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The Transactional Model Of Oral Communication English Language Essay

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: English Language
Wordcount: 1869 words Published: 1st Jan 2015

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Today academic context are more discuss and present to ordains and thus to make sure that the information are receipt very efficiently and clearly, we need to ensure making effective oral presentations.

What are oral presentations?

Oral presentations (delivering an address to a public audience) “people came to see the candidates and hear the speechmaking”

Outline academic context where English is important, need for speech training in English

Speaking is a skill that needs to be developed and practiced independently of the grammar curriculum. Speaking entails not only knowing vocabulary and grammar, and pronouncing words and sentences properly, but also the interactive element, namely, the management of turn-taking. The basic elements in speaking are pronunciation, articulation, stress and intonation. Words and sentences correctly voiced help to get the intended message across. To a certain extent, pronunciation errors can inhibit successful communication. For example, if soup is pronounced as soap in a restaurant, waiters and waitresses can get confused. Generally, learners like their pronunciation mistakes brought to their attention even though they may not have difficulty in communicating. There are five components in this topic, as outlined in the learning outcomes. You will be introduced to each component and guided through every section. Rules and other information relevant to the components are also given.

Speaking in a formal academic context

Brief description of transactional model of oral communication

The main drawback in the interactive model is that it does not indicate that communicators can both send and receive messages simultaneously. This model also fails to show that communication is a dynamic process which changes over time.

The transactional model shows that the elements in communication are interdependent. Each person in  the communication act is both a speaker and a listener, and can be simultaneously sending and receiving messages.

There are three implications in the transactional model:

Transactional means that communication is an ongoing and continuously changing process. You are changing, the people with whom you arecommunicatingare changing, and your environment is also continually changing as well.

In any transactional process, each element exists in relation to all the other elements. There is this interdependence where there can be no source without a receiver and no message without a source.

Each person in the communication process reacts depending on factors such as their background, prior experiences, attitudes, cultural beliefs and self-esteem.

Academic and professional public speaking skills and strategies

Public speaking can also enhance your academic and professional abilities. You will learn to be:

A persuasive and effective communicator;

More confident and able to project a positive self-image to others;

More critical when analyzing arguments and information given to you; and

Able to respond appropriately to criticisms and arguments.

Importance and types of audience analysis

Profiling the audience for your speech could be difficult but it may be worth your time to make the effort. Make enquiries about the audience, with respect to their gender, age, social, economic and educational backgrounds, prior knowledge, expectations, likes and dislikes, occupational backgrounds, place of residence, habits, personality.Basically, in order to create a connection between the speech and the audience, you need to ask yourself these basic questions:

Whom will I be speaking to?

What do they know about the topic?

What do they want to know about the topic?

What do I want them to know at the end of the presentation?

Once you know more about your audience, you can create speeches that are appropriate for them in terms of content, the language used and even style. For instance, a speech that is intended for school children would be different from one that is meant for businessmen. Unlike adults, school children are usually less able to handle content that is too abstract and language style that is indirect. The use of metaphors and symbolism may also be lost on school children.The style of your presentation should also be in tune with your audience

Preparing an oral presentation

Setting and audience, purpose and topic, structuring the presentation, choosing appropriate support materials, rehearsing the presentation.

The setting

Making yourself familiar with the setting in which the speech is to be made is one way to reduce panic attacks and minimise the risk of unexpected problems cropping up at the last minute. Check the public address system and the equipment that needs to be utilised. There is always the risk that the computer and the LCD projector might not function properly; find out how you can get in touch with the technicians who can assist you should this happen.You also need to know whether the speech will be held in a formal or informal setting.

The audience

Know more about your audience, you can create speeches that are appropriate for them in terms of content, the language used and even style. For instance, a speech that is intended for school children would be different from one that is meant for businessmen. Unlike adults, school children are usually less able to handle content that is too abstract and language style that is indirect.The style of your presentation should also be in tune with your audience

The purpose and topic

Once you know the occasion and location for your presentation, and the type of audience attending, you are ready to set the aims and objectives of the presentation. For instance, do you aim to convey, inform, relay, relate, influence, persuade, appease, encourage, motivate, illustrate, clarify or appeal?

After determining the purpose, you can then set the topic.  If your aim is to motivate, then you would need to come up with a topic that suits the purpose. Topics dealing with themes like procrastination, determination, endurance, not giving up hope, would be appropriate.

Structuring the presentation

The oral presentation must be structured in such a way so as to reflect clarity and smoothness. Bear in mind that your audience is a listening audience and not a reading one. They do not have the luxury of going back to information they may have missed or not comprehended.  It is, therefore, important to frame your points systematically so that the paper is effectively delivered.

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The oral presentation must be structured in such a way so as to reflect clarity and smoothness. Bear in mind that your audience is a listening audience and not a reading one. They do not have the luxury of going back to information they may have missed or not comprehended.  It is, therefore, important to frame your points systematically so that the paper is effectively delivered.

Choosing appropriate support material

Collecting material is one of the most important initial steps in preparing an oral presentation. If the topic that you have been invited to talk on is unfamiliar to you, you would need to start from scratch. Firstly, you would need to be aware of which sources to go to, in order to obtain input or material for your talk. This material can also be drawn from one’s experiences. Sometimes, the material needs to be adapted so as not to go beyond the time allocated for the presentation.

Rehearsing the presentation

There is nothing like making careful preparations for your speech and then practicing many times. The worst thing you can do is to just memorize your speech. What you should do is to remember the main points, write down notes on cue cards, and express what you have to say naturally. Get family or friends to listen to you. Practice your speech on them and get feedback.

Making an effective oral presentation

Introducing the topic, presenting the context, drawing a conclusion, tips for effective delivery.

Introducing the topic

An important step when giving a speech or making an oral presentation is to introduce the topic before beginning to talk about it. This helps to prepare the audience to listen to the presentation or “cue them in”, so to speak.

Techniques 

Here are some suggestions on how you can start giving your presentation:

Begin with one of the useful phrases above.

Begin with a question. For example: What do you think of examination results? Then use one of the phrases above.

Begin with a statement about the topic. For instance: Examination results can either make or break students. 

Presenting the context

When presenting the content, it is important to organise your presentation. The more time you spend on preparation, the more organised and coherent the content of your speech. For example, if you have been invited a month back to speak on Children’s Day, you have more time to prepare and a well-organised speech is expected.

In contrast, impromptu speeches are those that people make on the spot without any preparation. These speeches challenge us to think quickly and are a favourite teaching tool among teachers to get students used to speaking before a group of people.

Drawing a conclusion

An important step when giving a speech or making an oral presentation is to conclude the talk well. In concluding, there are two steps involved.

First, you should summarise the main points of your presentation or, at least, give a line that summarises the presentation. This helps the audience to grasp what has been said.

Second, thank the audience for being good listeners. And smile as you leave.

Tips for effective delivery

The speaker’s delivery should be natural, like a normal conversation

A speaker’s confidence contributes to the effectiveness of the delivery.

An effective delivery is direct in that it requires the speaker to connect personally with listeners by building rapport.

Tap into the audience’s emotions and feelings by using vivid imagery.

Effective speakers are careful to use language that is appropriate to the audience, the occasion, and the subject matter.

Know how to control vocal delivery.

Volume

Pitch

Rate

Pauses

Vocal variety

Pronunciation and articulation

Use your voice to emphasize important points and show enthusiasm

Nonverbal behaviors function to clarify the message

Nonverbal behaviors help the speaker to establish credibility by affecting audience perceptions of competence, trust worthiness, and character.

Gestures & body movements help to clarify the meaning of the speaker’swords and emphasize what you feel is most important in the presentation

http://speakingcenter.uncg.edu/resources/tipsheets/delivery/presentationdeliverytips.pdf

 

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