domestic and society issues of this period. Charles Dickens novel Great Expectations is one of them. He presents a character of Pip who is an orphan, face many difficulties of life but he does not give up. He makes his desirable world and wants desperately Estella. But Estella selects another man who is richer than Pip. Ultimately Pip becomes a tragic hero of the story. Once he says "My dream was out; my wild fancy was surpasses by sober reality;" (Dickens,C.1994,ch:18:129)
The Victorian era symbolizes as a struggling period of England. Since Emily belongs to this region therefore she has seen many drastic changes in economy of country. She writes a story about two houses and each house denotes its own economic importance. Thrushcross Grange and Wuthering Heights are the perfect example of social differences. Wuthering Heights describes as lower working class although Mr. Earnshaw was well settled person but after his death circumstances become changed. Hindley used to punish Heathcliff and forced to work in the house like other servants. He stops his education as a result Heathcliff appears as anguished person. Heathcliff says "I shall be as dirty as I please: and I like to be dirty; and I will be dirty", (Bronte, E.1988,ch:7:63) On the other hand Thrushcross Grange describes as middle class. These two houses represent the realty of society. The decision of marriage interconnects with Heathcliff's and Edgar's current wealth position. Catherine can provide money to Heathcliff but cannot marry him because in Victorian period women were so much restricted. They were dependent to their fathers and brothers and after marriage their responsibility shifts on their husbands shoulders. They had a concept that woman is complete after successful married life.
Many writers wrote on socially victimized women of this era. Henrik Ibsen is one of them. He writes in A Doll's House: "Our home has been nothing but a play room. I 've been your doll wife here, just as at home I was papa's doll-child. And the children have been my dolls in their turn" ( Ibsen,H.act:III,pg:143) Nora's and Catherine's character seems similar on the level of social structure. Both have boundaries, both come from bourgeois background and both take their wealthy husbands that can provide healthy future and support to survive in the world.
Society makes man normal or abnormal. As far as Heathcliff's character is concern, he has faced lots of hardships therefore his soul gets deeply injured by the cruel people of society. He showed his anger as after attacks of his injuries. John Osborne writes in his drama Look Back in Anger about a person who could not get a chance to upgrade his financial position, therefore anger comes in his personality. Heathcliff and Jimmy both sacrifices, both come from lower working class background, both think only money is a key to survive, both feel reluctant from the society. Osborne writes in his play as "I watched my father dying - when I was ten years old. As for my mother, all she could think about was the fact that she had allied herself to a man who seemed to be on the wrong side in all things. My mother was all for being associated with minorities, provided they were the smart, fashionable ones" ( Osborne,J.act:II,sce:I,pg:57)
We live in a materialistic world, where materialistic people cannot live without money, high class reputation and artificiality. Emily's whole plot moves around artificial people. Society taught Heathcliff if he has money, he can behave badly with people. For him money becomes more important rather than relations. Hindley becomes gambler and drunker therefore he loses all his assets. To fulfill the desire of revenge Heathcliff purchases heir of Wuthering Heights from Hindley.
The Role of Revenge and Vengeance
Many people believes that difference of class structure create revenge and jealousy among peoples. In the novel Wuthering Heights, revenge is directly connected with the issue of class structure. Heathcliff did not have any property and this weakness became a reason for Catherine to select Edgar for marriage.
When the first time Hindley sees Heathcliff in his house, seed of vengeance planted. Mr. Mrs. Earnshaw with one son and one daughter lives happily. They do not need and any other family member. Street of Liverpool is the place where Heathcliff first meets with Mr. Earnshaw. Children shows annoyed reaction when they see Heathcliff instead of their presents. " When he drew out what had been a fiddle crushed to morsels in the great coat, he blubbered aloud; and Cathy, when she learned the master and lost her whip in attending on the stranger, showed her humour by grinning and spitting at the stupid little thing;" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:4:49)
Nelly was one of them who thinks there is no place for Heathcliff in the house. According to the narration of Nelly: "Miss Cathy and he were now very thick; but Hindley hated him! and to say the truth I did the same and we plagued and went on with shamefully: for I wasn't reasonable enough to feel my injustice, and the mistress never put in a word on his behalf when she saw him wronged." (Bronte, E.1988,ch:4:49) Governing through nanny is the older tradition of England. People used to keep nanny in their houses. Nanny can live in the house till her death or until she want. She does house holding works as well as take care of children.
Living like a family member of Wuthering Heights Nelly knows every single incident of family. When she spends time with Heathcliff she finds him: "I will say this, he was the quietest child that ever nurse watched over. The difference between him and the others forced me to be less partial. Cathy and her brother harassed me terribly: he was as un-complaining as a lamb; though hardness, not gentleness, made him give little trouble" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:4:50) at another moment she said "He complained so seldom, indeed of such stirs as these, that I really thought him out vindictive: I was deceived completely." (Bronte,E.1988,ch:4:51)
Vengeance could be control among relations if Mr. Earnshaw did not do injustice. Hindley was going through mental disturbance those days. He was not ready to accept Heathcliff as his new brother. He was fourteen years old boy and habitual of living alone. At that moment none of his parents took care of him .In my opinion, mother have dual responsibility. Not only she have to look after her family members also she have to make check and balance among her children. She should note whether they are going on right path or not. But it is clearly seen in Emily's novel Wuthering Heights that not only mother's presence is absent also father's position is suspicious.
If Mr. Mrs. Earnshaw compelled Hindley to give some space to Heathcliff, situation could be changed. "Mr.Earnshaw did not understand jokes from his children: he had always been strict and grave with them: and Catherine, on her part, had no idea why her father should be crosser and less patient in his ailing condition," (Bronte, E.1988,ch:5:53) After the death of Mr.Earnshaw, Catherine complaints his death body and says "Why cannot you always be a good man, father? (Bronte, E.1988,ch:5:54)
Revenge is the powerful emotion and does exist in every human being. Most of the time emotionally tortured persons are the easy victim of vengeance. When we compare Heathcliff, Catherine and Hindley with Edgar, Edgar does not seem as a patient of emotional dilemma because these three people are abnormal in their actions. On the other hand Edgar has proved that he is a true gentleman in manners and a very rich and decent person.
Mant times Heathcliff shows his anger towards Hindley. He has done it what he said although he had waited a lot but takes out all his revenge from Hindley. If Catherine selected Heathcliff for marriage, Heathcliff could be a normal person. He may forgive Hindley and control his violence but after facing rejection from Catherine, Heathcliff breaks his quietness and turns out as a very different person. He gets the first victory when drunken Hindley signed the property papers. An Orphan Heathcliff becomes the owner of Wuthering Heights but his revenge does not end here.
Heathcliff destroys live of his own wife Isabella, innocent child Hareton who is Hindley's son and his own son Linton. He accepted his own cruel behaviour and said "I have no pity! I have no pity!" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:14:148). He did same with Hareton as Hindley used to do with him. He ends Hareton's education and uses him as a servant at home. Isabella says to Nelly "is Hareton to be a beggar" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:13:138) but for the horrific upbringing of Hareton, Hindley is equally accountable. Being an heir of property, he could lope easily his family but everything was vanished from him.
. In Wuthering Heights, Emily writes for almost every relation. Relation between brother and sister is one of them. Isabella could save her life if she used her mind and accepted her brother's suggestion. Isabella recognizes her mistake then she writes to Nelly as "Am I to lose all without a chance of retrieval? (Bronte, E.1988,ch:13:138) Edgar gets deeply hurt by her sister's marriage. He says "I am not angry, but I'm sorry to have lost her; especially as I can never think she'll be happy" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:13:143). She was impressed by the affection of Heathcliff's personality. Heathcliff used her as for taking revenge. At one moment, Linton sobbed for her and says "She is only my sister in name; not because I disown her, but because she has disowned me" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:12:132).
The relation between Heathcliff and Linton looks very worse. Heathcliff does not know the affection between father and son because he grown-up without the shelter of fatherhood. As a result when he became a father of Linton he had not any fatherly feeling regarding his son. He was hard hearted, cruel and most annoyed father. He forces Linton to marry Catherine otherwise he will killed both of them. Heathcliff shows revenge in his every action.
"I shall be killed! Dear Catherine, my life is in your hands: and you have said you loved me, and if you do, it wouldn't harm you. You'll not go, then? Kind, sweet, good Catherine! and perhaps you will consent- and he'll let me die with you!" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:27:244)
According to Cooley Austin "Heathcliff's mind is in the condition of neurotic anxiety. Neurotic anxiety is the fear of being overwhelmed by impulses. Neurotic means the Latin word for nervous, so this is nervous anxiety. It means a person is easy to lose his temper and control, and might do some abnormal and radical things. The Neurotic anxiety also explains Heathcliff's distorted mind and he himself is also the sufferer. Because persistence to love, has been distorted and repressed, and the evil part of his personality has been of the influence of the exterior environment, his possible virtues, such as his dignity, his endurance, his released. His revenge can be seen as a way to pursue love, equality, and fairness". (scribd.com)
Jealousy and vengeance are not the new subjects in English literature. Many writers have been writing on revenge issue. Shakespeare is one of them. His plays like Hamlet and Othello are famous for his anti heroes. By the causes of jealousy and vengeance Heathcliff, Hamlet and Othello these antiheroes ruined not only their own life but also destroyed other's people life too.
Emily draws a beautiful picture in which we can see colours of dreadful scenes mingled with colours of its after effects. May be she wants to depict the vindictive realty of people if one would do injustice to other God will not pardon that person. As many persons in the novel Wuthering Heights seems awful in their actions. Heathcliff's own son Linton dies in a very young age although he got the property of Thrushcross Grange as the redemption of his own flesh at the end.
Young Catherine appears as another victim. It is quiet strange if someone loves truly how can he smashed his lover's kids? They should be lovable but here situation is different Heathcliff though loves Catherine but wrecks the live of young and innocent Catherine. She speaks with bitterly to Heathcliff as "He's your son. But I'm glad I've a better, to forgive it; and I know he loves me, and for that reason I live him. Mr. Heathcliff, you have nobody to love you; and however miserable you make us, e shall still have the revenge of thinking that your cruelty arises from your greater misery. You are miserable, are you not? Lonely, like the devil and envious like him? Nobody loves you - nobody will cry for you when you die! I wouldn't be you!" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:29:261-262).
I really appreciate the contrast which Emily has penned between love of Catherine with Heathcliff and love of young Catherine with Hareton at the end. After the death of Linton, Catherine diverts her attention towards Hareton. She used to guide her in reading and other manners which her mother did not do. "Mr. Hareton is desirous of increasing his amount of knowledge. He is not envious but emulous of your attainments. He'll be a clever scholar in a few years". (Bronte, E.1988,ch:31:273) Many people believe that Wuthering Heights is an outrageous and pessimistic novel but Emily has ended up the novel on an optimistic note.
Impact of Violence and Obsession
In the 18th century, there were no T.V, computer or any other entertainment. Reading was the only entertainment for the people. People were habitual of reading romantic and domestic issue novels but they got shocked by the extremism of Wuthering Heights. Extremism of every obsession is strongly evident in the novel. Wuthering Heights did not receive warm reception from its readers at the start. After some time Emily's novel got success and captured reader's attention.
Most of the people believe that aggression and violence plays a role of ladder in our life that lead towards revenge in human life. Violence and aggression are connected with each other because its human psychology when someone gets brutal it means he wanted to express its aggression. Same behaviour has demonstrated in Wuthering Heights. Extreme of violence effects not only Heathcliff's life it also spoiled Hindley, Isabella, Hareton and young Catherine's life.
"Aristotle describes emotions, like anger, as pleasures or pains. Anger, he claims, is both painful and pleasurable. Perceiving a slight is painful and gives rise to our desire for revenge, which he claims is pleasurable. He explains that revenge is pleasurable insofar as 'it is pleasant to think that have will attain what you aim at'. Aristotle states that 'the desire for revenge is attended by a certain pleasure because the thoughts dwell upon the act of vengeance, and the images then called up cause pleasure, like the images called up in dreams'. In other words, the desire for revenge is pleasurable because revenge itself is pleasurable".(Aristotle. Quoted in Scheiter,K.M.2010:6).According to above statement of Aristotle it seems Emily agree with Aristotle's philosophy. Heathcliff and Hindley these two people enjoys in giving revenge to others.
Diabolical violence and humiliation can be seen when dogs attacked on Mr. Lockwood. He expresses his condition as "On opening the little door, two hairy monsters flew at my throat, bearing me down. The vehemence of my agitation brought on a copious bleeding at the nose, and still Heathcliff laughed" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:11:32) Heathcliff is a sadistic person, he does not have sympathy for others. He has suffered a lot and it can be reason behind his brutal personality. When he was young Hindley used to abuse him. Hindley's own sister thinks "Hindley is a detestable substitute - his conduct too Heathcliff is atrocious". (Bronte, E.1988,ch:3:34)
Heathcliff represented himself to Isabella as charming and gentleman. She thinks "Mr. Heathcliff is not a fiend: he has an honourable soul, and a true one" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:10:106). On contradictory Heathcliff thinks "she's her brothers heir" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:10:109) and "Isabella Linton may be silly, she is scarcely mad" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:10:110). He does not hostage Isabella at his home, Isabella presents herself for it. After the marriage, she feels threatened with him. She sees "waist-coat a curiously constructed pistol, having a double- edged knife attached to the barrel" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:13:138). He used to beat Isabella in order to furnish his aggression. She expresses her feelings with Nelly that some time she gets violent with her. "I'll not repeat his language, nor describe his habitual conduct: he is ingenious and unresting in seeking to gain my abhorrence". (Bronte,E.1988,ch:13:142) She declares him as "a dead man" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:13:138)
Heathcliff makes fool to Isabella just to take revenge from Catherine though he claims that "I seek no revenge on you" (Bronte,E.1988,ch11:114) on the other hand his intentions are inverse. Isabella accepted her mistake at the end and says "I have been a fool" (Bronte,E.1988,ch13:142) His returning after three years was the first stage of his retribution. Life of Isabella could be saved, if Heathcliff did not come to Thrushcross Grange. He wanted from Catherine to feel jealous as he felt. "I have a right to kiss her, if she chooses; and you have no right to object. I'm not your husband: you needn't be jealous of me!" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:11:114)
Catherine's love for Heathcliff awakes just after the marriage of Heathcliff and Isabella. Was she sleeping before this? Suddenly she reacts like passionate lover of Heathcliff and says to Edgar "your veins are full of ice-water; but mine are boiling, and the sight of such chillness makes them dance" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:11:119) Edgar's sister was eloped but reaction of Catherine compelled him to say "that violence does not alarm me. It is impossible for you to be my friend and his at the same time; and I absolutely require to know which you choose" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:11:119)
Fascination of love seems to be on its high peak when Heathcliff meets Catherine last time before her death. The time of Heathcliff's lovers departure, compels readers to think positively for them. Catherine says to him "I wish I could hold you, till we were both dead! I shouldn't care what you suffered. I care nothing for your sufferings. Why shouldn't you suffer? I do! Will you forget me? Will you be happy when I am in the earth? Will you say twenty years hence, that's the grave of Catherine Earnshaw. I loved her long ago, and was wretched to lose her; but it is past" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:15:153) Catherine knows she has done injustice with Heathcliff that's why after her death she comes as ghost, haunts and begs for forgiveness from him.
Emily was itself a very passionate person. Poems like The Old Stoic, and Remembrance reveals her personality. Extremism shows in her poetry too. In her poem The Old Stoic, she writes as "And lust of fame was but a dream, That vanish'd with the morn:"(Bronte,E, Richer I hold in Light Esteem:3,4) We can see exactly the same idea of Wuthering Heights in these lines. She writes about two passionate lovers, departs from the world reluctantly. Lust of money compelled them to detach with each other. Whole life they could not reunite again only sorrows and guilt were left in their lives.
Death of Catherine made Heathcliff more rigid and wild person. Young Catherine did as her aunt Isabella did with Edgar Linton. Both ladies betrayed him. Many times Edgar advises to Catherine that does not indulge with the people of Wuthering Heights but she continuously meets with Linton and pays sympathy to him. As a result not only Linton get fell in love with her also she has provided herself to Heathcliff. He hostages her at Wuthering Heights and compels her to marry Linton at any cost.
Linton was already in his control. Apparently he obeys Heathcliff's instructions but internally he hates him. He declares to Catherine as " I hate everybody! I am worthless and bad in temper, and bad in spirit" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:24:233). As a father of ill child Heathcliff does not have such sympathy that it should be, he remembers only what he has aimed. "Get up, Linton! Get up! Linton had sunk prostrate again in another paroxysm of helpless fear, caused by his father glance towards him" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:27:245). He does not spare his lover's daughter. He did "diabolical violence" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:27:247) on her. He shouts and beats Catherine and says "You shall have a daily taste, if I catch such a devil of a temper in your eyes again1" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:27:248). Eventually she lost not only heir of Thrushcross Grange also loses her Papa, whom she loved a lot. Linton dies and Catherine becomes widow at a very young age. Heathcliff takes out revenge from everyone but he fails to calm down his sadism.
The Supernatural Effects
The word Wuthering has itself gothic and mysteries meaning. This word comes from Northern England. The narrator Mr. Lockwood describes it as "Wuthering being a significant provincial adjective, descriptive of the atmospheric tumult to which its station is exposed in stormy weather" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:1:20) The house "Wuthering Heights" is nearby Yorkshire moors. Novel's title gives us a sense of immense castle situated in a deserted place. Mr. Lockwood further explains the house as "The architect had foresight to build it strong: the narrow windows are deeply set in the wall, and the corners defended with large jutting stones" (Bronte, E.1988:ch:1:20)
Emily sketches perfect haunted map at the beginning that readers would get ready themselves and think something mysterious is about to be happen. She writes "Place was haunted. It is swarming with ghosts and goblins!" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:3:40) Novel starts at night time which symbolizes as death, uncertainty and darkness. Then she adds wild dogs that attacks on Mr. Lockwood. In my point of view, the outrageous picture of house compels us to think that there was an influence of super power in the house, which did not like peace therefore initiated people to take revenge from each others.
Use of supernatural effects in novels were common and yet renowned in people of Victorian age. Most of them were women who wrote gothic stories. Because women are more suspicious than men, they look everything consciously. George Eliot's Silas Marner and Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre are famous for its mysterious theme. The term supernatural is not developed in Victoria Era, it has been discussed numerously. Definitely writers took the inspiration from their earlier writers and poets. Shakespeare, Coleridge, Shelley are one of the pioneers of this genre.
Heathcliff is a suspicious person who constantly mourns and laments on past. Frequent visit to graveyard of Catherine and his brutal behaviour shows influence of black magic on his life. His appearance looks horror because of dark gypsy skin. Ghost of Catherine comes to him so often, haunts him and demands to go along with her. He calls Catherine's spirit passionately. "Cathy, do come. Oh do - once more! Oh! My hearts darling! Hear me this time" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:3:41) Mr. Lockwood shocks when he heard voice of Catherine. Her soul wants to come in the room of Mr. Lockwood she says "Twenty years. I 've been a waif for twenty years!" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:3:39) Nelly wonders about Heathcliff, she thinks "Is he a ghost or a vampire?" (Bronte, E.1988,ch:34:298)
Their Intensity of passion shows though they are not longer part of this world, though they could not get married but their soul meets every day, they talks and smiles. Mr. Lockwood stares on Heathcliff, when he passes smile while looking at the wall then Mr. Lockwood got to know Heathcliff was not looking at the wall he was talking with Catherine's spirit. He accepts that he was brutal but for twenty years Catherine's ghost did not let him tranquil. He believes that she is the one who should blame not him. "I have a strong faith in ghosts: I have a conviction that they can, and do, exist among us!" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:29:263)
They love madly with each other, both did starvation for their love. As Nelly narrates "On the third day, unbarred her door, and having finished the water in her pitcher and decanter, desired a renewed supply and a basin of gruel" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:12:121) Nelly is the witness of Heathcliff's starvation too. In the last days, she suggests to have some food "Your cheeks are hollow, and your eyes bloodshot, like a person starving with hunger and going blind with loss of sleep" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:34:301)
Emily arouses her reader attention and writes that sometime Heathcliff vanishes, Family members get suspicious and think where does he disappear suddenly? Rumor spreads among the people that some villagers of Yorkshire have seen ghosts of Heathcliff with Catherine near the moors. Same technique of writing George Eliot has used in Silas Marner. She writes "Silas Marner was suddenly seen standing in the warm light, uttering no word, but looking around at the company with his strange unearthly eyes. The long pipes gave a simultaneously movement, like the antennae of startled insects, and every man present, not excepting even the sceptical farrier, had an impression that he saw, not Silas Marner in the flesh, but an apparition; for the door by which Silas had entered was hidden by the high screened seats, and no one had noticed his approach" (Eliot,G.1994,ch:7:69)
Heaven was not Heathcliff's choice, his soul burns like he is already in hell. He is not a religious person. For him Catherine is heaven that's all. It seems when he along with Catherine, the whole atmosphere converts into heaven and when they depart their soul's burn and thrusting for each other. "I have nearly attained my heaven" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:34:301) When Catherine's father dies, Heathcliff consoles her and both share their thoughts about heaven Nelly feels their pain, illustrates as "The little souls were comforting each other with better thoughts than I could have hit on: on parson in the world ever pictured heaven so beautifully as they did, in their innocent talk" (Bronte,E.1988,ch:5:54) Hindley never allowed Heathcliff to sit in church with them. Throughout his life he leads a non-Christian life, never hold bible in his hands. Lack of attachment with religion is one of the causes of his downfall.
Wordsworth has used supernatural imagery as "Oft I had heard of Lucy gray, She dwelt on a wild moor" (Wordsworth,W, Lucy Gray:1,6) He gives the idea about a girl, who dies. But still villagers believe that Lucy Gray's soul moves around the moors. Finally Spirit of Catherine comes and takes Heathcliff's soul. Novel ends with the sense that still souls of Heathcliff and Catherine comes in moor, they spends time, laughs and disappears.
Despite of Mr .Lockwood and Hareton, every character is responsible for rotating revenge in the story. Mr.Earnshaw who is a wise man, brings an orphan child in his home without the permission of his family. He fails to manage justice between Hindley and Heathcliff. Hindley gets spoiled by the harsh behaviour of his father. Mrs.Earnshaw a weird mother, who does not pay attention on the relation of Catherine and Heathcliff that grows frequently, both used to sleep together and still Mrs.Earnshaw did not get alert. Hindley's attitude towards Heathcliff is humiliated. He does not only stop his education but also prevented Heathcliff to sit in church. Catherine, who declares verbally that she loves Heathcliff but practically she sees her bright future with rich, established and educated Edgar. As a result, Heathcliff becomes creepy and atrocious with everyone. He does not spare anyone with his diabolical violence. Edgar and Isabella both know that Heathcliff and Catherine love each other but still they get married with them. They are not innocent, they equally answerable as Heathcliff and Catherine. Though Linton dies earlier but he ruins young Catherine's life in feign ignorance. Young Catherine wastes her life too. When Nelly and Edgar both continuously give her cautions then why did she go to Wuthering Heights? I believe Wuthering Heights is the story of dreadful situations. But it gives us lesson too. Indeed those people do injustice and behave brutally with others would not live enchanted not only in this world also after their deaths. Their soul refuses to go along with them happily. Catherine, Heathcliff and Hindley destroyed many people's life as a result God punished them and no one of them gets his/her wishes. They pass reluctant and unwillingly from the world.
My aim is to consider the ethical issues which arise when planning and carrying out research. My intention while doing this research is distinct and it will not harm any language or words that are biased against any person because of gender, sexual orientation, ethnic groups or age. I have not done any kind of plagiarism. My research topic is not limited in order to obtain more depth of understanding this topic, several more researches can b done.
(a):123HelpMe.com.Wuthering Heights - Revenge . [Electronic version] retrieved on 27-4-12 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=2643
(b):customwritings.com. Essay on Wuthering Heights. [Electronic version] retrieved on 30-4-12 retrieved from http://www.customwritings.com/blog/example-essays/essay-wuthering-heights.html
123HelpMe.com. Destructive Relationships in Wuthering. [Electronic version] retrieved on 27-2-12 retrieved from http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=16933
123HelpMe.com. Wuthering Heights: Distortions and Exaggerations. [Electronic version] retrieved on 27-4-12 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=2630
123HelpMe.com. Wuthering Heights: Frame Narrative. [Electronic version] retrieved on 27-4-12 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=2650
123HelpMe.com. Literary Criticism of Wuthering Heights. [Electronic version] retrieved on 30-4-12 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=7201
123HelpMe.com. Violence in Wuthering Heights. [Electronic version] retrieved on 27-4-12 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=37427
Anton.(2011) Characterization in Wuthering Heights. [Electronic version] retrieved on 27-4-12 retrieved from http://essays24.com/English/Characterization-Wuthering-Heights Essay/58518.html
Aristotle. Quoted in Scheiter,K.M.2010:6 Aristotle on the purpose of revenge. In Bibb,S.C. and Montiel,D.E.(eds.) (2010) Best served cold studies on Revenge .Ox