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Totally this topic needs a wide knowledge about Vietnamese culture. Although I am a Vietnamese but maybe my knowledge is still not enough to talk about everything I want you to know. So, my entire essay is my result in finding from Internet and from my understanding about my country. Actually, there are some words I don't know how to translate into English, and then I let them in Vietnamese. That thing means keep tradition of Vietnam. Thank you for your attention!
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Vietnam has a very rich culture that has been shaped by many different civilizations throughout history. Through many long struggles, the Vietnamese have created our unique culture. Our culture has been influenced by many other civilizations: the ancient peoples that once inhabited the land, the Chinese, the French, and most recently, the Americans and Russians. From all these outside influences, and centuries of war, oppression, and hardship, we have formed, and maintained our culture. The people of Vietnam are hard working and feel strong ties to our families. We are well versed in the arts, and have made several contributions to the world of literature. Aside from our painful history, the Vietnamese people have a culture and many customs, all our own.
We can begin with wars of Vietnam.
1. Vietnam wars:
We had to struggle many years to take the government back from enemies. Vietnam was split into two in 1954, as part of the Geneva accords. It had a communist government in the north, and a democratic south. A series of events led up to a full scale war between the two countries which included not only the Vietnamese, but people from America, Australia, and other nations. The Americans supported the widely unpopular southern regime, and although in the beginning they attempted to keep their involvement limited, they sent millions of soldiers to war in Vietnam to prevent the spread of Communism. Years of bitter guerrilla warfare in the rugged jungles and villages of Vietnam eventually resulted in a North Vietnamese victory and the reunification of Vietnam. Millions of people, American and Vietnamese alike died in the war, and the country today still struggles to reestablish itself after the damages on its economy, land, and people the war caused.
Especially, we have Vietnam war which also known as theSecond Indochina War, was aCold Warmilitary conflictthat may be said to have occurred inVietnam,Laos, andCambodiafrom September 26, 1959to April 30, 1975. The war was fought between the communistNorth Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government ofSouth Vietnam, supported by theUnited Statesand other anti-communist nations.
TheViet Cong, a lightly armed South Vietnamesecommunist-controlledcommon front, largely fought aguerrilla waragainst anti-communistforces in the region. TheNorth Vietnamese Armyengaged in a moreconventional war, at times committing large units into battle. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied onair superiorityand overwhelming firepower to conductsearch and destroyoperations, involvingground forces,artilleryandair strikes.
The United States entered the war to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment.Military advisorsarrived from beginning in 1950. U.S. involvement escalated in the early 1960s, with U.S. troop levels tripling in 1961 and tripling again in 1962.U.S.combat unitswere deployed beginning in 1965. Involvement peaked in 1968 at the time of theTet Offensive. After this, U.S. ground forces were withdrawn as part of a policy calledVietnamization. Despite the Paris Peace Accords, signed by all parties in January 1973, fighting continued.
TheCase-Church Amendment, passed by the U.S. Congress in response to theanti-warmovement, prohibited direct U.S. military involvement after August 15, 1973. U.S. military and economic aid continued until 1975.Thecapture of Saigonby North Vietnamese army in April 1975 marked the end of Vietnam War. North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year.
The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities, including 3 to 4 million Vietnamese from both sides, 1.5 to 2 million LaotiansandCambodians, and 58,159 U.S. soldiers.
But after all the difficult time we had to struggle, there was one day, when Vietnamese had our independent day. From that day, our country became an independent country, an free country. On 2 September 1945,Ho Chi Minh(leader of the Viet Minh) declared theindependentDemocratic Republic of Vietnambefore a crowd of 500,000 inHanoi.In an overture to the Americans, he began his speech by paraphrasing theUnited States Declaration of Independence:All men are created equal. The Creator has given us certain inviolable Rights: the right to Life, the right to be Free, and the right to achieve Happiness
Although there are as many as 60 different groups of people living in Vietnam, the majority of the populations are the Viet people. Of the 78 million people living in the country, 85 percent are what we refer to as Vietnamese. They live primarily in the lowlands of Vietnam. Three-quarters of the population of Vietnam live in rural villages. A vast majority of the citizens are rice farmers, and live in the lowlands where there is fertile, easily irrigated soil. Where the ancestors of the Viet people came from is not completely known. They were probably farmers that moved gradually into the northern part of Vietnam from China, and slowly moved south, pushing other native people like the Champa out or up into the mountains as they migrated along the coast.
One of the larger minority groups in Vietnam are the Chinese. They immigrated to the lowlands of Vietnam during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Before the war between North and South Vietnam, they were involved in foreign and rice trade, and remained somewhat independent from the Vietnamese people. Later, however; new laws and regulations forced most to abandon their ways of life, and many fled the country.
Two other minorities living in the lowlands include the Cham and the Khmer. The Cham are descendants of the Champa kingdom that existed along the central coast for thousands of years. Now there are only about 50,000 of their people left living as fishermen and farmers in scattered villages along the coast. The Khmer, of Cambodian decent, live and have lived for a long time in the swampy Mekong Delta, south of Ho Chi Minh City. They are more numerous than the Cham people.
The other residents of Vietnam live in the mountainous regions of the country. They, as a group, are commonly called the Montagnards. In the northern mountains, along the Chinese border, live tribes that have migrated there in the last several centuries. Some of the more common of these include the Tai, Nung, Meo, Yao, Muong, and the Tay. The Tay are by far the most numerous of the northern people. To the south, in the central highlands, are the Rhade and the Jarai peoples. They are descendants of nomads who came to the central coast in the third or second millennia BC, and have since been pushed up into the highlands. Now they live mainly by slash and burn agriculture. For centuries, the mountain people lived in isolation and were suspicious of lowlanders. They maintained only limited communication and trade with the Vietnamese. In the last fifty or so years, Vietnamese people have tried both peace and force to integrate them into their society, and finding themselves in the middle of several wars. Now the Vietnamese government is implementing programs to improve and develop communities, bring lowland Vietnamese people into the mountains, and educate the children of these Montagnards, while still allowing them to maintain their heritage.
Vietnam is the 13th most populous country in the world. Its official language, Vietnamese is spoken throughout the country, but dialects vary between the north, south, and center. English is common in larger cities and is taught in schools, and French is also spoken in various parts of the country. Vietnam has an 88 percent literacy rate. Their national script is called Quoc Ngu. It was introduced by European colonists, and utilizes the Roman alphabet (the alphabet used for English … but Vietnamese alphabet has some letters different from English). Nowadays, in a lot of school, besides English and French we can also learn many foreign languages such as: German, Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Korean, Italian, and Canada … Those languages service to our new economy, we join with world, with other developing country and so on.
The Vietnamese people and the many minority groups living with us have created a unique culture and form of society. We have held onto their heritage and pride throughout countless struggles and wars, and are still striving to integrate and unite all parts and people of their incredible country.
Typical Vietnamese food varies from one region of the country to another. In the north, spices are mild and no used often. In central Vietnam, food is much spicier, and uses ground chilies often. Foods in the south often include spicy seasonings such as curry. Tropical fruits, stir fries, rice, and soups are eaten all over.
The same as almost other country in Asia, rice is the main grain for the Vietnamese people. It can be served plain, sweetened, stir fried with meat or vegetables, added to soups, made into rice cakes, or into flour to make rice noodles or thin rice paper. Rice paper is often seen wrapped around meat, vegetables, and noodles, and then fried to make Vietnamese egg rolls. Rice is eaten at almost every meal.
Beef and other meats are uncommon; they are too expensive and spoil easily without refrigeration. Instead, the people of Vietnam eat seafood, eels, frog's eggs, and the occasional duck, chicken, or pork. In the mountains, they hunt birds and other animals, and eat or sell the meat they obtain. Vegetables, grown on plots near the house when possible, include onions, soybeans, bamboo shoots, yams, and other roots. Common fruits include bananas, mangoes, coconuts, and other tropical fruits. Tea, soda, beer, and rice wine are the main beverages. A common sauce is nuoc mam, a fish sauce used to flavor many things, including rice.
Dishes of meat, vegetables, seafood, and rice are placed in the center of a table. People choose what they want, and mix them with their bowls of rice. Soups, also with mixtures of meats and vegetables, are also popular. The Vietnamese eat with chopsticks, and raise their up off the table to eat.
Vietnam also has a large variety of noodles and noodle soups. Different regions invented different types of noodles, varying in shapes, tastes, colors, etc. For breakfast, people often eat a soup called pho. This soup can contain whatever the cook wishes to put in, but usually includes rice noodles, beef broth, onions, seasonings such as ginger, and bits of meat. Street vendors sell snacks and meals at all times of the day. As people go to or from work or school, they can pick up a bowl of pho, rice cakes, tiny meatballs, and noodles with sauces, candy, or any number of other treats. This food has become famous in the world. It is considered the symbol of Vietnamese food. If you are a tourist traveling Vietnam, that is the food you can't ignore. It has the private taste, so delicious and unforgettable.
Vietnamese cuisine is extremely diverse, often divided into three main categories, each pertaining to Vietnam's three main regions (north, central and south). It uses very little oil and many vegetables, and is mainly based on rice, soy sauce, and fish sauce. Its characteristic flavors are sweet, spicy, sour, nuoc mam (fish sauce), and flavored by a variety of mint and basil.
Currently, Vietnamese cuisine has been gaining popularity and can be found widely in many other countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, South Korea, Laos, Japan, China, Malaysia, and France. Vietnamese cuisine is recognized for its strict, sometimes choosy selection of ingredients. A chef preparing authentic Vietnamese cuisine may incorporate the ingredients provided in these countries, but generally will prefer ingredients native to Vietnam.
4) Life style:
In each region of Vietnam, lifestyles differ, but there are some aspects of life which remain fundamentally the same. The family is the center of Vietnamese life. Many homes support large extended families with grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins all living under the same roof. Although the government encourages, and rewards people for small families, the average number of children per couple is four. Respect is important in the family. Each person has his or her own place with the father or eldest son as the head of the household, and the one who gets the most respect. Every member of a family must work hard.
Eighty percent of the populations of Vietnam live in rural villages scattered throughout the lowlands and mountains. Villages in the north consist of a group of houses with a temple or central building as a town center and social meeting place. Southern villages are houses lined up along a central road. Many houses are built on stilts to keep above flood waters. Many rural families don't want or can't afford to have running water or electricity. People living in the lowlands make money by farming. There are several state owned farms as well as private, family run ones. People grow rice, fruits and vegetables, sugarcane, tea, or coffee. Some families raise livestock for extra money. Along the coast, in addition to farmers, there are many fishermen. People who live in the central highlands and the northern mountains are very self sufficient. They only buy things that they can not make, grow, trap, or hunt. To obtain money, mountain dwellers grow certain types of rice, harvest the rubber trees, and work with coffee and tea. Some are also involved in the illegal growing and harvesting goes the opium poppy.
The life of a farmer is hard. People must rise before the sun comes up to get started on their work. They take a break in the middle of the heat of the day, and then return to the fields. Each member of a family has certain jobs to perform. Men do heavy labor like plowing and digging. Women work around the house, and help with the harvest, planing and weeding. Elderly people do light labor. Girls clean, cook, and work in the vegetable garden; while boys carry water, and help the men in the field. The entire family helps out during planting and harvest. Typical clothing worn by farmers is lose pants and shirts (or skirts for some women) that can be easily rolled up and kept out of water an mud. Most people wear sandals or go barefoot. All over Vietnam people wear conical shaped hats called non la to protect them from the scalding sun and heavy rains.
The other twenty percent of the inhabitants of Vietnam live in cities. They have jobs just like the jobs people living in cities all over the world have. There are construction workers, office secretaries, merchants, street vendors, teachers, government workers, factory workers, and many other occupations. Cities experience more of the western influence than rural areas do. People wear western clothing such as jeans and T-shirts, and do things like people in Europe and America do. Most families live in small, crowded apartments, or in government housing. The city is very crowded, and streets are often crammed with bikes, motorbikes, scooters, and some cars very early in the morning. Street vendors are all over. One can pick up a meal or snack from them as soon as he gets hungry. Overpopulation is a problem in cities. The government encourages couples to have only to children, but many have more. They are also trying to resettle families into the less crowded mountains.
City life is also hard, crowed. Many people must take two jobs to get enough money to support their families. Both men and women work, although men do most of the heavy labor and hold positions of authority. Everybody gets up early in the morning. Work starts at about 7, but before that people are up and about, and in public parks exercising, or at open markets buying the day's groceries. Children go to school for half the day; either in the morning or afternoon shift, then go home to work, study, or play. Women buy food and necessities on the way to or from work. Most families eat at about 6 or 7 PM and go to bed at about 10 or 11.
Homes are small and sparsely furnished. Straw mats are used for both sleeping and sitting. Meals are eaten on a low table, in low down chairs. Food is often cooked outside, or on three legged wood or coal burning stoves in the main room. In the country, electricity and running water are rare. In cities, they are in many homes, but most families don't have appliances such as refrigerators or TVs.
Although only about half of the people of Vietnam belong to organized religions, religion, and the beliefs arising from religions play large parts in the lives of most Vietnamese. They are often very superstitious, and believe things must be done right, or the family will have bad luck. Most Vietnamese practice ancestor worship. They believe that the spirits of their ancestors come back to earth on specific days, and throughout the year they pay high respect to them. In many homes there is a small alter to the ancestors of the family where they burn incense, have food offerings, and pictures of their deceased family members. Certain beliefs of many religions such as Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, animism and Catholicism are incorporated into the lives of the everyday, not seriously religious, Vietnamese person.
Of the people who are members of organized religions, the greatest number is Buddhists. Buddhism came to Vietnam from India, during the Chines rule. This religion concentrates on self improvement and the belief of more lives after death. People must carry themselves well and improve and realize themselves in this life in order to pass on to a better life in their next one. There are slightly different beliefs between the north and south. The members of the Hoa Hao sect in South Vietnam are more radical in their beliefs than members of the more passive sects in the north. Hoa Hao is the largest major sect of Vietnamese Buddhism, was founded during the early 20th century in South Vietnam, and has over one million followers.
Catholicism is another major religion. It was brought to Vietnam by the French colonists and has about four million followers. Many Catholics were against communism, and many fled the country when it was split up in 1954 and when it was reunited in 1975. Other Christian churches have sent missionaries to Vietnam, but were not widely adopted.
Many of the mountain tribes practice spirit worship, or Animism. There are differences between what each tribe believes. In general, Animism is an ancient religion centered on the belief that clouds, rivers, forests, animals, etc. all have spirits. It used to be believed all over the world, but now only in scattered regions, including the Vietnamese highlands.
Confucianism is more of a philosophy than a religion, but it has a strong influence on Vietnamese life. The Vietnamese took many of the Confucian morals and ethics. Confucianism, introduced by the Chinese, teaches respect, honest government, formality, and that people should be rewarded for merit. Another Chinese religion that influences Vietnamese philosophy today is Taoism. A few of the teachings of Taoism are belief in the spirit world, and the importance of how things line up. People must be very careful where they build houses, dig graves, or face doors, or it could be very unlucky.
Perhaps the strangest Vietnamese religion is Cao Dai. It was founded in 1919 in the city of Tay Ninh and has as many as one million followers today. Cao Dai was established to "bring together the best of all religions." There are little bits and pieces of many religions as part of it. Among its saints are religious figures from other faiths as well as famous people from history such as author Victor Hugo, and comedian Charlie Chaplain. They have statues and icons that are mixtures of important Vietnamese mythical animals, and things found in other religions, with a little bit of their own innovation included.
Many seriously religious people are activists. They believe in justice for all, and the government may not completely trust their loyalty, so it discourages strong devotion to some religions. Vietnam's diversity of people and religions throughout history has helped make Vietnam the fascinating country that it is today.
Religion in Vietnam has historically been largely defined by the East Asian mix of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, the so-called Tam Giáo, or "triple religion", but today it has become more diverse including other religions such as catholism, etc. Vietnamese Buddhism has typically been the most popular. The country also has a strong cultural norm of ancestor worship as well as animism. This fits perfectly with the triple religion; making it difficult for many Vietnamese to express exactly which religion they practice. Of the three, Vietnamese Buddhism has always been the most popular with commoners.
Besides the "triple religion", Vietnamese life was also profoundly influenced by the practice of ancestor worship as well as native animism. Most Vietnamese people, regardless of religious denomination, practice ancestor worship and have an ancestor altar at their home or business, a testament to the emphasis Vietnamese culture places on filial duty.
Along with obligations to clan and family, education has always played a vital role in Vietnamese culture. In the old days, scholars were placed at the top of society. Men not born of noble blood could only wish to elevate their status by means of studying for a rigorous Imperial examination which could potentially open doors to a position in the government, granting them power and prestige as Mandarin officials.
A part we must to mention in this part is temples, pagodas … Architecture in Vietnam today is a mixture of French colonial manors, and Chinese pagodas and temples. Many traditional Vietnamese buildings were destroyed by nature or war. Many big buildings and cathedrals resemble French Gothic architecture. Other buildings have pointed roofs and curving eaves, like Chinese buildings. There are remains of ancient stone buildings built by previous inhabitants of Vietnam. In cities, many buildings contain stores on the bottom floors and homes on top. Homes are small. In rural and mountain areas, houses are larger, one or two room wooden dwellings.
Elementary schools don't have sports teams, but secondary schools do. The most popular sport is soccer. Schools also have track, tennis, and volleyball teams. In large cities, the government sponsors sports teams in soccer, swimming, table tennis, badminton, volleyball, tennis, and other sports.
Children, in their free time, like to play games similar to those played in other countries. They swim, jump rope, play kickball, marbles, card games, and many other games. People enjoy playing musical instruments and having any number of friendly contests. In rural areas, they have competitions in things that help people with tasks that they must complete in day to day life. Although the Vietnamese are not very competitive, they enjoy friendly games and competitions.
Teens in the cities like to hang out in the streets, ice cream parlors, or in cafes. The like listening to music, and going to movies, dances, and cafes where they can eat and watch movies. Many people in cities exercise early in the morning in public parks. Thai cuc quyen, a form of slow motion shadow boxing related to kung fu, is very popular among young and elderly women. Martial arts are often taken up by boys. People also attend dance and music lessons.
Most free time is spent with friends and family. In the cities there are many things to do, and in rural villages, people are never lost for something to entertain them with. When families go on vacation, they usually go to one of Vietnam's many beautiful beaches or to the mountains near the town of Da Lat.
The Vietnamese have many unique customs. They have a great respect for their families and ancestors. Children obey their parents, and wives obey their husbands. Many people practice ancestor worship. They have shrines in their homes where they burn incense for their deceased family members. They believe that they must treat their ancestors well, or bad things could happen. If a special pet dies, a family might bury it as if it were one of the families. People, especially in the highlands, believe that everything has a spirit. They respect and even worship things like trees, animals, clouds, and streams. Sacred animals of Vietnam include dragons, turtles, and more.
The Vietnamese are very suspicious. Things must happen right on special occasions such as Tet, or the family will have bad luck. There are numerous signs that could mean bad fortune is imminent. Geomancy is another superstition. It is centered on the belief that all things in the universe must line up. Before the building of any important structures or buildings, geomancers or pepole who understand the principals of geomancy are consulted.
Confucianism introduced a strict moral code, formality, harmony with nature, and established a social order centered on society, family, and male dominance. Buddhism stresses self improvement, and greatly influences Vietnamese life. The French colonists brought industrialization, the idea of individual importance, and the equality of men and women. Nowadays, there are a bit of all shape Vietnamese life and traditions.
In feudal Vietnam, clothing was one of the most important marks of social status and strict dress codes were enforced.
A part of that relates to the way people design them. It's art.Vietnamese art shows a strong Chinese influence, but has the delicate Vietnamese twist. Ceramics are common in Vietnam as is silk weaving, and elaborately engraved furniture. A popular art form is wood block printing where a design or picture is carved into a block of wood, then painted. The paint is pressed onto a sheet of paper, and a beautiful picture appears. Mother-of-pearl inlay originated in Vietnam over 1,000 years ago. Pieces of colorful mother-of-pearl shells are inlayed in wooden bowls, boxes, furniture, or other things. Silk screen painting is also popular. Before photography, portraits and scenery would be painted onto pieces of white silk. Lacquer ware, introduced by the Chinese is found all over Vietnam. Wooden objects are painted with black and a design, and coated over and over with a clear, glassy liquid. When the coats dry, there is a glossy layer over the object that protects it from the humid Vietnamese climate. Dragons and turtles are two very important animals in the Vietnamese culture. There are many beautifully crafted sculptures of those and other important animals, people, and things all over the country. Many of these arts have been used in Vietnam for centuries.
Commoners had a limited choice of similarly plain and simple clothes for every day use, as well as being limited in the colors they were allowed to use. For a period, commoners were not allowed to wear clothes with dyes other than black, brown or white (with the exception of special occasions such as festivals), but in actuality these rules could change often based upon the whims of the current ruler.
The Áo tứ thân or "four-part dress" is one such example of an ancient dress widely worn by commoner women, along with the Áo yếm bodice which accompanied it. Peasants across the country also gradually came to wear silk pajama-like costumes, known as "Áo cánh" in the north and Áo bà ba in the south.
The headgear of peasants often included a plain piece of cloth wrapped around the head (generally called Khăn đống), or the stereotypical Nón lá (conical hat). For footwear peasants would often go barefoot, whereas sandals and shoes were reserved for the aristocracy and royalty.
Monarchs had the exclusive right to wear the color gold, while nobles wore red or purple. Each member of the royal court had an assortment of different formal gowns they would wear at a particular ceremony, or for a particular occasion. The rules governing the fashion of the royal court could change dynasty by dynasty, thus Costumes of the Vietnamese court were quite diverse.
The most popular and widely-recognized Vietnamese national costume is the Áo Dài, which is worn nowadays mostly by women, although men do wear Áo dài on special occasions such as weddings and funerals. Áo dài is derived from the Chinese Qipao, although it consists of a long gown with a slit on both sides, worn over cotton or silk trousers. It is elegant in style and comfortable to wear, and likely derived in the 18th century or in the royal court of Huế. White Áo dài is the required uniform for girls in many high schools across Vietnam. Some female office workers (e.g. receptionists, secretaries, tour guides) are also required to wear Áo dài. Áo Dài was once worn by both genders but today it is worn mainly by females, except for certain important traditional culture-related occasions where some men do wear it.
In daily life, the traditional Vietnamese styles are now replaced by Western styles. Traditional clothing is worn instead on special occasions, with the exception of the white Nowadays, throughout the lowlands of the country, people dress in loose pants or skirts with long sleeve shirts that can easily be rolled up. In cities jeans and T-shirts are common as well. Most people wear sandals or go barefoot. The ao dai are a traditional garment worn for special occasions and commoly seen with high school girls in Vietnam. The mountain people wear traditional dress made on looms. The material often has a repeated pattern and is decorated with beads. Each mountain tribe has a different style of clothing, and wears different colors. Conical hats, made out of tightly woven straw or bamboo are worn by people all over Vietnam to protect them from the scalding sun, and heavy rains
First, it's the trend of music in Vietnam. Vietnamese music has a sad eerie quality to it and is quite mesmerizing. Often it takes the form of poetry that is sung. It is very interesting because the tones of music must rise and fall as the Vietnamese language does. There are three main types of Vietnamese music: folk, classical, and choral. Folk music includes children's, work, festival, and funeral songs, and is sometimes accompanied by instruments. Classical music, based on the Chinese opera, is played by a large orchestra. Choral music is sung by a chorus with instrumental accompaniment. Common Vietnamese instruments include bamboo flutes, xylophones, the 16 string zither, double trumpets, consisting of two attached bamboo tubes, skin drums and gongs, and bamboo flutes. The dan bau, and instrument unique to Vietnam, consists of a single copper string stretched across a large gourd, and makes a sound that easily fits in with the Vietnamese tongue. Parts of Vietnamese music, such as the use of the pentatonic scale, have been adapted from the Chinese. In large cities, the American and European influence is strong in the culture, and the music. Music such as rock and roll is popular among teens.
An important part we have to mention is literature. Vietnamese novels are uncommon. Novels became popular under the French rule. Before that, and the introduction of the Roman alphabet; poems, written with Chinese characters, were the form of literature. Poetry is still very common and popular in Vietnam. The most famous Vietnamese poem is Kim Van Kieu. Even some people, who can't read, can recite that poem by heart. Folk tales, orally told from one generation to the next, are also widely used. They often involve sacred and mythological animals, and teach a lesson. And there are many famous words in all over the world, it can be translated into many languages to introduce about Vietnamese novels, Vietnamese short-story …
Entire essay gives you a basic knowledge about Vietnamese culture. It includes traditional food, cloth, festival … Through this essay; your knowledge about my country can be expanded with interested in discovering it later.