Thesis: Farewells to arms by Earnest Hemingway concentrates on negative impacts of war, overall loss and how it affects people by making them lose the capacity for moral judgment and rational thought.
II. Brief synopsis of A Farewell to Arms
III. Factors that motivated Ernest Hemingway to write the novel
IV. Symbolism in the novel
V. The theme of realism
The harsh reality of war
Love and Pain
Escape from reality
VI. Negative impact of the war
A Farewell to Arms
A Farewell to Arms is an autobiographical novel written between 1899 and1961 by Ernest Hemingway and first published in 1929.The novel was written through a view point of Lieutenant Frederic Henry, an American who serves as an ambulance driver in the Italian army during the First World's War. The novel is about a catastrophic romance between Catherine Barkley, a British nurse and Frederick Henry, an American soldier. A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway concentrates on negative impacts of war, overall loss and how it affects people by making them lose the capacity for moral judgment and rational thought.
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Henry, while serving in the front line of the Italian forces is wounded on the knee by a mortar shell and is admitted to a hospital in Milan. While in the hospital, he meets Catherine whom he falls in love with. The relationship blossoms in summer as they spent time together in Milan. After three months of staying together, Catherine gets pregnant. Henry returns to his unit but after a short period, he engages in the battle of Caporetto where Austro-German forces overpowered the Italian forces and forced them to retreat. While escaping from the enemy's onslaught, their car is stuck in the mud and when two sergeants engineers' picked on the way refuse to take an order of assisting in getting the car out of mud, Henry kills one of them. On realizing that they will be killed, Henry and other drivers seek refuge in a farm house and resurface on the next day. Henry is seized by the battle police and after hearing that a Lt. Colonel had been executed; Henry sets himself free from the grip of the battle police and dive into a river thus escaping from a possible execution. Henry and Catherine reunite and using a boat, they flee to Switzerland. They live a quiet life in a mountainous region in Switzerland and after a while, Catherine goes into labor. After a painful and long labor, Catherine gives birth to a stillborn son, gets a Hemorrhage and soon passes on leaving Henry who gets back to the hotel in the rain (Bakers 56).
Factors that motivated Ernest Hemingway to write the Novel
In 1918, during the First World War, Hemingway joined the Italian Red cross as an ambulance driver, where the Italian forces allied to French, British and Americans were fighting against Germany and Austrian Hungary. While serving in the Red Cross during the war, there are a number of experiences that prompted him to write the novel. The first experience occurred in July 8, 1918 when he together with three soldiers was hit by a trench mortar shell while crouching beyond the front line. Although Hemingway overstated the story over the years, it is clear that he was transferred to Milan where he falls in love with Agnes von Kurowsky, a Red Cross nurse. It is believed that the relationship between Henry and Catherine in the novel echoes Hemingway's relationship with the Red Cross nurse. When Hemingway was working as a freelance journalist in Turkey and Greece, he witnessed the retreat of Greece army and its civilian which provided him a major foundation in writing his story .The story on retreat of the Italian troops was based on his experience on the retreat of Greece army and its civilians. The work by some authors has had a major influence on Hemingway Novel. In 1921 when he married his first of the four wives, he settled in Paris where he made important connections with American writers such as Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein. In his collection of stories, In Our Time, he introduced Nick Adams; one of his favorite authors whose difficult road from Youth into maturity he had recorded influenced him into writing his novels. Hemingway uses two major symbols to drive his point home by stating that war shows the dark side of humanity and causes more harm than good.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Symbolism in the Novel
The novel uses symbolic language to connect to reader's emotion by showing how war can affect people's mode of living and thinking which results in them looking for an escapade that in the long run might have negative consequences. These symbols wrap up the major themes in the novel and are used by the writer in a big way. The widely used symbols are rain and Catherine's hair.
In the context of the novel, rain symbolizes the foreseeable collapse of a happy life. While Catherine and Henry were sleeping on Bed listening to the storm outside, Catherine introduces the meaning of the rain. As the rain dropped on the roof, Catherine admits the fact that rain frightens her and goes further to state that it has a tendency of destroying things for lovers. In real life situation, meteorological phenomena do not have such power but symbolically, Catherine fears is shown to be prophetic where after a short while, doom befalls the lovers. After the death of Catherine, Henry leaves the Hospital and walks home in the rain. In this case, the falling rain verifies Catherine's anxiety and confirms one of the argument of the novel that great love just like other things in the world however good or bad they may be do not last forever (Mellow 103).
Catherine's hair is an important symbol in the novel. In the early stages of their relationship, as Catherine and Henry lie in bed, Catherine takes down her hair and lets it flow over Henry's head. The fall of Catherine's hair reminds Henry of being behind a water fall or enclosed in a tent. The picture exhibited by the hair stand as a symbol of the isolation of the couples from the world. With a fierce war around them, they successful secure a wonderful seclusion which they believe is protected by something that is as delicate as hair. Later, when they are completely isolated from devastation of war and living in peace in Switzerland, they learn a cruel lesson that affection in the face of harsh reality is as short-lived and delicate as hair (Meyers 87)
The impact of symbolism in defining the theme of Realism
Symbols have been used well to define major themes in the novel and have been echoed in the theme of realism that encompass the harsh reality of war, love and pain, and escape from reality. The rain shows the reality that befalls Henry where he uses love as a guise in running away from war but ends up in tragedy. The war caused him to engage in a wrong relationship that ultimately ended in death of Catherine and the baby. The reality within the symbol of the rain is that anything however genuine it is has a short lifespan and this is well exhibited in the love relationship he engages with Catherine that takes a short span. The delicate nature of the love affair is symbolized by Catherine's hair. The symbols bring out the theme of realism in a number of ways.
The harsh reality of war
The title of the novel is depicted in line of war which Frederic Henry struggles to set himself free from and leave it behind. Few characters such as Gino and Ettore Moretti support the war but majority of them are hesitant about the war, doubtful of the glory it allegedly brings and resentful of the havoc it brings about. The novel provides a clear description of the violent chaos and senseless brutality brought about by the conflict. As the values and integrity of men in the society begin to disintegrate, the negative effect is felt in the soldier's minds, nerves and their capacity for moral judgment and rational thought. For instance, Henry shoots an Engineer for refusing to help him free the car that had stuck in the mud, a violent outburst that contradict his coolly detached character. The murder of the engineer seemed to be justified because it is an expected result of violence and disorder of war (Waldhorn 76).
Love and Pain
The theme of realism is depicted well in the relationship between love and pain. Against the background of the ravages of war, Hemingway offers a mournful, deep mediation on the nature of love. Catherine initiates a game meant to seduce Henry while still mourning her dead fiancé with an aim of distancing herself from the pain of her lost love. Love can bring about misery and can as well be used as a cure for the misery. Henry intends to move far away from war as possible and so together with his love, they find temporary solace from things that affect them. Henry understands how critical his love for Catherine is, offsets any concern for abstract ideals such as fame in order to flee the war and look for her. This is a clear indication that love can go as far as distracting a person from everyday life. The tragedy faced by the couple show that love, however genuine it may be is always temporary as other things of the world as depicted in the symbol of the rain while at the same time it is as delicate as Catherine's hair (Oliver, 68).
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Escape from reality
Escape from reality expounds on the theme of realism in a number of ways. Henry's involvement with Catherine is aimed at escaping the insanity of war. Actually the extreme circumstance of the war brought the two together thus creating an environment that allowed them to fall in love. The love affair provides Henry an emotionally safe landing where he can evade the reality of the war. Under normal circumstances, the relationship would not have occurred but due to the conditions that surrounded both Catherine and Henry, the relationship was initiated with ease. In order to escape the reality of war by getting into a love relationship with Catherine, Henry had misunderstood his actions. He had alienated himself from the environment of war which he believed had no place in his life but when Aymo is killed by his own army, he discovers that he is not really separated at all from the events and gets into a reality that he is an integral part of the war and has no chance of avoiding it. At this instance, he gets scared and so in order to escape immediately, he separates himself through love. When Catherine is about to deliver her first child, Henry becomes nervous. Although the baby is the product of their love, he becomes an important tool in connecting Henry to the reality of his current situation even though the insanity of war is over. The symbol of the rain as prophesized by Catherine's fear of the rain is well explained where neither Catherine nor Henry handles the situation at hand. Catherine shows her inability to cope with the situation physically through her death and the death of the child. Fredrick exhibits his inability to cope with the circumstances through his peculiar behavior such as getting frightened of numbers over two (Bloom 88).
Symbolism as used in explaining the Negative impact of the war
Basing on the rain as a symbol, the ultimate decision of Henry abandoning the war and settling for love ends tragically which clearly signify that war has numerous negative effects. War forces people to engage in things that might seem good at the start but end in a bad note. Through the symbol of rain, the negative effect of war is well depicted where Henry engages in acts of escapism to evade insanity caused by the war. His escape from the negative reality of war ultimately leaves him a dejected man. War is a major theme in the novel and defines many evils that result from its madness. Generally, war has defined human beings for many years and shows how deeply people hate each other. The novel has little combat but exhibits numerous effects of war. For instance the town, Gorizia, functions normally although there are people dying around it. More people die from diseases than in combat which is one of the effects of war. The act of war within the novel is involved in everything and this can be proved by the act of Henry and others making fun of the priest. Actually, war is always in the background. The confusion of war causes some members of the forces to engage in unethical acts in the name of duty. For instance Rinaldi and Fred chase their women and carry on with their duties. The action of chasing the women indicates that war moulds people who have no feelings and can thus do anything to win it. When the business of war commences, the men express their feeling about it where the drivers state that it is a conflict in terms of class struggle and so they were not willing to fight it at all. Shelling and shooting in the war results in injuries and death. Henry's legs are torn apart while one of his men is killed by an explosion which rocks them. War results in people losing their moral judgment and rational thought and thus engages in horrendous acts. For instance, Fred learns a shocking fact that the wounded soldiers must be left behind the hills as it is difficult to defend the mountains against attack by the Germans and so they retreat abandoning them instead of offering assistance to them. In this case, war promotes selfishness and kills the spirit of assistance as specified by wounded people being left in the battle field. Negative impact of the war gets intense as the retreat continues. Henry shoots and kills one of the engineers after they refused to take his orders and injures another who in the long run is killed by Bonello. It is apparent that the drivers do not want to be engaged in the war but they are forced to and develop heartlessness which in turn has negative effects on their conscience. Retreat by Italian forces brought about confusion where Italian officers panicked, started interrogating and executing anyone who was not Italian. This obviously shows that war causes people to lose their sense of humanity and allows impunity to sets in. The emotional effect of the war causes people to make wrong decisions and undertake wrong actions that under normal circumstances would not have happened. As a result of the war and quest to escape from it, Henry engages in a love relationship with Catherine. Although he managed to run away from the effects of the war, the end result of this love is tragic where both Catherine and the child die leaving Henry a dejected man. Despite the fact that the novel talks about the effects of the war, it fails to condemn it harshly but states that war is an inevitable outcome of senseless and cruel world. Hemingway puts forward his opinion by stating that war is nothing more than murderous and dark extension of a world that fails to protect, acknowledge and preserve true love (Hemingway 12).
A Farewell to Arms written by Ernest Hemingway describes how war affects the moral judgment and rational thought of people. People make wrong decisions and end up in tragedies as symbolized by the rain in Henry's situation. For instance, Henry engages in a relationship that ends in the death of Catherine and their baby. War affects the economic, social and political aspect of any society as it is an extension of the world that fails to acknowledge, protect and preserve true love.