Percy Jackson the Olympians book 1 The Lightning Thief is an interesting novel which becomes the foundation of this study. The demigod Percy who is created from author’s imagination becomes the main subject in this study. Percy is described as someone who starts from zero to hero. His struggle, adventure and the way he learns to be a hero in connection with his maturity will be the very concern of the study. Therefore, this study concerns the individuation process of Percy.
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The Greek mythology is the part of western civilization. In the novel, the use of mythological elements can be seen in, for example, Percy Jackson as he discovers he is a demigod, the son of a mortal woman and the Greek god Poseidon. Percy sinks in confusing situation when the world put him on the position of a hero. Percy and his friends go on a quest to prevent a war between the Greek gods Zeus, Poseidon and Hades. Meanwhile, he just begins to learn how to be a hero the responsibility to save the world is on his shoulder.
There are many psychological problems faced by Percy. Percy leaves his messy life as a naughty student in his school where he is popular as a freak student who has dyslexia and hyperactive (ADHD) problem. Percy is not good at all lessons but Latin. He is supported by Mr. Brunner the only teacher that cares about him to learn Latin. Days in school are always disturbed by Nancy Bobofit. The only one who has the same problem is Grover. Grover is Percy’s best friend who always hides behind Percy. His trouble is complicated by Mrs. Dodds who has personal vengeance on him. Because of these things, Percy becomes the saddest student in Yancy Academy, North New York.
Percy’s terrible days in school continues when he stays at home. His step father Gabe Ugliano is his immortal enemy. Gabe never wants to work. He always plays poker and drinks beer with his friends at home. It makes the house full of trashes and smell. One thing he cares about is to ask some money from Percy as he never wins the poker game. He never respects Percy. Instead, he always insults and undermines any things Percy has done. Therefore, Percy never feels the love from his step father, Gabe Ugliano.
The only one who cares about and loves him is his mother, Sally Jackson. She is the one who makes Percy survive in such terrible condition. She is the one who supports Percy to go on his terrible days. When Percy remembers his mother, he always feels happy and peaceful.
With regard to the fact above, we can see terrible psychological conditions in Percy’s life. Moreover, he has to survive and to face all of those terrible situations. Therefore, the maturity process that Percy undergoes is therefore worth studying. Percy’s maturity process will be analyzed in this study by using the theory of individuation process from Carl Gustav Jung. Then, the writer proposes a study entitled Percy Jackson & The Olympians “The Lightning Thief”: The Individuation Process of the Demigod Percy
FIELD OF THE STUDY
The field of this study is literature, especially novel.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The paper will only be focused on the demigod Percy Jackson, his experiences and adventures, which have connection with his maturity process preparing him to be a hero. In this study, his maturity process will be analyzed using the theory of individuation process of Carl Gustav Jung.
How does a twelve year old boy become a hero in this story?
To what extend is Percy’s maturity described in the novel based on Jungian analysis?
1.5. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To explain how the twelve year old boy becomes a hero in this study.
To explain to what extent Percy’s maturity is described in the novel based on Jungian analysis.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In this study, the writer hopes that readers can understand the individuation process that happens in the story. This paper can also give an opportunity for scholars such as students of Faculty of Letters to analyze this novel using Jungian theory or alike.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
There are some terms throughout the study which must be known to better understand the issue in this paper, such as:
The Greeks didn’t have a “Top Ten” list of deities – but they did have the “Top Twelve” – those lucky Greek gods and goddesses living on top of Mount Olympus. (Regula, 2008, ¶ 2).
Demigod is an official terms of half God and half mortal human (Riordan, 2006, p.72).
The individuation process is a term created by the famous psychologist Carl Gustav Jung to describe the process of becoming aware of oneself, of one’s make-up, and the way to discover one’s true, inner self (Blake, 2012, ¶ 1)
The quality of becoming more developed mentally and emotionally and behaving in a responsible way (Good, 2008, p.885).
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1. The Theory of individuation process by Carl Gustav Jung
The main topic of the theory of individuation process is about psyche. Human always try to fulfill his psyche satisfying. Human behavior influenced by his psyche character. Jung called it the “individuation process” in which the potential of a person’s psyche is seeking fulfillment (Mitchell, 2010, ¶ 14). From the text above Jung tries to explore the psyche character and divided it into 2 parts:
Conscious is adjustment to the outside world (Suryabrata, 1983, p. 184). Means that Conscious adapted and formed by outside world or social environment.
Unconscious is adjustment to the inside world (Suryabrata, 1983, p. 184). Means that Unconscious is the part of psyche that rules the relationship between human and his own self.
The border between conscious and unconscious is not fixed. It can changed anytime depends on the change of person’s psychology. Conscious and unconscious cannot separate because they influence each other. They have different characteristic. Jung explores more to know it and explain it through its structure.
2.1.1. Conscious Structure
There are two parts of psyche which build our consciousness. First is Psyche Function and second is Psyche Attitude. Both of them have relation which determining the classification of person’s conscious structure.
Kesadaran mempunyai dua komponen pokok, yaitu fungsi jiwa dan sikap jiwa, yang masing-masing mempunyai peranan penting dalam orientasi manusia dalam dunianya (Suryabrata, 1983, p. 185)
Translation: Consciousness has two main components, that is psyche function and psyche attitude, which both of them have important role in the human orientation and his world (Suryabrata, 1983, p. 185)
184.108.40.206. Psyche Function
According to Suryabrata (1983, p. 185) the conscious structure by Jung is a psyche activity which in theory is unchanged in different environment. Furthermore Jung divided it into four main functions, two of them are rational, that is thinking and feeling, and irrational, that is sensing and intuitive. The rational functions work with judgment. Thinking is judging on the basis of right or wrong and feeling is judging on the basis of pleasant and unpleasant condition. Whereas the irrational functions do not work with judgment, how over they just get observation. Sensing gets observation by using sense and intuitive gets observation using instinct. Basically, human have all of that function, but usually just one of them that would be the most dominant. In addition, the ideal destination from Individuation process is to bring it into balance, with the result to achieve a rounded human or a perfect human.
220.127.116.11. Psyche Attitude
Jung (1921/1971) defined an attitude as a predisposition to act or react in a characteristic direction (Feist and Feist, 2009, p. 115). The direction of the activity of psychological can go outside or inside and similarly happen with the orientation. Everybody does the orientation with the world around him, however they have different way to do that. For example, there is some one who will directly close the window if cold wind blowing, but probably the others will not close the window because they do not care about it or are not afraid to be cold because of it. There are people who care about what happens outside himself, but there are also people who are not too concerned with what happens outside himself.
In conclusion, from the psyche attitude, human can be divided into two types that are extravert and introvert. One of the most widely used psychological typologies, which of the psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung refers to individuals are introvert and extraverts (Munn 1962, p. 235).
An extrovert human influenced by objective opinions, which come from world outside himself or society. His thinking, feeling and also his actions mainly determined by his social society as well as his non-social society. He will act positively with society. Consequently, he is more easily accepted in society.
An introvert human is influenced by his own subjective world. He does not care enough to the issues in his outside world. Introverts are tuned in to their inner world with all his biases, fantasies, dreams, and individual perception (Feist and Feist, 2009, p. 116). These people perceive the external world but they do it selectively with their own subjective view. Consequently, usually an introvert is being antisocial and hard to build a relationship.
18.104.22.168. Jung’s Typology
Based on two components of human psyche, Jung created Jung Typology
(Suryabrata (1983, p.191)
He insisted that each person has both of an introverted and extraverted attitude, although one may be conscious while the other is unconscious (Feist and Feist, 2009, p. 115). Unconscious life is contrary with the conscious, so one whose conscious is thinking his unconscious is feeling, next, one whose conscious is extrovert his unconscious is introvert, so the next.
The explanations above about conscious are the real condition of conscious, but there still have one problem. The problem is how person consciously show or bring his personality to socialize with outside world or society. The persona, according to Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, is the mask that individuals wear to hide their true selves from society (Maverick, 2010, ¶ 1). So, can be concluded that persona is the way of the people to show his personality to his society based on what he wants other people see of him.
2.1.2. Unconscious Structure
Suryabrata (1983, p. 193) said that Jung has divided unconscious into two circles. The first one is personal unconscious and the other is collective unconscious.
22.214.171.124. Personal Unconscious
Continued from Suryabrata (1983, p. 193),states that personal unconscious contains things that are acquired by individuals during their lives. This includes things that are forced or distressed (“recessive complex”) and forgotten things (memory materials) as well as things that are observed, thought about and felt below the threshold of consciousness. So, whole personal life experiences create the personal unconscious.
126.96.36.199. Collective Unconscious
The collective unconscious is the foundation of personality (Morgan and King and Robinson 1984, p. 523). Collective unconscious term introduced by psychiatrist Carl Jung to represent a form of the unconscious (that part of the mind containing memories and impulses of which the individual is not aware) common to mankind as a whole and originating in the inherited structure of the brain. It is contrast from the personal unconscious, which arises from the experience of the individual. The collective unconscious is beliefs or acts or ideas which are trusted and done by ancestor such as concept of god, manner of behavior, myths, legend, unspoken rules, etc. The physical contents of the collective unconscious are inherited and pass from generation to the next as physical potential (Feist and Feist, 2009, p. 104)
Unconscious is the things that unawareness. Then, how can we recognize or know our unconscious. Adopted from Suryabrata (1983, p. 194), acknowledge about unconscious found not directly, that is belong the manifestation from the contents of consciousness. The unconscious manifestation can be form such as symptom and complex, dream, and archetypes.
188.8.131.52. Unconscious Manifestation
Symptom and Complexes
Symptom and complex are the indications which can be realized.
Symtom adalah tanda bahaya yang memberitahu bahwa ada sesuatu dalam kesadaran yang kurang, dan karenanya perlu perlu perluasan ke alam tak sadar. Kompleks-kompleks adalah bagian kejiwaan kepribadian yang terpecah dan lepas dari penilikan (control) kesadaran dan kemudian mempunyai kehidupan sendiri dalam kegelapan alam ketidaksadaran, yang selalu dapat menghambat atau memajukan prestasi-prestasi kesadaran (Suryabrata 1983, p. 196).
(Symptom is a dangerous sign that tells that there is something in less consciousness, and therefore need to have an extension to the unconscious. These complexes are parts of a split personality and mental escape from viewing (control) and then have the awareness of his own life in the natural darkness of the unconscious, which always can inhibit or promote the achievements of consciousness) (Suryabrata 1983, p. 196).
Complexes not always being a weaknesses of personality because it is just a part of individual which can not unity and complexes can be a stimulant too, which push us to work harder and increase the possibility to being success. Jung adds in Suryabrata (1983, p. 197) that complexes are traumatic experiences such as the apparent impossibility to accept our self condition in life. So, traumatic experience can make people down and being hopeless or pessimistic but also can make people struggle to stand up again and improve his life better then being an optimistic person.
Dream, Fantasy, Imagination
Some people believe that dream is a secret message from life. The other believed that dream just a desire or will which can not be realized then enter to our mind when we sleep. Dream has his own rule and his own language. In a dream causality and time and space is can not applied. So, dream always being a mystery which hard to interpret.
Based on Suryabrata (1983, p. 197) Jung’s opinion about dream is that dream has constructive function, that is to compensate the objection side by side from conflict. Dream is manifestation of complexes unconscious. Beside of that Jung also said that fantasy and imagination are kind of complexes manifestation.
Jung adopted word archetypes from Agustinus that Archetypes is form of instinctive opinion and instinctive reaction to certain situation in outside consciousness. In addition, Archetypes are carried since people are born and grow in collective unconscious during human development and not defend from one person (Suryabrata 1983, p. 198).
184.108.40.206. Special Form of Unconscious
Shadow is the dark side and unacceptable side from someone personality-motive and embarrassing desire, we better not show them to other person (Friedman and Schustack 2008, p. 130). Inside the personality exists the shadow. Shadow is the dark side of personality. Shadows are unrealized weaknesses. Shadows bring his own opinions which are entered into his unconscious because it cannot match or accepted by his conscious.
The shadow archetype is also responsible for the appearance in consciousness and behavior unpleasant and socially reprehensible thoughts, feelings, and actions. These then may either be hidden from public view by the persona or repressed into the personal unconscious (Hall and Lindzey, 1978, p. 123).
Projection : Imago
Adopting information from Suryabrata (1983, p. 200), Jung named the content of psyche which projected to other people are imago. So that, imago is a judgment which unconsciously we addressed to the objects outside our self.
Anima and Animus
Two important archetypes are anima which represents the feminine side of human nature and the animus which represents the masculine side of human nature. Jung taught that all persons have the masculine and feminine archetypes in their collective unconscious (Larsen and Buss, 2005, p. 278). Every person has both of anima and animus. For example: A man who chose cooking as a hobby is show that his anima stronger than his animus but still has both of them. Otherwise, if a man is prefer to choose basketball than cooking as his hobby that is show that his animus stronger than animus and the same things goes to women.
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3.1. Method of data collection
Reading and understanding the novel is the first step that the writer takes. After the first reading, the writer tries to read the novel for the second time. The method of the second reading is very helpful for making the understanding of the writer about the novel, especially for knowing its intrinsic elements better than the first reading. The writer makes a note of the novel for making him easy to remember the information he got from reading the novel. After that, the writer chose the temporary title and topic which will be highlighted.
In studying the novel and in writing this thesis, the writer also conducted a library research to collect the data and information, which includes the use of the internet resources. In the beginning, the writer searched the materials after deciding what study to do and which approach to use. The next step was searching and collecting the individuation process theory of Carl Gustav Jung used to analyze the book, from the book in library or observed from the internet. In a library, usually the writer spends about two hours to search for the right materials needed for the study. Then, the writer borrowed the books home.
In analyzing the literary work, the writer needs a material to use as the entity of the writer’s analysis. The primary data, that becomes the object of the writer’s study, is the novel.
The novel used in this analysis is:
Genre : Adventure
Title : Percy Jackson & The Olympians “The Lightning Thief”
Author : Rick Riordan
Publisher : Miramax Books
City : New York
Year : 2006
Pages : 453
3.2. Method of Data analysis
In analyzing the study, especially in answering the first research questions, the writer explores the intrinsic elements of novel. Next, collects all of factors that support the first research question from intrinsic elements. Especially, plot and the character are explored more to find the strength of Percy character. Beside that, the writer will get the evidents that prove the capability of Percy which support him to be a hero. Finally, the writer connects it with the first research question to find the answer.
To find the answer from the second research question the writer uses the psychological approach by choosing Jung’s individuation process theory. The writer finds that individuation process theory of Jung is suitable and very useful to connect and explain the idea about the maturity process of Percy. In the way to search it, firstly, the writer tries to learn the behaviors of Percy in the novel and his psyche characteristic. Next, analyze Percy’s conscious structure and unconscious structure. Compare his experience with the points of conscious structure and unconscious structure. Find the superior psyche function of Percy. Then, classify Percy in Jung’s Typology. After that, the writer decide that Percy’s individuation process can prove that Percy is mature enough to make twelve years old boy become a hero and save the world to answer the second question. Remember, if someone can make psyche function being balance it means that he is the perfect one.
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Individuation Process Analysis
The maturity of Percy will be described by the Jungian Individuation process theory. Individuation process of Percy was shown by his psyche condition. In the way to know it, we should explore two main element of psyche which is conscious and unconscious. Percy’s conscious and unconscious will analyze thoroughly in this chapter.
Conscious element of Percy will be dividing into two main groups which is psyche function and psyche attitude. The writer will find evident from Percy’s novel to support the classification of this two main groups. Next, it will be classified into Jung typology. After find Percy’s conscious type in Jung typology, the writer will analyze Percy’s persona in order to find his way to show his consciousness in social interaction. Finally the writer will definitely conclude the Percy’s conscious type and condition.
Percy psyche function dominated with rational thinking. Percy judging something with based of rational things. Percy usually calculates one thing and make conclusion based on his logic. He is hard to belief something which out of his logical. It shows in quotations below.
All year long, I’d gotten fights, keeping bullies from him. I’d lost sleep worrying that he’d get beaten up next year without me. And here he was acting like he was the one who defended me (Riordan, 2006, p. 19).
This paragraph showing us that Percy is hard to belief when Grover said that he was the one who always protect him because he thinks that Grover is the one he always protects and Grover cannot pass a single day without his protection.
“But they’re stories,” I said. “They’re myths, to explain lightning and the seasons and stuff. They’re what people belief before there was science (Riordan, 2006, p. 51). “
When Chiron told Percy that Greek Gods truly existed, Percy denied it. Percy has no imagination that it could be happened in real life. Again, he rejects to belief something which out of his calculates.
Percy has lack of imagination. He always stuck with usual condition which he usually faces. He always tries to get rational reason for every fact he faces. It makes him hard to belief illogical things happen to him. Based on psyche function theory Percy include in rational thinking categories.
220.127.116.11. Psyche Attitude
Percy is an introvert person. He usually hides his true feeling. He hides his fears. He always tries to look strong and brave. He hides his sadness but in deep of his heart he suffers. He always tries to look confident even he fell not sure will be success. He does not care about his mission, about god, indeed world. He just cares about his mother because he thinks that mother is the only person he has.
Next, the writer will analyze deeply and shows the evident which show Percy as an introvert person. First is the fact that Percy admires his mother. My mother can make me feel good just by walking into the room (Riordan, 2006, p. 24). Even he loves her very much, Percy still hides his feeling that he feels so happy because his mother is so careful to him. I told her that she was smothering me, and to lay off and all that, but secretly, I was really, really glad to see her (Riordan, 2006, p.25). It’s become habit of Percy to hide his true feeling so he can be looked as a mature, a tough, a brave and a strong person.
For her sake, I tried to sound upbeat about my last days at Yancy Academy (Riordan, 2006, p. 25). Again he hides his true suffer in his school to his mother because he does not want make his mother worried about him. He also hides his last sentence from Oracle’s prophecy that told that he will fail to save what matters most, in the end, in page 106 because he does not want if every one have doubt of him to done his mission successfully.
The other reason why Percy is included in Introvert categorize is shown when he declare to Grover his true purpose that he go to underworld not to complete his task to find the master bolt but just for personal reason to save his mother life by bringing out her from underworld.
What lay ahead of me was worse than petrification. “I haven’t straight with you, “I told Grover.” I don’t care about the master bolt. I agreed to go to the underworld so I could bring back my mother (Riordan, 2006, p. 144).”
Percy does not care about what will happen to the world if he fails to complete his mission. It does not matter for him if Zeus and Poseidon drag into a battle because the most important thing for Percy is his beloved mother. He blinds by his passion to save his mother, just like an introvert who do not care with world outside himself.
18.104.22.168. Jung Typologies
Based on Jung Typology, Percy can be categorized as a thinking introvert person.
Percy’s persona will be going to be analyzed based on his social interaction in the novel. In socialize, even though has less of ability Percy always tries to protect his friend. He always shows no fear in his face. In social interaction he is being the person who care about all of his friends problems meanwhile actually he has a lot of personal problem which waiting to solve. Percy tries to be a steadfast person. He pushes and hides his sadness, fears and weakness to be a strong person whom never surrenders to any of hard condition. There are some texts in the novel which show Percy’s persona.
I was alone. An orphan. I would have to live with â€¦ Smelly Gabe? No. That would never happen. I would live in the streets first. I would pretend I was seventeen and join the army. I’d do something (Riordan, 2006, p. 45).
In the text above we can see that Percy is a steadfast person. After his mother died he refuses to surrender to live. He will stand on his own foot to trough his rest of live. He shows his steadfast face to the Grover.
Grover was still sniffling. The poor kid-the poor goat, satyr, whatever-looked as if he expected to be hit. I said, “It wasn’t your fault (Riordan, 2006, p. 45). “
Although Percy feels sad when his mother died he does not blaming Grover. He refuse that his friend Grover is responsible to his mothers death whereas Grover ordered to protect him and his mother. He is belief that he should be the one who protecting his mother and his friends.
Next text, Percy pushes his fear and shows his courage in front of his admired girl Annabeth Case. He rejects Annabeth’s help because he want to shows that he is a gentleman and a brave person.
“Stay out of it, wise girl.” Annabeth looked pained, but she did stay out of it, and I didn’t really want her help. I was the new kid. I had to earn my own rep (Riordan, 2006, p. 68).
The next analyze is to find out two points of unconscious which is personal and collective unconscious and see how it manifested based on information get from novel. For addition, the writer also analyzes the special form of unconscious to complete the unconscious element of Percy.
22.214.171.124. Personal Unconscious
In his journey in the novel, there are some personal experiences which give deep impression and influence his maturity development in relation with Percy’s personal unconscious.
First fight versus monster (Riordan, 2006, p. 10).
Percy’s first experience facing monster is in Metropolitan Museum of Art. His mathematic teacher Mrs. Dodds turning into a Fury and attack him.
Then the weirdest thing happened. Her eyes began to glow like barbeque coals. Her fingers stretched, turning into talon. Her jacket melted into large, leathery wings. She wasn’t human. She was a shriveled hag with bat wings and claws and mouth full of yellow fangs, and she was about to slice me to ribbons (Riordan, 2006, p. 10).
This time Percy firstly consider that monster is real and they go after him for some reason.
Death of his mother and battle versus Minotaur (Riordan, 2006, p. 40, 41).
Then, with an angry roar, the monster closed his fist around my mother’s neck, and she dissolved before my eyes, melting into light, a shimmering golden form, as if she were a holographic projection. A blinding flash and she was simply gone (Riordan, 2006, p. 40).
Death of his mother gave him deep impression. Without knowing the reason why, Percy saw his mother killed by Minotaur. He does nothing to save her because he too afraid. But, this accident is waking up his courage to revenge and fight the Minotaur or any others monster. Anger replaced my fear, newfound strength burned in my limbs (Riordan, 2006, p. 41).
Met the Oracle and got his first mission (Riordan, 2006, p. 106).
You shall go west, and face the god who has turned. You shall find what was stolen, and see it safely returned. You shall be betrayed by one who calls you a friend. And you shall fail to save what matters most, in the end (Riordan, 2006, p. 106).
The Oracle read him the prophecy. It will become the guide to complete his mission. But, Percy feels desperate because two last sentences told that he will betrayed by his friend and will failed in the end. Even he thought that it is suicide mission his courage pushes him to keep straight to do the quest.
Gotten ambush by 3 Furies (Riordan, 2006, p. 121-125).
They are the first challenge Percy’s face in the mission. At this time Percy learn to work together with his two friends to defeat the monsters. Both of his friend ready to sacrifice so Percy can escape from that monster. But, after his mother’s death Percy promise not to escape anymore and even should be death he will stay to save everything important in his life. I looked at the open doorway, I was free to go, but I couldn’t leave my friends (Riordan, 2006, p. 124).
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