This research aimed at investigating the comparison between tragic flaw of Dr. Faustus and Macbeth. The study examined whether their reason of downfall is due to their fate or by their own free will. According to Greek philosophy downfall of any protagonist of any tragedy is because of its own ill fate. I go through many researches on tragic flaw of Christopher Marlowe's Dr. Faustus and Shakespearean Macbeth. Different researchers blame different reasons for their downfall but I find lacking in their findings. So this thing persuade me to find the actual reason of their downfall according to my findings their reason of down is their own free will both the characters have ambitious nature which became their tragic flaw. Ambition is a strong desire for fame or success. One automatically thinks that ambition is a good and honorable trait. Many of us also consider ambition to be successful, in William Shakespeare's tragedy play Macbeth and Christopher Marlowe's tragedy play Dr. Faustus. In both plays protagonist of the play have great ambition, which in end leads to their down fall. Tragic Flaw is the cause of downfall of a protagonist due to his own free will or humanity nature and this concept is brilliantly shown in Marlowe's Dr. Faustus and Shakespearean Macbeth.
Get your grade
or your money back
using our Essay Writing Service!
Tragic Flaw is the cause of downfall of a protagonist due to his own free will or humanity nature and this concept is brilliantly shown in Marlowe's Dr. Faustus and Shakespearean Macbeth.
Christopher Marlowe helped to drawn English drama on the level of greatness. And to achieve his status in history of English literature his play Dr Faustus played a marvelous role. Dr Faustus interprets the struggle to reach beyond the ordinary mortals but in the end his intention are changed and he want to become godhead and want to reach the stars. Faustus desire also shows his over ambitious nature which became his tragic flaw.
Shakespeare's career was divided in to four stages. Early period based on his early experiments. Second period was the period of great comedies and chronicle plays, third period was of his dramatic romances and last but not the least the period of great tragedies and his play Macbeth was among them. In his play Macbeth he interpreted brilliantly how Macbeth's over ambitious nature become the cause of his tragic flaw. Macbeth was a tragic hero and his tragic flaw was his own ambitious nature. Ambition is a strong desire for fame or success. One automatically thinks that ambition is a good and honorable trait. Many of us also consider ambition to be successful, in William Shakespeare tragedy play Macbeth and Christopher Marlowe's tragedy play Dr. Faustus. In both plays protagonist of the play have great ambition, which in end leads to their down fall.
My research thesis will base on four chapters as my topic comparison between Dr. Faustus's tragic flaw and Macbeth tragic flaw. In my first chapter, I will give the Aristotle's concept of tragic flaw. Then in second chapter of my thesis, I will discuss the character of Dr. Faustus and in third chapter, I will give the brief description of Macbeth's character and in my last chapter, I will compare the tragic flaw of Dr. Faustus and Macbeth.
KEY WORD: Tragic Flaw
According to Aristotle: The hero's downfall, therefore, is partially her/his own fault, the result of free choice, not of accident or villainy or some overriding, malignant fate. In fact, the tragedy is usually triggered by some error of judgment or some character flaw that contributes to the hero's lack of perfection noted above. This error of judgment or character flaw is known as hamartia and is usually translated as "tragic flaw".
James Smith in (1939) in his research on "Marlowe Dr. Faustus" critically analyses the whole play of Marlowe's Dr. Faustus in which he highlight many aspect of play. He said that the final scene in Dr. Faustus is approved one of two conclusions follows either that the final scene is the product of a Marlowe in decline, or that he wrote that scene worst as a joke. He even says that both the possibility of scene did not prove the excellent part of the play. James Smith also talk about many aspects of the play he talks about the spirits, he even wrote about Helen, Lucifer, Good angel and Bad angel many contradiction statement. He proved these things are the main aspects of play and proved that Faustus is mechanical more than a human is because throughout the play he is doing things mechanically without thinking about his end. James Smith even highlighted the allegorical interpretations in the play. He even described Faustus spiritual desire in the first part of the play but as the attractiveness of evil gradually declines that of good grows in inverse proportion. Thus the more prominent role which in the earlier scene fell to the Bad Angel is in the later assumed by the Good Angel and his associates the old man and the Faustus's own conscience. James also says that the little space which he has afraid been left for a topic of major importance, he himself highlight the question that "what is the nature of the sinful act which Faustus commits?" To his own question, he answered the sin is pride which according to theologians, is the form and source of all other sin. Moreover, Faustus commits it formally that is deliberately without the shadow of an excuse or reason in actually. Through these points, which James highlights in his research, we easily came to know how critically he analyzed the play. In addition, he suggests the theme of the play to be called as hitherto, not only an allegory but also mortality. However, I find a big drawback in his research as I go through his research. I find that he had forgotten to highlight the main aspect of the play which became the source of the Tragic Flaw of Dr. Faustus .On which Christopher Marlowe emphasis the most and that is Dr. Faustus over ambitiousness to gain the knowledge which became the reason of his downfall.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
W.W. Greg in (1946) in his research "Reason of Damnation of Faustus". He highlights many reasons due to which Faustus was damned. First in his research, he said that Valdes and Cornelius are the reason of Faustus Downfall they attract Faustus towards magic in a way they want to do evil deeds from the back of Faustus and they do not want to be punish their self in the end. In addition, the second reason which WW. Greg highlight in research is the pact, which Faustus signs with the Devil, which became the reason for his damnation. But I don't agree with his reason because these all things come afterward. In my point of view the main reason of his damnation is his over ambitiousness nature because Faustus himself was very much curious to gain the knowledge of magic. W.W. Greg in his research uses the word of ambition but not in a negative manner. He said that Faustus ambition was positive to learn as he wants to serve the people in a positive way but I again disagree with his point of view that if he was positive he would never try evil deeds. I believe that from the very first part of the play he is over ambitious because we can clearly see that how much he is thirsty for knowledge and this thing lead him to his downfall.
J. C. Maxwell in (1947) in his research of "The Sin of Faustus". His purpose is to keep a due measure of attention directed upon that side of the theme is to recognize Faustus central act of sin for what it is. He said that his major sin on which his whole research revolve is Faustus pride and his curiosity. He said that pride is the ultimate source of Faustus fall and sensuality is pervasive element of his character after it. However, curiosity is most notably operative in the conduct of the action. Moreover, J. C. Maxwell said that it is largely owing to a failure to apprehend the nature as indeed the existence, of this sin that there has arisen the misrepresentations of Marlowe's purpose, which have seen in Faustus largely. J. C. Maxwell also said that to him the points arising out of this examination that seem to me important for understanding of the play are "No insistence on the pervading and increasing sensualist of Faustus ought to difficult to understand the fact that he falls, like man and like Lucifer himself, through the spiritual sin of pride. J. C. Maxwell highlights pride, sensuality and curiosity as the major sin of Dr. Faustus. However, I somewhat disagree with this conclusion because his major sin was his over ambitious nature to gain the knowledge of the whole universe. J. C. Maxwell talks about curiosity but not in this manner, he says that Faustus is curious to get the pride. But in my point of view he is curious to gain the knowledge and ambitious to be the god.
Helen Gardner in (1948) in her research paper "The theme of Damnation in Dr. Faustus". According to her Faustus was tired from the entire subject, which he had already studied so he decided to tire out his brains to get a religious study. She emphasizes that the sin of Faustus here is assumption the aspiring above his order, or the rebellion against the law of his creation. However, when he is last seen in his study it is the opposite sin, which delivers him to damnation. The final sin of Faustus is hopelessness. All these things show that Helen Gardner is emphasizing that Faustus is despair and he ask Lucifer to help him. Because he wants to be the God and want Mephistopheles as his servant in short she wants to say that Faustus is fully involved in Evil things and he even don't want to repent as the old man is continuously warning him to repent. In my point of view, Helen Gardner is right to some extent but the only lacking which I find in her research. She did not talk about the over ambitiousness in nature of Faustus which became the actual reason for Faustus Damnation. Faustus is so much lost in his ambition that he does not want to repent. He forget the reality that the powers which are allotted to him by devil are only for 24 year and after that he will be toured into pieces
This Essay is
a Student's Work
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.Examples of our work
Nicholas Brooke in (1952) in his research about the "Moral tragedy of Doctor Faustus" highlight that actual tragedy in Doctor Faustus is his morally downfall. Nicholas emphasize that the character of Faustus is gradually falling morally because when he involve in Evil deeds with Valdes and Cornelius who are guiding Faustus how to tease innocent people and make fun of them. The scene of Helen also highlighted in Nicholas research, which shows that Faustus moral values are declining. Faustus is also making fun of the idea of repentance. In other word the fate of the presumptuous, the Christian moral of humility and denial of self in the presence of God. On that plane the play continues Faustus is visited periodically by a Good and Bad Angel who make obvious suggestion he is warmed finally by a pious and saintly old man comes to a deservedly 'sticky end' and the appropriate comment is in the epilogue. I agree with the idea of Nicholas Brooke but the only lacking which I find behind his research that he did not mention the main idea through which Faustus move towards moral tragedy and that his ambitious nature. Because he is very much ambitious to gain the knowledge of magic and once he gain the power of magic he became morally corrupt.
In one of the research paper named the "Appeal of Evil in Dr. Faustus" (123helpme.com, a) the researcher highlight some of the point that how Faustus is setting the things for summoning Devil. The researcher also highlight that Christopher Marlowe definitely used of the supernatural to thrill and captivate his audience. Faustus is a tragic hero and because of his supernatural powers, he caused his own downfall. Doctor Faustus would not have been entertaining without these within the play. There is one more thing which researcher highlight in his research is that there is one major thing in the play that would be highly structured on the battle between God and Lucifer, and exactly how God won the battle. To some extent in my opinion, this can be the theme but the tragic flaw which researcher had highlighted is not very correct because the supernatural element about which researcher is talking is cannot be possible if Faustus did not gain the knowledge of magic. Therefore, I feel the Faustus ambition to gain knowledge and to rule the world became his tragic downfall.
In one of the research, paper about "Dr Faustus as an Apollonian Hero" (123helpme.com, b) researcher interoperates, that Faustus fights for his life amidst a swirling world of diabolic intent. He resorts to his learning but knows that this education will now slow the striking clock. Faustus must appear alone in this final culminating appearance on Earth and on the stage. His final soliloquy must be an opportunity fully develops the explosive dramatic potential of the new dramatic frontier. The Nature he once sought to conquer spurns his supplications, refusing to harbor him from Lucifer. It is the expression of his final acceptance of his own limits, the realization that he has devised his own end. The closing of the play portrays the final and total usurpation of morality elements in the humanistic drama of character. Marlowe's creative assimilation of the ethnicity of the historical English drama is nearly faultless. The revolution in dramatic demonstration reaches its high point as the play ends with the complete and total fall down of daemonic Dionysian Nature upon the extraordinary mind of Faustus. Faustus has never actually been granted any power at all; Mephistopheles has performed all the tricks that Faustus thinks he cleverly invented. His power must have been a false impression if even a clown can perform tricks a follower of Hell. In the final scene, Faustus finds his own study distorted into the hell predicted by Mephistopheles. Faustus lastly knows the truth of Mephistopheles' in advance description of hell as a world itself, important Nature in all of its unprincipled brutality.
As far as the downfall is concerned the researcher had highlighted the point but in my point of view which he had ignored the main point on which the whole scenario of Faustus downfall depend and that point is over ambitious nature of Faustus because he himself was very much ambitious to learn the magic and it was he who was ambitious to sign the pact with Lucifer and sold his soul because he was ambitious to be the god and want to rule the universe so it is clear that his own ambition became the cause of his down fall. Now after discussing the tragic flaw of Dr Faustus I want to drag your attention to the tragic flaw of Shakespearean Macbeth.
Marilyn French in 1982 wrote a term paper named "Macbeth and masculine values" draw attention toward many aspect of Macbeth's character and said that there is an uncertainty about gender role in Macbeth. She said that Macbeth is brave, valor's follower, courageous cousin and praise worthy men. Most of the praise comes from Duncan the king. In conclusion she said a tragedy she accept without any objection the decision that Macbeth is exterminate. Throughout the play, manhood is equated with the ability to kill. She also highlights the factor responsible in killing king Duncan is Lady Macbeth who convinced Macbeth to do so. But I don't agree with the point of view of Marilyn because Macbeth himself is overambitious to gain the power and to achieve the kingdom as we have seen throughout the play Macbeth is committing sin after sin in order to gain the power. Now if Marilyn is making Lady Macbeth responsible for Macbeths down fall is not true because Lady Macbeth persuaded Macbeth once and that is to murder the king Duncan but not his son and not his friend Banquo so it is clear that Macbeth is to blame for his own dreadful mistake.
In one of the research paper named "The question of justice in Macbeth" (123helpme.com, c) the researcher is emphasizing in the play Macbeth, many different choices are brought onward to a positive character and the result that is chosen affects the entire play. The researcher analyzed the results of these actions can be a positive or negative conclusion towards the character. Researcher raised the question himself does justice always prevail in the play Macbeth? If a character decides to commit a crime, will they be punished. If a character does a noble deed, will they be rewarded? As is represented in the play Macbeth, justice always prevails due to the guilty character's developing sense of regret and/or the character receiving fair punishment For every action, there is a reaction and whatever the result is, it is meant to happen and it is just.
The first wicked decision chosen by Lady Macbeth and her husband Macbeth was to kill King Duncan. The death of Duncan would mean the birth of a new Macbeth, King Macbeth. Lady Macbeth decided to have her husband kill Duncan. Once Duncan is killed, Macbeth has second thoughts about the murder of Duncan and his conscience starts to kick in. His wife then puts his conscience at ease. The wife become immoral by persuades Macbeth to kill Duncan and trying to reduce the blow of Duncan's death by comforting her husband that everything was going to be all right. Macbeth was being morally wrong by actually killing King Duncan. Macbeth is already starting to feel guilty, but Lady Macbeth seems not to be affected, as of now. Now here I find some of the draw back in this research because at first researcher is talking about justice in the play. However, in later he is throwing all the blame on Lady Macbeth that she is responsible for killing King Duncan and after assassination King Macbeth is very scared but Lady Macbeth always comforts him. In my point of view to some extend researcher is right in a way that lady Macbeth persuaded Macbeth to kill or to commit a crime of killing King Duncan. But I feel that its Macbeth's own over ambitious nature which persuaded him to kill Duncan this is the main thing which researcher forget to mention in this way in his research paper he is not justified with his topic because he over look the main character main theme of play on which the whole scenario of justice in the play of Macbeth revolve.
In one of the research paper named "Murder in Shakespeare's Macbeth" (123helpme.com, d) the researcher, said Macbeth is a true Shakespearian tragedy, in which the center of attraction are murders which take place, in order for one man and women to take the kingdom and become king and queen. It starts with Duncan's murder, which is done because Macbeth did not want to see Duncan's son next in line for the throne and the only way to prevent that was by murdering King Duncan. The next murder was that of Banquo. Banquo is a friend of Macbeth and his murder is random. Macbeth may have feared that if he did not kill Banquo, Banquo would kill him in order to gain a position power seeing that the witch has just clued-up both Macbeth, Banquo that Macbeth can be the next who be the King of Scotland, and Banquo will never have the chance to hold the kingdom. Once Banquo is out of the way, Macbeth turns his concentration to his real target, King MaCduff. Although at first hesitant about killing MaCduff, Macbeth chooses to murder MaCduff, a man who Macbeth himself said was a good man and a fine leader. The last murder is of MaCduff's family. Macbeth cannot take any chances and must kill any associated with the former King MaCduff. The murder of MaCduff's wife and son is the most inhuman crime of them all because for one. The researcher also said that all the killing we see on stage and number two a child is murdered, the most vicious and dreadful thing one can show. Macbeth murders for personal gain and has no doubts or else he would not have continued his mass slaughtering. Macbeth is responsible for these murders because he commits them himself, without any assistance, he kills everyone out of requirement, and because all these acts were done out of free will. The researcher analyzes the reason of so many murders in the play very well. However, the main aspect of the play which he forgets is Macbeth over ambitious nature which became the tragic flaw of his own. However, all the murder which researcher highlight in his research is revolve around the nature of the Macbeth. Macbeth is very much ambitious to get the throne which leads him toward his dreadful end.
In another paper on "Critical abstract-Macbeth" (123helpme.com, e) writer highlight the critical point of the play "In Macbeth, the delicate power of darkness becomes all-pervading; it takes the form of "ghostly solicit," it employs "instruments of darkness," it saturate the play in blackness and in blood, poisons the air with fear, preys on blown up and contaminated thoughts, turns feasting to terror and the innocent sleep to frightening, and employs a dreadful irony of demolition in the accomplishment of its dreadful irony of destruction in the achievement of its unproductive ends. Evil is alive of itself, a protagonist in its own right." The essayist says that there is a custom among actors that attach with Macbeth. Saying the name can be very unsuccessful. No other play has held such a deadly influence to actors than this one. The characters in this play had evil traits as well. Lady Macbeth was exposed of her feminine character to give her the will power to carry on the deed of killing Duncan. To do this, she called for evil spirits to enter her. The death of Duncan is a sign to the both of them that evil has taken power of their lives. It has become an overshadowing force that they cannot manage. Macbeth's life becomes a living nightmare. He cannot stop killing people; he has become the slave to evil. The only relationship left between Macbeth and his wife is the blood of the murdered. The last part of Lady Macbeth is filled with echoes, despite the consequences of the sleepless nights. Fear has set in around the whole play. Everyone fears his or her lives. As the play comes closer to its end, the spread of evil accelerate in haste. The root to all evil of this play is connected with the witches. Their horrible physical features and appearances, their spells and the belief in witchery of the time give them a strong power. As superstition have distorted, so did the figureheads of Macbeth. The essayist highlight all the critical point of the play about Lady Macbeth's character about Macbeth's character about their sin about their downfall but the main thing which he forget to highlight in his critical analysis that what is the reason of the downfall and that reason is ambitious nature of Macbeth to be the king of Scotland and to fulfill his ambition he did so many killings.
In one of the research paper about "Shakespeare's Macbeth- A tragic hero" (123helpme.com,f) The researcher define the tragic hero he said Macbeth relationship with other characters in the play at the very beginning of the play, Macbeth and Banquo are returning to Scotland from a severe battle between the Norwegians and the Scottish.
They have just won the war for Duncan. This shows a dignified virtue of Macbeth. Researcher said that a requirement of a tragic hero according to Aristotle. It shows that Macbeth is a faithful person to the King and that he is a great fighter. As they are returning to Scotland, three witches appear and make prophecy about Macbeth and Banquo. The three witches say Here, Macbeth is interested in what the witches have to say, but he does not really consider them. A few minutes later, Ross enters. He tells Macbeth that the thane of Cawdor is in line for death and that Duncan has named Macbeth the new thane of Cawdor. Now, Macbeth is shocked. The witch's prophecy has come true. He cannot believe it. Now Macbeth has a lot more on his mind; the third prophecy about becoming the King. Macbeth knows that if something were to happen to Duncan, Malcolm and Donalbain, Duncan's sons, would be the rightful candidate to the throne. Researcher raises the question how can Macbeth be King when he is nowhere near the next in line to the throne. Another requirement for a tragic hero is that he must have a tragic flaw. Macbeth's tragic flaw is that of ambition; At this point, Lady Macbeth knows prophecies. She really wants to be Queen of Scotland so she encourages Macbeth to do the murder of King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is putting massive amount of pressure on Macbeth. However, Macbeth thinks that Duncan is a great King and he considers Duncan to be a good friend. Finally, Macbeth gives into Lady Macbeth and decides that he will kill Duncan while he is visiting Macbeth's castle that same night. That night, Macbeth kills Duncan. However, afterwards, Macbeth is feeling very sorry for himself. He cannot believe what he has just done. His ambition has caused him to kill a good friend and even worse, the King! Here, Macbeth is going crazy. He is so crazy right now that he brought the daggers he used to kill Duncan with him to his room. Lady Macbeth screams at him to go back to return the daggers this is where Lady Macbeth takes control and tells him that. After a while, Macbeth becomes content with what he has done especially after Malcolm and Donalbain leave Scotland for fear of their lives. Now, the third prophecy has come true; Macbeth is King of Scotland. Now, all Macbeth cares about is his throne. He does not care if he loses his life, if he loses his wife, however if he lost his throne, he would be devastated. This is why he will do absolutely anything to keep the throne, and this is why he hires murderers to kill Banquo. In this research paper the researcher, emphasize on all the reason of Macbeth's downfall. However, the drawback, which I find, is only that he tells all the reason of his downfall and what I believe that ambitious nature of Macbeth is the only tragic flaw of his downfall.
In one of the research paper named "The personality of Macbeth", (123helpme.com, g) researcher analyzes the whole personality of Macbeth. He said that Macbeth on first hand as a mature man of definitely well known character, successful in certain fields of activity, and enjoying an enviable reputation. He concluded that all Macbeth's actions are conventional. Macbeth's character is made out of possibilities and the surroundings, and no one, not even Macbeth, can know all of his excessive self-love. Researcher said that Macbeth is determinant.
Macbeth driven in his conduct by an excessive desire for sophisticated honors; his desire lies in buying excellent opportunity from all sorts of people in short. One must not deny Macbeth a human complexity of motives. His fighting in Duncan's service is superb and courageous. Macbeth also rejoices in the success that crowns his efforts in battle. Macbeth's services are also for his own glory. While Macbeth razes Duncan's enemies, such reason work but are ambiguous in his awareness by more strong urges. Macbeth by nature brutally demands rewards. Macbeth fights bravely. Macbeth values success because it brings fame and royal favor. As long as these variable goods fulfill his desires, which are the case until he covets the kingship, Macbeth is an honorable gentleman. Once Macbeth's self-love demands a satisfaction that cannot be obtained. He employs dishonorable tactics to gain his selfish desires. In whole research, the most appropriate thing, which I find, is Macbeth's selfish desire. I want to make his point more clear that it is due to his over ambitious nature that he want to be the king and for this he is doing killing after killing and in the end his ambition became his tragic flaw.
In a research, paper named "The power of Macbeth" (123helpme.com, h) researcher highlight what are the actual element of power in the play Macbeth. He said Evil is so present and powerful in the play that any good is over shadowed by the evil forces. He said that Shakespeare uses powerful images of wild heaths and dark castles compliment sense of evil in the play. Images of night and day are powerful, as the night is just apposed with darkness and evil. Most of the evil acts take place at night. The power of day light after all the dark evil is gone. Shakespeare runs other powerful images through the play of blood and sleep. All the elements which researcher highlight I agree with them but the thing, which I find is missing in his research, is he forget to highlight the power of ambition in Macbeth's nature, which became the reason of his tragic flaw.
The researches which I have analyses has some drawbacks to some extent. The researchers are unable to highlight the main tragic flaw of both the play. Therefore, this gave me reason to do my research on the main reason of the downfall of both the protagonist of the play.
RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the reason of Dr Faustus and Macbeth's Downfall?
My research is oriented to bring an attention to a new paradox, shadowed aspect of Tragic Flaw of Dr. Faustus and Macbeth that they are responsible by themselves. And this thing has deviated from the Greek concept that fate is responsible for the downfall of protagonist. But in Dr. Faustus and Macbeth their over ambitious nature became their Tragic Flaw.
ARISTOTLE VIEW ON TRAGIC HERO AND TRAGIC FLAW.
W. Hamilton Fyfe in his book "Aristotle's Art of Poetry" highlighted that Aristotle was the first critic of literature to view the dissimilarity between moral and visual condition. He is specific in his vision that they want of tragedy is to give delight, strange kind of pleasure which go with the release of feeling result through the stage performance of a tragedy. The human interest holds us. He also shares the feelings of people like Othello or Macbeth. These are all people like us, yet somehow, even in the two contemporary dramas, increase to a superior power. W .H. Fyfe also clear that they achieve to some extent more than human self-respect. And yet we fully distribute their feelings and share them more easily and exactly because the poet has disqualified all those conditions and thought which in real life perplex our feelings and reject our pleasure. W. H. Fyfe also clarify that Aristotle's represent his emotion in dramatic form and, as we share it, it becomes our own. If the tragedy has its way with us, our secreted emotion and perhaps also the physical discharge of tears is released, and when the storm of thrill settle, we are left with a sense of pleasurable relief. We have the same sense of worried, tensions determined in pleasurable relief when we are upset with our problems we sit down to watch some movies or starts reading books or listen to the music which gave us soothing effect. In the same way W. H. Fyfe also said that great poem or a great picture both stimulate and relieves our emotions. According to him Athenian tragedy combined all these demand poetry, music, pictorial expression; it carried the yet stronger and more popular demand of a thrilling story and presents in the great open-air theatre of Dionysus the strengthening group of people. It was really a bold step. People who avoid their panic by reading careless accounts of football and racing, adultery and murder, might better their health by means of this safer and much more pleasing form of relief. It still exists; and great works of art come so hardly ever within our reach that there is no danger in indulging in such activity to get pleasure. This is all about the W. H. Fyfe point of view about the emotional effect of tragedy.
In one of the term paper named "Tragic Hero" (www.planetpaper.com). He said that Aristotle described a tragic hero as being a person who, through a flaw, in their own character, is brought from a high position and learns to see clearly before their own destruction. In the Theban play. 'King Oedipus', Oedipus is considered to be a tragic hero after his mother and father try to cheat fate, then later when Oedipus discovered his own fate, he tried to cheat his fate so here I may say that it was his own free will also only in truth ending up where fate had designed. Another Theban play, 'Antigone', also written by Sophocles includes Oedipus' daughter, Antigone, as the tragic hero when she dies for what she believes in. A main character of any tragedy play can be a tragic hero due to his own error of judgment or he may be the puppet in the hand of fate.
Now in my first chapter of Analysis I want to high light some rules and regulation of tragedy and tragic hero given by Aristotle. Firstly I would like to talk about Aristotelian tragic hero. He emphasize that the tragic hero of any play should belong to reputed family and he must fall from propriety into misfortunate not due to any villainies character but due to his own error of judgment or due to his fate. To this point I want to give the example of Shakespearean Macbeth and Christopher Marlowe's Dr. Faustus. These two character are the best example of Aristotelian tragic hero both the character belong to reputed family and their own error of judgment became the cause of their downfall.
According to Aristotle:
"The hero of any tragedy ancient or modern must be one whom we regard as a fine fellow. He certainly need not be of good family or even in high station those requirements were peculiar to Greek drama". (Fyfe, W.H.1963:25)
A.C Bradley in (1935) given a lecture on Hamlet, Othello, Kinglear and Macbeth. He said we see men and women self-assuredly arresting into the obtainable order of things in pursuance of their thoughts but what they accomplish is not what they designed, in fact it is awfully different what they thought. In Shakespearean play "Othello" is trapped in his own evil deeds which he designed for others. Hamlet react from the forceful duty of revenge is pushed into blood sin he never vision of and enforced at last on the revenge in actual he don't want to do this. Everywhere in the tragedy man's thought translated into action is changed into the opposite of itself. All the action which is mentioned above is due to their own flaw in their character. Yet, by itself it would hardly put forward the idea of fate but in actual it shows their own free will it shows man as, in some degree, however, slight the cause of his own downfall.
Character itself contributes to the feelings of fatality which is not due to their fate but through their free will now here I want to give the example of King Macbeth because his down fall occurred due to his own ambitious nature and other example I want to give is about Dr Faustus whose downfall occurred due to his own free will.
Some people thought fate in Shakespeare can be described as a moral order and its necessity as a moral essential. But in my point of view fate and free will are the two sides of a same coin. These thing brings into the light those aspects of the tragic fact which the idea of fate and free will throws into the shade leading to the argument, 'whatever may be said of accidents, circumstances and the like human action is after all presented to us as the central fact in tragedy and also as the main cause of the catastrophe.
The moral necessity which so much impresses us is, after all, chiefly the necessary connection between actions and consequences for those actions we without even raising on the subject. The agents responsible and the tragedy would disappear from us if we did not. The central action is in greater or lesser degree, wrong or bad. The catastrophe is the main is the return of this action o the head of the agent.
CHARACTER OF DR- FAUSTUS.
In one of the term paper named "Dr Faustus duality in doctor: values in Faustus" (www.planetpapper.com). The researcher highlight that Christopher Marlowe the heroic Christian tragedy, Doctor Faustus, the central character, Dr. Faustus, fight back between subsequent God and Lucifer. Faustus, who is a mystery in himself, is competent of fabulous expressiveness and determined loss of sight. According to researcher Faustus refusal to see what is truth and what is fiction is a result of his self-important role. Dr Faustus in his mission to turn out to be supreme, Faustus not succeeds to see that there is life after death and that his bits and pieces belongings are of no significance. Researcher emphasize on that Faustus is a contributor in his own internal war of knowledge or salvation. Faustus inner chaos gives way to the main connotation within the play: He also highlights reflection of that era in his research medieval morals versus Renaissance ideals. Faustus upsetting end serves not only as a message to all but also gives justice to the age-old formula Marlowe characterization of Faustus leads one to the principal idea of duality in culture of his era in which Medieval values conflict with those of the Renaissance.Â
Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus" is the first major Elizabethan tragedy and the first to see the sights of the tragic possibilities of the direct conflict of Renaissance compulsions with the Hebraic - Christian tradition. Marlowe sinned, suffered regret and was damned.
Faustus in thought and deed, threatening, philosophizing, disputing, artifice, defying God and risking all with prosper does not put forward the lay character of moralities. Marlowe interpreted into the old medieval equation the new, unsolved and frighteningly vague lively of the renaissance, gave it a charm and a dignity never realized in previous treatments of the story, and made Faustus, rather than Hamlet, the first modern man.
The play introduced the modern tragic theme of the alienated soul. Faustus is tragic because he known the problem as actual. Even as he claims the freedom of his soul, he hears the terrified echoes thundering in his ears like Macbeth Dr. Faustus is a man who of his own wide awake determination brings tragedy and suffering cashing down upon his head, the pitiful and fearful victim of his own ambitious and desires.
The satire with which Marlowe usually invests the downfall of his Protagonists is an irony based on these reasonable concepts of sin and damnation, and vividly expressed in two major patterns of action: the monotonous pattern of ethical preference leading to the option of spiritual demolition, and the pattern of dissimilarity between Faustus grand imaginative designs and the real, stupid activities of his magical career.
Marlowe devotes his first scene to a careful staging of Faustus decision to take up magic. One by one the fields of material education are rejected because their ends not satisfy his demand but notice what the demand is. He does not pursue knowledge for the sake of truth, but for power, for superhuman power, the power over life and death.
We find Marlowe's hero Faustus, he sold his soul to the Devil in order to gain super human power through knowledge by mastering the Un-Holey art of magic and thus he says to himself.
J. C. Maxwell in (1947) in his research of "The Sin of Faustus". His purpose is to keep a due measure of attention directed upon that side of the theme is to recognize Faustus central act of sin for what it is. He said that his major sin on which his whole research revolve is Faustus pride and his curiosity. He said that pride is the ultimate source of Faustus fall and sensuality is pervasive element of his character after it. However, curiosity is most notably operative in the conduct of the action. Moreover, J. C. Maxwell said that it is largely owing to a failure to apprehend the nature as indeed the existence, of this sin that there has arise the misrepresentations of Marlowe's purpose, which have seen in Faustus largely. J. C. Maxwell also said that to him the points arising out of this examination that seem to me important for understanding of the play are "No insistence on the pervading and increasing sensualist of Faustus ought to difficult to understand the fact that he falls, like man and like Lucifer himself, through the spiritual sin of pride. J. C. Maxwell highlights pride, sensuality and curiosity as the major sin of Dr. Faustus. However, I somewhat disagree with this conclusion because his major sin was his over ambitious nature to gain the knowledge of the whole universe. J. C. Maxwell talks about curiosity but not in this manner, he says that Faustus is curious to get the pride. But in my point of view he is curious to gain the knowledge and ambitious to be the god.
Kaitlyn Cavanaugh in (2008) wrote an article named "Faustus as a tragic hero"(writinghood.com) draw attention to many traits of Dr Faustus character and said There may be dissimilar or changeable ways of looking at assured characters and enlightening them as a certain type of character. In Christopher Marlowe's play Doctor Faustus, the main character, Doctor Faustus, could be described and exposed as a tragic hero, similarly to other tragic characters, such as Sophocles' Oedipus and Shakespeare's Macbeth may also be described as such. There are different features and personality, which would make these characters be considered as tragic heroes rather than another type of character. In Marlowe's play, the main character, Faustus, brings his own downfall by the end of the story. In his opening speech, Faustus tells and explains the audience and the readers that he made himself expert in law, medicine and divinity, but he wants to know more than what he knows and also know more about other things in short his intention was to become a god. This aspect of Faustus, his curiosity to learn and know more, may be thought of as part of the human condition and human nature and isn't something that is seen as wrong in our society. However, this aspect also blinds Faustus from a sense of reason and right from wrong. This in the end leads the main character of Doctor Faustus to make an agreement with the devil, which results in Faustus' downfall. This aspect of Faustus' character and personality is similar to Oedipus, in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex. Oedipus' pride blinds him from seeing truth, reason, as well as the difference from right and wrong, which leads to and results in the character's downfall and to the main character of Sophocles' play, Oedipus, stabbing his eyes out. This feature will lead to the characteristic and fact that, by doing these mistakes or "flaws", the tragic heroes are doomed from the beginning and the audience and readers know the fate of these characters is sealed. And for the tragic hero is just that, a tragic hero or tragic character, this type of character has to be doomed from the beginning of the play, but doesn't hold any responsibility for possessing his flaw or fault. This may be seen in Faustus. From the beginning of the play, from the time that he tells the audience and readers that he wants to acquire more knowledge and especially when he signs the, the audience and readers may that Faustus is doomed to have a less than perfect and happy ending. Much like Faustus, Oedipus' fate is sealed when he refuses to see the truth, even when it's standing right in front of him. Though these two tragic heroes may feel some sense of guilt about their actions, neither Faustus nor Oedipus seem feeling some sense of guilt or responsibility of their flaw.
These aspects are a few attributes and features that characterize a tragic hero. Most of these attributes may be applied to Faustus. Throughout the article it is highlighted that the most prominent trait of Dr Faustus character was his ambitious nature which became the reason of his downfall.
CHARACTER OF KING- MACBETH.
In one of the term paper named "Macbeth" (planetpaper.com) the researcher highlights the main points of Macbeth's character. He said in the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare, he find out that Macbeth is a tragic hero. Macbeth is very ambitious, daring, and an ethically coward all these things lead to his tragic death at the end of the play. At the beginning of the play, Shakespeare characterizes Macbeth as a hero very evidently from the bravery in guard of Scotland is important in the opening scene. However, he is very ambitious to be king. And this thing height the negative trait in Macbeths character.
In one of the research paper named "Macbeth as a Tragedy According To Aristotle's Definition."Â (123helpme.com, i).Researcher highlights some of the characteristic of Macbeth's personality. He first compares Macbeth's character with qualities of tragic hero set by Greek philosopher Aristotle. Researcher highlight that the genre of some works of literature can be discuss, Macbeth written by William Shakespeare seems to fit into a ideal shape of Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, unite seven elements that he believes make the type of a work a tragedy, is that pattern. Demonstrate all seven aspects; Macbeth fits the definition of tragedy specifically. According to him elements in the play verify the fact that MacbethÂ is a serious story, the first elements of Aristotle's definition. In spite of the outcome of the play, Macbeth was a good and great man, one of elements in the definition of tragedy. Macbeth was an admirable man whom held the position of the Thane of Glam and was victorious in battle. This success helped him take escape of admiration from Duncan, very good deed attain by few. The most important detail that Macbeth is truly not just a good but a great man is the fact that at first, even though Lady Macbeth pleaded for him to kill Duncan, he refuse. Through Lady Macbeth's scheming ways brought about by her hunger for power and position, he did certainly kill him and others though. Yet, this in itself if analyze prove he is a great man. Through tactical planning and cunning wits, he was able to murder, and briefly gets away with it. Yet, every great man must have a single flaw, which they give into, as declared in the definition of a tragedy. Macbeth's flaw was ambition, brought about by Lady Macbeth and the witches. Through the imagery they created of him as a noble, bold and successful King, he let his ambitions get the best of him, which led to murder, deceit, cheating and eventually tragedy. The ambition in him was not at full smother until the witches and his wife fully brought it out of him yet, it was a flaw, unlike a curable condition or problem, which he could not prevail over, not even by fate. The aspect of a flaw that the good or great man cannot overcome by fate is the fourth element in Aristotle's adaptation of a tragedy.
This research paper highlight all the traits of Macbeth's character that in the start of the play Shakespeare portrays Macbeth's character as a noble, kind hearted, victorious, and people and King Duncan praised him a lot. But later in the play we came to know his actual character that he is ill eared and easily get manipulated by witches and his wife lady Macbeth. Macbeth ambitious nature became the cause of his downfall or we can say that his tragic flaw is his own nature.
Marilyn French in 1982 wrote a term paper named "Macbeth and masculine values" draw attention to many aspect of Macbeth's character and said that there is an uncertainty about gender role in Macbeth. She said that Macbeth is brave, valor's follower, courageous cousin and praise worthy men. Most of the praise comes from Duncan the king. In conclusion she said a tragedy she accept without object the decision that Macbeth is exterminate. Throughout the play, manhood is equated with the ability to kill. She also highlights the factor responsible in killing king Duncan is Lady Macbeth who convinced Macbeth to do so. But I am not agree with the point of view of Marilyn because Macbeth himself is overambitious to gain the power and to achieve the kingdom as we have seen throughout the play Macbeth is committing sin after sin in order to gain the power. Now if Marilyn is making Lady Macbeth responsible for Macbeths down fall is not true because Lady Macbeth persuaded Macbeth once and that is to murder the king Duncan but not his son and not his friend Banquo so it is clear that Macbeth is to blame for his own dreadful mistake.
In one of the research paper named "The question of justice in Macbeth" (123helpme.com) the researcher is emphasizing in the play Macbeth, many different choices are brought onward to a positive character and the result that is chosen affects the entire play. The researcher analyzed the results of these actions can be a positive or negative conclusion towards the character. As is represented in the play Macbeth, justice always prevails due to the guilty character's developing sense of regret or the character receiving fair punishment. This shows some traits of Macbeth's character.
To give clear idea of Macbeth's character I again want to high light some of the points from one of the research named "The personality of Macbeth"(123helpme.com). In his research researcher highlight that Macbeth down fall is due to natural law in which person his own choice to select his path has. He also emphasize that Macbeth also has his own choice either he want to go with the prophecy of witches or to act as his wife want him to act so it is clear that it is totally depend upon his own will and his will is to became the king and want to attain the power. This thing clarifies that is ambition became the reason of his down fall.
COMPARISON BETWEEN DR-FAUSTUS AND MACBETH'S TRAGIC FLAW.
Firstly we can consider the ways in which the play starts it explore the mystic in the opening scene of Macbeth and Dr Faustus.
The mystical is a powerful theme that constantly appears throughout the opening scenes of Shakespeare's 'Macbeth 'and Marlowe's 'Dr Faustus'. Continuously throughout the opening scenes the supernatural is used as a way to introduce suspense, horror and feeling of doubts in to the play and help in the awakening of the audience's thoughts. In Macbeth the plan of the supernatural is introduced to the audience straight away, as Shakespeare opens the scene opens with three witches. During the time that Macbeth was written the idea and belief that witches truly survive would have been taken tremendously sincerely by Shakespeare's audience as witches were thought to be real beings. Using witches in the opening scene automatically build an environment and let the audience to recognize that the play that they are about to watch is going to have a gloomy, perplexing and fear-provoking feeling to it, as witches are usually linked as wicked being.
Shakespeare also uses pitiable misleading notion to generate the sense of the supernatural. "Thunder and lightning", this mechanism is also used as a way to establish the ambience of the opening scene. Setting the scene early in the opening of the play allows the audience to become aware that the character of the opening scene is going to be fairly severe and sinister, which allow the audience to absorb themselves entirely in the play. The use of pitiable myth in the opening scene also enhances the idea that witches are evil beings as both the description of the weather and defined the ideas that Shakespeare's audience would have had about witches portray extremely negative association.
In dissimilarity to Shakespeare's Macbeth, Marlowe uses the idea of the supernatural in the opening scene of Dr Faustus in a much more positive way. In the opening scene Marlowe uses his own thought to introduce the views of the play Dr Faustus. This is all about the comparison and contrast of the start of both the plays. The starting scene of both the play to some extent is similar and that is they started with the super natural character. There is one more similarity in the opening of the play that both the writers portray their main character as a noble person belongs to good family kind hearted. This is all about the play. Now I want to drag your attention to the similarities and dissimilarities in Macbeth's and Dr Faustus characters.
In one of the essay named "Dr Faustus VS Macbeth" (exampleessay.com) the essayist highlights the some of the similarities of both the character. In many ways, Macbeth and Dr. Faustus follow the same sequence as their character's poor preference cause them to distortion downfall which they never thought. The universal truth of the "Faust Theme" is obvious in Macbeth. It can be seen through his decisions all over the play. These decisions are what cause his succession from an honorable man in the beginning to an evil cruel king in the end.
Macbeth and Dr. Faustus are very much alike. In the plays they both sold their soul to the devil to attain the knowledge and power. Macbeth didn't literally sell his soul to the devil as Faustus did, but he also gets under the influence of evil character that is witches.
This is all about the similarities and dissimilarities of both the character. Now come to the main point that what is the tragic flaw in both the character? In my opinion the tragic flaw of both the characters is their own ambitious nature. They both are very ambitious to attain power and knowledge but to be ambitious is not a wrong thing but to attain their ambition they uses false path or in short I want to say they became blind to achieve their ambition now this is their tragic flaw. To justify my point I want highlight some researcher point of view.
In one of the essay named "Vaulting ambition and downfall"(www.directessay.com) the essayist emphasizes on the reason of Macbeth's downfall is his vaulting ambition, though it is what bring him power but is also the same which lead him to his down fall. According to essayist vaulting ambition is Macbeth's only flaw. Essayist also highlight positive side of his ambition that through his ambitious nature he won my battles because at that time his only ambition is to praise by people but later on in the play his ambitious nature portray by Shakespeare in a darker way that his lust to achieve power and to became the king of Scotland moved his positive ambitious nature into a negative way and he commit sin after sin to achieve his ambition. This became his tragic flaw.
W.W. Greg in (1946) (71-88) research "Reason of Damnation of Faustus". He highlights many reasons due to which Faustus was damned. First in his research, he said that Valdes and Cornelius are the reason of Faustus Downfall they attract Faustus towards magic in a way they want to do evil deeds from the back of Faustus and they do not want to be punish their self in the end. In addition, the second reason which WW. Greg highlight in research is the pact, which Faustus signs with the Devil, which became the reason for his damnation. But I am not agree with his reason because these all things come afterward in my point of view the main reason of his damnation is his over ambitiousness nature because Faustus himself was very much curious to gain the knowledge of magic. W.W. Greg in his research uses the word of ambition but not in a negative manner. He said that Faustus ambition was positive to learn as he want to serve the people in a positive way but I again disagree with his point of view that if he was positive he will never try evil deeds. I believe that from the very first part of the play he is over ambitious because we can clearly see that how much he is thirsty for knowledge and this thing lead him to his downfall. Here we can easily compare both Macbeth and Dr Faustus character flaw is their over ambitious nature which became the reason of their own downfall.
So it is clear that Shakespearean Macbeth and Christopher Marlow's Dr-Faustus share same personality traits both are noble in start there ambition were positive in the start of the play as Faustus want to earn education of magic to help people to help his country in security reasons but when he achieve that knowledge his ambition change in to negative he start teasing people in order to help them. In the end he became totally self-centered and to achieve his ambition he sold his sole to devil. So it is cleared that ambitious nature of both the character became there tragic flaw and they were damned in the end which is totally their own choice they selected their deaths by their own free will.
Many researcher highlighted different reason of tragic flaw in Shakespearean Macbeth and Marlow's Dr Faustus some are as follows. W.W. Greg in (1946) research "Reason of Damnation of Faustus". He highlights many reasons due to which Faustus was damned. First in his research, he said that Valdes and Cornelius are the reason of Faustus Downfall they attract Faustus towards magic in a way they want to do evil deeds from the back of Faustus and they do not want to be punish their self in the end. In addition, the second reason which WW. Greg highlight in research is the pact, which Faustus signs with the Devil, which became the reason for his damnation. J. C. Maxwell in (1947) in his research of "The Sin of Faustus". His purpose is to keep a due measure of attention directed upon that side of the theme is to recognize Faustus central act of sin for what it is. He said that his major sin on which his whole research revolve is Faustus pride and his curiosity. He said that pride is the ultimate source of Faustus fall and sensuality is pervasive element of his character after it. Marilyn French in 1982 wrote a term paper named "Macbeth and masculine values" draw attention to many aspect of Macbeth's character and said that there is an uncertainty about gender role in Macbeth. She said that Macbeth is brave, valor's follower, courageous cousin and praise worthy men. Most of the praise comes from Duncan the king. In conclusion she said a tragedy she accept without object the decision that Macbeth is exterminate. Throughout the play, manhood is equated with the ability to kill. She also highlights the factor responsible in killing king Duncan is Lady Macbeth who convinced Macbeth to do so.
But on the bases of this analysis the results comes out is that the tragic flaw of both the characters is their own ambitious nature although whoever motivate them to commit sin but in
end it was their own decision.
I will not plagiarize.
I will submit my thesis on time.
If I will consult library of any other institute first I will take permission from the head of the institute.
English literature is a vast field. It always has a vast scope to search and research further. My research is limited. If anybody want to research further related to my topic there are thousand ways to research further. One can easily prove me wrong that over ambitious nature of Dr Faustus and Macbeth is not their tragic flaw.
Admin. Macbeth (1999).planetpapers.com [electronic version] retrieved on 1, Aug.2012 retrieved from www.planetpapers.com/free-term-paper/Macbeth-202.aspx.
Bradely.A.C (1953) Lecture on Hamlet,Othelo,KinglearAndMacbeth [electronic version] retrieved on 30, May.2012 retrieved from www.gutenberg.org/files/16966/16966-h/16966-h.htm.
Brooke Nicholas (1952) The moral tragedy of doctor Faustus. In Dyson.A.E (ed.) Marlowe: dr Faustus 1969. Hongkong: the Macmillan press Ltd, 101-133.
Cavanwagh, K. (2008) Faustus a tragic hero.[electronic version] retrieved on Feb 9,2012. retrieved from http://www.writinghood.com/literature/national/faustus-as-a-tragic-hero
French Marilyn (1982) Macbeth and masculine. In Dyson.A.E (ed.) Macbeth 1992. Hongkong: Macmillan press Ltd, 14-24.
Gardner Helen (1948) The theme of damnation in doctor Faustus. In Dyson.A.E (ed.) Marlowe: Dr. Faustus 1969. Hongkong: the Macmillan press Ltd, 95-100.
Greg.W.W (1946) The damnation of Faustus. In Dyson.A.E (ed.) Marlowe: Dr. Faustus 1969. Hongkong: the Macmillan press Ltd, 71-88.
Maxwell.J.C (1947) The sin of Faustus. In Dyson.A.E (ed.) Marlowe: Dr. Faustus 1969. Hongkong: the Macmillan press Ltd, 89-94.
Myusername.Tragic Hero (2001). Planetpapers.com [electronic version] retrieved on 15, Aug.2012 retrieved from www.planetpapers.com/free-term-paper/tragic-Hero-3815.aspx.
Qcom12.Doctor Faustus Duality in the Doctor: Values in Faustus (2005) planetpaper.com. [electronic version] retrieved on 1, Aug.2012 retrieved from www.planetpapers.com/free-term-paper/doctor-faustus-duality-in-the-doctor-values-in-the-faustus-6116.aspx.
Smith.J (1939) Marlowe Dr. Faustus. In Dyson.A.E (ed.) Marlowe: Dr. Faustus 1969. Hongkong: the Macmillan press Ltd, 49-70.
vccslitonline.cc.va.us. Aristotle. [electronic version] retrieved on April 27, 2012 retrieved from http://vccslitonline.cc.va.us/tragedy/aristotle.htm.
123helpme.com, a. Appeal of Evil in Dr. Faustus.[electronic version] retrieved on April 25,2012 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=7631.
123helpme.com, b. Dr Faustus as an Apollonian Hero.[electronic version] retrieved on April 25,2012 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=21340.
123helpme.com, c. The question of justice in Macbeth.[electronic version] retrieved on April 30, 2012 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=14540.
123helpme.com, d. Murder in Shakespeare's Macbeth.[electronic version] retrieved on April 29,2012 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=152117.
123helpme.com, e. Critical-abstract in Macbeth.[electronic version] retrieved on April 28,2012 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=60735.
123helpme.com, f. Shakespeare's Macbeth- A tragic hero. [electronic version] retrieved on April 29,2012 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=17240.
123helpme.com, g. The Personality of Macbeth.[electronic version] retrieved on May 1, 2012 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=19227.
123helpme.com, h. The power of Macbeth.[electronic version] retrieved on May 1, 2012 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=14542.
123helpme.com, i. Macbeth As A Tragedy According To Aristotle's Definition. [electronic version] retrieved on 24, Aug.2012 retrieved from http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=7553.