Pax Romana Period of Rome
Pax Romana Period can be defined as the period of Roman piece. This period of peace sustained for the centuries after the domination of Augustus. The accession by the Octavian to the imperial throne contributed in bringing an end to the international and civil warfare. His reign of 40 year from 27 BC – 14 AD added to the unity, peace and progress of the Mediterranean world.
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The Pax Romana started with Augustus and attained new heights under 5 superior Emperors. The main contributions include increase in the number of cities which were self-ruled by magistrates of upper-class, development of roads and waterways. Pax Romana was responsible for creating a universal world-state where cultures and races were united without any discrimination. Apart from this, it shows the elimination and suppression of the artificial barriers, piracy and helped in establishing consistent coinage (The Roman World 509 B.C. to A.D. 180, 2007).
Pax Romana period marked the great development in the field of commerce. Industry focused on organizing on the basis of the small-shop, which helped in attaining self-sufficiency. There was improvement in the Condition of those people, who belongs to the bottom of society especially the women and slaves. Apart from this, advancement was made in the field of history, science, art, architecture and literature, which helped them in reaching the highest peak. In this period, law, engineering and entertainment was revolutionized. The gladiator games were on the top list (The Roman World 509 B.C. to A.D. 180, 2007).
Pax Romania was marked by the boom in the economy, the economy remained agrarian. In terms of the law and order, there was revival of the old traditions and ideal believes. Deteriorated temples were rebuilt by Augustus. Apart from this, there was revival in the old priesthoods and religious festivals were restored. There was the establishment of permanent court. This period marked the decline in the rate of corruption and the exploitation.
Contribution of the different emperors of ancient Rome
Julius Caesar: Gaius Julius Caesar served in Roman armed services and was a successful and clever politician. Caesar started his political career, in 78 BC, in the Roman Assembly, as a counselor and was known for his orating skills. He gave Rome a feeling of national plume and growth through his wide military subjections. He was largely responsible for the enlargement of the Roman dominance in the world. He brought a large part of Britain under Roman control by defeating the most talented Barbarian rulers. He increased security and stability in Rome where people knew nothing more than civil war (Life of Julius Caesar, 2008).
Octavian Caesar Augustus: Augustus was born on 23rd September, in 63 B.C., in Rome. He was the first Roman Emperor and was adopted by his uncle Julius Caesar. He worked a lot for public welfare and also amalgamated and braced the Roman Empire. He rebuilt the city of Rome. It was said by the people that he founded Rome initially as a city of bricks and later converted it into a city of marble. He also introduced several laws related to marriage and slave. Many literary achievements took place during his reign. He also improved the infrastructural facilities and exercised great control over military and society (Augustus and the empire, 2008).
Justinian: Justinian was born in 567 B.C. He was the eastern Roman Emperor and was the second emperor of the Justinian dynasty. During his reign, the empire rose to the heights of success. When he became the emperor, he prepared 3 challenging projects and executed them one after the other. Those 3 projects were: his code of laws, architectural works in Constantinople and conquests. Under his reign, all the laws were put under order and simplified, some were combined if possible and the outdated ones were deleted. He did great architectural works in Constantinople. He built new roads, bridges and sea walls to guard it from navy enemies. Several other walls were also built to protect the land route in the city. He also made a university, which was a huge source of education. He restored most of the lands to the Byzantine Empire from the Barbarians and made a great name in world history (Who was Justinian, 2008).
Principles and Beliefs of the world religions
Hinduism: It is third largest religion in the world and constitutes a great diversity of beliefs and principles. All Hindus think that every step is the way to reach god. They are considered as the broad minded person in the world. Hinduism includes many social classes and every one has their own regulation and compulsion for example, Brahmans are the best class and holy one. One important concept in the Hinduism is the revitalization, which means to bring back in life or the cycle of birth and death (Understanding the basic belief of Hinduism, 2008).
Buddhism: It is the Fourth largest religion in world and known for its worldwide followers. It believes in affection and peace. It is based on four main principles: avoid the alcohol, do not harm anyone, do not lie and do not take. They believe that all are equal and there is no categorization between the caste systems. In Buddhism, the main reason for all problems is self attitude (Principle and belief of Buddhism, 2008).
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Judaism: It is the eleventh largest religion in world and followed by 14 million people. It is divided in three categories: conventional, improvement and conformist. It is noted as an influential religion in the world and has a great cycle of festivals. Shavuot, Sukkot and the Pesach are the three main festival of Judaism. Followers of it believe only in one god and assume that he is the creator of world.
Christianity: It is based on the belief that rescuer is responsible for the merger of people with spirit. It believes in the concept of rebirth and derived from Judaism. The followers of this religion have a faith that elegance come to human only through the Christ worth. They believe that god has affection for all his followers whether they engage in an offence but they should have enough reason behind the offence (David Barrett et al., 2001).
Islam: it is monotheistic religion and is the developer of moralistic values in thousands of its followers. Mainly five building blocks are there in Islamic religion like hajj, fasting, zakat, prayers, and shahadat. Muslims believe in Quran and lives according to the rules and regulation of it. They have to do pray five times in a day and yearly fast in Ramjan (ethos and values, 2006).
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David Barrett et al. (2001). A comparative survey of churches and religions – AD 30 to 2200. World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University Press.
Islam Background and Belief. (2008). Retrieved Jun 22, 2008 from http://family.jrank.org/pages/969/Islam-Background-Beliefs-Islam.html
Life of Julius Caesar. (2008). Retrieved on June 23, 2008, from http://www.spaceandmotion.com/julius-caesar-life-history-biography-pictures-quotes.htm
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The Roman World 509 B.C. To A.D. 180. (2007). Retrieved on June 23, 2008, from http://www.emayzine.com/lectures/noteson%20Rome.htm
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