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People differ in their ways of thinking ,as a result they differ in the way they can understand a subject. This is proved in anatomy, some people think with the right hand side of the brain while others think with the left hand side of the brain. It is proved in psychology that people tend to understand things according to some factors like their social background, motivation and intelligence. In the classroom students differ from each other in so many aspects that would affect their capacity of learning. Education researchers found that using modeling in education is a very effective method in teaching, as most students can acquire knowledge easily through modeling. Researchers found that we cannot teach many activities without modeling like learning swimming; you cannot teach a man swimming by teaching him only the rules but you have to teach him by modeling. Moreover, you cannot teach a man to drive a car by reading a book but you have to act this in front of his eyes, this means that he should listen and watch driving by himself. Pupils who learn English as a second language do not have enough experience in listening, reading, talking or writing in English and would benefit from acquiring the appropriate style, tone and vocabulary of oral and written texts. As a result, we see that modeling is very important in teaching inside and outside schools. So, in our research we will focus on the definition of modeling, the importance of modeling, modelling in everyday life, modeling in the classroom, modeling talk, modeling writing, modeling reading and modeling reflection.
Many definitions were made to modeling as an important method in teaching. First it was defined as an effective teaching style used in all sorts of contexts outside the education system. It is also said to be watching demonstration, action of technique and listening to someone doing something. Modeling is also recognized as an assisted performance which the teacher demonstrates and acts the way he is doing something. When students are about to study something new and challenging, modeling is the best way to learn that thing. Modeling involves the teacher as an expert explaining how to do something and encourage students to think and act the same way. Modeling can be recognized as the effective description, replication and transfer of human capabilities. It rests on the assumption that talents can be replicated: that is talents can be described in a form which is suitable to transfer and that talents can be taught to others. Therefore, we can see that modeling is a sophisticated form of learning.
Moreover, when we come to the importance of modeling, we find that many people mention different aspects of its importance. Teaching different subjects might vary in methods but most subjects confess its importance. So, modeling inside the classroom gets its importance from its ability to make things clear and make students understand the lesson easily. Moreover, modeling brings a real picture of a lesson in front of the children to make more comprehension and make things applicable. When students see something done in front of their eyes they can never forget it for example, in science a teacher does an experiment and it becomes unforgettable experiment as they have seen the experiment listened to the demonstration and might have asked questions on the experiment. In addition, modeling helps pupils develop the confidence to use processes for themselves. Moreover it helps pupils accept that making mistakes is a part of the learning process. Modeling helps pupils to take risks during learning, like participating in the science experiment. When we come to learning English as a second language we that modeling reinforces realizing the meaning of new vocabulary. Modeling also ties grammar rules to everyday life and real situations the matter that makes grammar rules alive. Making the language alive can never happen but buy supporting it with models from student's background and real life. Moreover we mentioned that people differ in their ways of thinking so many people prefer learning styles to be visual and auditory. Moreover, students with special needs get clear and concrete examples from modeling. Gifted and talented students find more chance for themselves to apply and criticize. As a result students become more and more independent as they have got sufficient comprehension of the subject and can apply what they have learnt. In further steps of the lesson they are given space to analyze the theory and consequently can evaluate their understanding. Moreover we get students involved in the learning process by encouraging them to think about the material, ask questions, offer contributions and share ideas with their teacher and their colleagues as well, so information gets its right way to their minds and become unforgettable.
Moreover, in everyday life there are many examples of modelling. First, in learning any craft the apprentice learns from his tutor by watching him repairing a car, fixing a window making a table, or fixing a pipe. Second, in sports a trainer cannot teach people to play sports by reading a book or listening to a tape. A trainer's job here is to model actions, speak to the trainees, answer their questions and help them do the actions themselves. For example, a swimming coach has to model swimming inside the swimming pool to help the trainee act by himself for more independence. Third, in the holly book of the Muslims, God has given us examples as a kind of modeling to make the meaning clear for us. God has mentioned a slave who is owned by many men, this man does not know whom to obey as his owners have contradictory orders and he is always in a mess. On the contrary, another man who is owned by one man and he is happy with his master. God asks "Are they equal?''God clarifies the meaning that he is the only God in this universe and if there were other gods, the whole universe would be corrupted as all the creatures would receive contradictory orders the matter that makes everything be spoiled and go in a miss. Many other examples in our life show the importance of modeling in real life.
In addition, modeling in the classroom plays a great part in making the meaning clear. For example, in geography a teacher should use a map to refer to different geographical areas, oil places, cook mines, political boarders or water resorts. As a result, students get the ability to identify these places and locate them on the map. Moreover, in mathematics exercises on solving problems are widely used. "Modeling the stages are important in short problems as well as in substantial or extended problems pupils always rush though the stages hoping the teacher will confirm the correctness of their answers. These habits of problem solving need to be modeled and taught not left to chance." Department for education and skills stated. Moreover in science pupils share in scientific enquiries by planning obtaining, and presenting evidence considering the evidence and evaluating their work. As for English, modeling plays an important role in helping students get a better understanding for grammar and vocabulary.
There are many kinds of modeling which affect English learners on a wide scale like English talk. Students always face many problems in English speaking like lacking of vocabulary needed to talk about common utterances, lacking of communication strategies, speaking slowly, taking too long to compose utterances, lacking good grammar and pronunciation. Moreover students cannot sustain long interactions, their English does not sound natural, they cannot participate naturally in conversations or their communication breaks down frequently. However, there are reasons behind their poor speaking skills like lack of curriculum emphasis on speaking skills, teachers' limited English proficiency, class conditions don't favour oral activities, limited opportunities outside class for practice and finally the examination system doesn't emphasis oral skills. As a solution for this problem, researchers found that there are some techniques which help improve students' speaking skills. First, teachers can use conversational routines like how are things? What's up? I see what you mean. Teachers can use short and long turns in pair and group work. Third, a teacher can use adjacency pairs like complement-thanking, complaint- apology, request- accept or opinion agree or disagree. Fourth, teachers can use casual and formal language to show politeness. Fifth, teachers can use communication strategies like turn taking. By using these techniques teachers will be able to strengthen students' speaking abilities.
Furthermore, in our next few words we will talk about modeling writing as the planned exploitation of opportunities to introduce children to the purposes, structures and function of various writing forms. "It also incorporates an adaption of the approach to teaching writing in which the term modeling means the development of children's knowledge of written language through both the implicit approach of reading to, with and by children to show them how it is constructed." stated Jan. Teachers can construct texts in front of the children using chalkboards, overhead projectors or large sheets of paper. A teacher can plan modeling opportunities by two ways, either by selecting a text reading it and analyzing the text with the children; this provides an implicit model of the writing form or by teachers' planned demonstration of how to write a particular writing form. Modeling writing can happen also by selecting any text and reading it to the children, the matter which provides with implicit modeling of written language.
Moreover, there are some activities that can motivate the children to write and develop their skills of reading, interpreting and writing these texts and make them familiar with the language texts. First there are prediction activities that depend on predicting what is behind a title of a book. The students can predict the subject, the writing form used, the organization of the information within the book and the terms used. Second, there are "what I know charts'' in these charts, students write these charts before and after reading factual texts. For example, before reading a book about turtles students can write down all they know about turtles, after reading they compile a list of what they learnt about turtles. Third, there is did you know activity in which students compile information in question format after reading factual texts. Forth, what the author needed to know activities in which the students list what the author needed to know to be able to write the book. Fifth, information activities storing in which the students write headlines or categorize information like food or enemies. Sixth, fact trees activities in which students write concise facts based as branches of a tree with the trunk being the subject. Seventh, text analyses activities in which students read a text and add headings that will be appropriate for the content of each paragraph. In conclusion, modelling writing can be encouraged by many activities to help students write independently and with more clarity.
Moreover, we want to mention modeling reading as a shape of language modeling which helps in improving students' learning. Modelled reading involves the teacher reading a text to the students and articulating how he or she is constructing and maintaining meaning. A teacher may also model how to view a text and construct meaning. Modelled reading provides an opportunity for them to see how someone else accesses the message being communicated in the text. For example, if students are required to read a website to gather information about an art topic, the teacher may demonstrate how to look for information by scanning the subheadings and skim reading for key words. In modelling reading, the teacher makes the purpose of reading the text very clear to the students - being quite explicit about the teaching focus. Sharing this kind of information with students helps them become informed observers. At appropriate points during the reading, the teacher thinks aloud about the way he or she is reading the text, and the various strategies being used to comprehend and think about the text, read, and they are aware of what is being taught.
Finally, we will talk about the last shape of modeling, we will talk about modelling reflection as it has proved its high importance as a kind of methods that has its ability in making the learning process effective and productive. I believe that teaching needs to be interactive and challenging as learning does not occur just by listening. It occurs by reconsidering one's understanding through deeds, thoughts, and actions. "the philosophy that underpins my teaching is that students in my classes should be actively engaged in their learning so that their ideas and thinking are challenged in ways which provoke them to reconsider and better articulate their understanding of the subject matter." Loughran stated. Reflective thinking can happen in many shapes. First, thinking aloud about pedagogy in an attempt to give students immediate access to the thoughts, ideas and concerns which shape teaching. Second, journal writing in which a teacher uses his journal as a tool for reflection and write about his understanding of sessions, pedagogy and students' learning.
In conclusion, we presented in these words how modeling is defined as a teaching style used in all sorts of contexts inside and outside the classroom. Moreover, we realized the importance of modeling as a means of making things clear and presenting a better image of a lesson to students. In addition, we talked about modeling in real life situations like sports, crafts and in the holly book of the Muslims. We also talked about modeling in the classroom in different subjects like geography, math, science and English. As for English we mentioned modeling talk the problems that face students in using English in speaking as a second language and some solutions for it. Furthermore, we talked about modeling writing and its techniques. In addition we talked about modeling reading and the role of the teacher with it. Finally we mentioned modeling reflection and how can reflective thinking be an effective method inside the classroom. At last, we hope that we have discussed all the elements related to the topic in a way that can serve the learning process.