Quaid-e-Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, in his message during the first Education Conference in 1947, categorically stressed on taking practical steps in reshaping the whole education system of the country, yet the situation regarding the education sector of Pakistan has been very uncertain and critical. The education is becoming one of the defining enterprises of the 21st century with the emergence of globalization and increasing global competition. In the fast changing and competitive world, education and technology are the master keys for respectable survival and progress of Pakistan. Pakistan is determined to respond positively to emerging needs, opportunities and challenges of globalization. Education is considered a key to change and progress. Progress and prosperity of the country depends on the kind of education that is provided to the people.
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2. Educational standards encourage policies that will bring coordination, consistency, and coherence to the improvement of the process of education. These standards allow everyone to move in the same direction, with the assurance that the risks they take in the name of improving education will be supported by policies and practices throughout the system. Academic standards describe what students should know and be able to do in the core academic subjects at each grade level. Content standards describe basic agreement about the body of education knowledge that all students should know. Performance standards describe what level of performance is good enough for students to be described as advanced, proficient, below basic, or by some other performance level. The standard of education is defined in Encyclopedia of Education as follows:
“In the education context, then, standards should be regarded as objectives to be achieved or expectations of desirable attitude or levels of performance”.
3. Most of the educational institutions serve as tuition centers to prepare students for examinations, rarely providing quality education and opportunities for intellectual growth. The GDP for education was 2.4% in the 1988, despite claiming the sky high efforts by the government in the education zone; it just succeeded to touch the 2.9% of the GDP in the budget of 2007 to 2008. This less attention of the government also declines the educational standards. For analyzing the existing educational standards, the searcher will collect the views of the students and teachers so that the main reasons of declining educational standards could come before.
Statement of the Problem
4. The problem statement is as follows:-
“The deteriorating standards of education in Pakistan”
Scope of the Study
6. The researcher will use a self designed questionnaire of twenty five items. The information regarding this research study will be collected through this questionnaire and surveys of students and teachers. The research study consists of different parts containing reasons which can be the causes of deteriorating standards of education in the country.
Significance of the Study
7. Educating children for quality and lifelong learning is very essential for the development of active citizenship, indispensable for their active part in a democratic society; and vital role to play for the better and progressive country.
8. Today, the challenges like cultural deviation and nationalism, worldwide threats to security, expansion of new technologies of information and ecological harms do demand the new caliber from the educated generation. In addition to them are the problems of the population movements, emergence of the once repressed people and the increasing demand for individual independence and new forms of equality. The weakening of social makeup and unity among people, doubts about conservative political institutions, types of governance and political leaders, increasing political, economic and cultural interconnectedness and interdependence are persistently intensifying the increasing pressure on educators to prepare and pace with the new century.
9. In Pakistan, the commissions and policies till the recent years have beautifully worked out various strategies and plans for enhancing and changing the curriculum, giving quality education, preparing standard textbooks, resolving the problem of medium of instruction, streamlining the planning and management of the institutions, but due to the policies and reforms without implementation, the mismatch in public and private systems, the teaching of languages only and the polarization and existence of pressure groups have weakened not only the whole education system of Pakistan but the other institutions and organizations as well.
10. The education system in Pakistan is characterized by high dropout rates during primary school, a shortage in capacity of both middle and higher level schools and technical and vocational training centers, and insufficient access for female education.
11. The total population of Pakistan is 170 million with a labor force of 45 million, a labor participation rate of only 30 percent. This low rate is a result of poor female participation rates, lingering at about 19 per cent. The low female literacy rate of 39.2 percent, due to inadequate opportunities for female education, contributes significantly to the low female labor participation. The male literacy on the other hand stands at63.7 percent. There is a need for a more equitable distribution of education between genders.
12. Secondary education segment is highly underfunded. It has not received the desired patronage from the government as well as sector. Of late, the private sector has shown considerable interest and is rushing in to cater to the demand for education in this segment, providing education at a range of prices with varying quality. This phenomenon is prevalent primarily in the urban areas where the competition between these market players is intense. The government is playing its role in this segment by uplifting government schools in Punjab. There are major difficulties in this segment related to weak curriculum, lack of facilities and incompetent teachers. There is also an issue of having a two-tiered system where the students from the elite class follow the “O” and “A” levels curriculum instead of Pakistan’s domestic low quality curriculum. To address this issue, there is a need to bring Pakistan’s domestic curriculum up to international standards. Better teachers will of course be needed for improved education and the price of better quality education will be higher. Further, there is a high demand in the domestic market for primary and secondary education of international standards, which would enable admissions to top tier higher education institutions. The entire chain has to be upgraded.
13. Good higher education in Pakistan is limited to a privileged few, with enrollment of less than half a million students in university or professional programs. Higher education in Pakistan is limited to the elite of the country, for those who can afford it.
14. The research question will sever as guidelines in the investigation process:
Ineffective evaluation system
Imperfect inspection system
Improper health facilities
Lack of co-curricular activities
Outdated teaching methods
15. According to the need of the topic researcher has selected the qualitative method for writing the proposal, so there will be no hypotheses, instead there will be assumptions which are as under:-
To define the actual meaning of educational standards.
To analyze the views and opinion of students and teachers about the main reasons of declining educational standards.
To give suggestions and recommendation for improving the educational standards.
16. Methodology is the techniques and strategies employed to manipulate data and acquire knowledge. (Collins etal: 1995) Research methodology is essential part of any research study as it provides a guide line to researcher. It is basically an overall plan for conducting research which emerges from the aims and objectives.
Study Design. The suggested method in the study will be the use of
information obtained through personal observation of the researcher with the students of different schools located at Risalpur and its surrounding areas. The obtained information will be organized according to the objectives of the study. A sample consists of 200 students and 50 teachers. So the sample size will include 250 respondents.
Population. Teachers and students of different primary schools will be targeted for the subject proposal.
(c) Sampling. A sample consists of 200 students and 50 teachers. So the sample size will include 250 respondents.
(d) Research Instruments. Participant observation, case studies and discussion on data
Plan of Data Analysis
17. The data is to be analyzed through discussion on data obtained from field notes and finally case study is to be arranged through participant observations. The quantitative data will be analyzed with the use of the analytical induction process for the qualitative research. The analytical induction process for the study is as follows:-
Definition of the subject topic.
Subjective analysis of data.
Validity and Reliability
18. The data is to be valid and reliable therefore, the researcher will have to go himself in the field for observation and interaction. The data will be collected from the students and teachers. The respondents selected will respond according to their own opinion. So we can say that the data will be valid and reliable to be used as representative of whole population under study.
19. The researcher has to clearly identify his identity to the students and teachers. It is necessary for the researcher to openly disclose the purpose of his research.
Summary of the Proposal
20. The study is focused towards the attitudes of teacher, the response of student and the behavior of manager who have have a crucial role in making the personality of the individuals and social progress, but in addition to this some physical problems that still exist here are the overcrowded classrooms, inadequate teaching materials, poor staffing, absence of equipped libraries and laboratories, and lack of physical facilities like playgrounds, drinking water, washrooms, recreational, common, medical and retiring rooms and furniture. This alarming situation has caused an awkward backwardness of the education system in the country.
21. Unfortunately, due to the lack of professional growth and leadership, Pakistan evidently faces a hurdle in the way toward lifelong and quality education. Most of the teachers are virtually literate and have regressive trends. However, the one room affair, the schools without boundary walls and the negligible participation of community also deteriorate the smooth process of education in Pakistan. The reasons for Pakistan’s low educational status are varied but one important factor is that Pakistan’s educational system is highly fragmented and segmented. It has, therefore, created some intractable problems in the optimal utilization of human resources in all the fields of the country.
22. The first chapter of the proposal deals with introduction / back ground and statement of the problem. Objectives, research questions and assumption for the topic are also explained.
23. The second chapter deals with literature review related to classroom interaction, whereas the third chapter of the proposal is about the methodology, used for research purposes. Reliability and validity of data is ensured and Ethical principals are to be taken in to account.
Time Activity Chart
24. The study would be completed approximately within one month. The data will be collected from the respondents as mentioned and time activity chart is as under:-
Submission of proposal
Java Script (story print) (2004). Published on 21st September, Available at
Aslam P (2005). Policies and Policy Formation,National Foundation, Lahore.
Naeem M (2009). Educationists demand legislation on education. The Nation 26 May. Available at www.nation.com.pk/
Srivastara DS (2005) Secondary Education, Mehra Offset Press.
Water G, McFadden B (2003). Secondary schooling in changing World, Nelson Australia PVT LTD.
Lal JP (2005) Educational Measurement and Evaluation, Anmol Publications PVT LTD.
Social Policy & Development Center (SPDC). 2003.Social Development in Pakistan, Annual Review 2002-03. Karachi, SPDC.
Byrnes, D. & Yamamoto, K (1983). Journal of research and development in education.
Katheline Cotton,(2007) journal of education and psychology
Q No 2NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
A great deal of our communication is of a non-verbal form as opposed to the oral and written forms. Non-verbal communication includes facial expressions, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions, and different positions when working togather. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep in our daily life. In person to person communications our messages are sent on two levels simultaneously. If the nonverbal cues and the spoken message are incompetible, the flow of communication is hindered. Right or wrong, the receiver of the communication tends to base the intentions of the sender on the non- verbal cues he receives. All of our nonverbal behaviors and gestures we make, the way we sit, how fast or how loud we talk, how close we stand, how much eye contact we make send strong messages.
The way we listen, look, move, and react tell the other person whether or not we care and how well we are listening. The nonverbal signals we send either produce a sense of interest, trust, and desire for connection or they generate disinterest, distrust, and confusion.
Ways for Nonverbal Communication
Body Movement. There are many ways to convey a message without speaking a single word. Body movement is a major player in nonverbal communication. Frequent gesturing is highly correlated with people who were perceived by others to be leaders in small groups. Those who are leaders tend to use more shoulder and arm gestures. In a group setting, people may adapt similar poses to those in the group that they agree with. Counselors often help clients to self-disclose by adopting similar postures to those of their clients. This is believed to establish open communication. Feet and legs often reveal true feeling. Liars have learned to control facial expressions.
Following are the five categories of body movements:
(a) Emblems. Body movements that have direct translation to words
(b) Illustrator. Accent, emphasize, or reinforce words
(c) Regulators. Control the back and forth flow of speaking and listening.
(d) Display of Feelings. Feelings shown through face and body motions.
(e) Adaptor. Way of adjusting to communication situation.
Paralanguage. Social scientists use the term paralanguage to describe a wide range of vocal characteristics, each of which helps express an attitude. The vocal cues that accompany spoken language e g pitch, articulation, rhythm, volume, resonance, vocal fillers, tempo and rate of speech etc. The paralinguistic content of a message can reflect a speaker’s feelings.
Attractiveness. Attractive men with good appearance are more liked by the people. They can persuade others with greater ease. Men and women rated as attractive are perceived as being more kind, sensitive, strong, social and interesting. Attractive people find jobs easier and obtain good appointments. Attractive people are more effective than unattractive people in changing attitudes. Attractive individuals are thought to be more credible. They are perceived as happier, popular, sociable and successful.
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Eye Behaviour. When people sit in a circle, they are more likely to talk to those across the room from them than those side to side. At a table, those who sit on the ends talk more and those who sit on the corners talk less. At a table, those with the most opportunity for eye contact are likely to become leaders.
Appearance. All are nonverbal regarding appearance clothing uniforms, occupational dress, leisure clothes, costumes and colour. Max Luscher says when people look at red for long periods of time, their blood pressure, respiration, and heartbeat all speed up. Dark Blue made people calmer that is their blood pressure, respiration and heartbeat recede and they became calmer.
Proxemics-Space and Distances. Proxemics means the non-verbal study of space and distance. Most people feel uncomfortable when somebody stands or sits either too close or too far away from them. When this situation happens, people may feel uncomfortable and it can make communication difficult.
(a) Territory. The space we consider as belonging to us. Women tend to sit closer to one another than men. Women tend to turn their bodies in toward one another.
Distance Zones. Following are the distance zones.
(i) Intimate Distance. No more than 1 ft apart, mom and baby.
(ii) Personal Distance. 1-4 feet casual and personal conversations
(iii) Social Distance. 4-12 feet, business and social gatherings
(iv) Public Distance. More than 12 feet, public speaking
Olfactics. It means the non-verbal communication study of smell. We react to people based on their smell: body odour or too much perfume.
Chronomics. It is the non-verbal communication study of time. Often connected with status the higher status the more control we have over our time. Time can be used to assert authority. In many cultures, people demonstrate their importance by making other people wait or they show respect by being on time. People can also assert status by occupying the best space.
Facial Expressions. Our faces can show many of our feelings. For example, a frown or a smile shows a very clear message depending on how and when it is used. Our face is the primary site for expressing our emotions. It reveals both the type and the intensity of our feelings. Our eyes are especially effective for indicating attention and interest, influencing others. Happiness, disgust, fear, anger, surprise and sadness are the six main types of facial expressions found in all cultures.
Gestures. A gesture is a form of nonverbal communication made with a part of the body, used instead of or in combination with verbal communication. The language of gesture is rich in ways for individuals to express a variety of feelings and thoughts, from contempt and hostility to approval and affection.
. Nonverbal communication research can be considered part of a wider movement one in which communication becomes the object of study in its own right. Communications skills training are used in different spheres of life and it is adopted as a new dimension. This Nonverbal communication is now no longer necessarily regarded as irrelevant or unimportant, but terms like body language and communication skills have also passed into everyday language.
Total Word Count = 1015
Knapp M.L.&Hall, J.A(2002) Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction Crawfordsville, IN: Thomson Learning.
Richmond,V. P&McCroskey, J.C(2004) Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon/Pearson Education.
Hickson III, M. L., & Stacks, D. W. (1993). NVC Nonverbal Communication Studies and Applications. Dubuque, IA: Wm C. Brown Communications.
HOW TO AVOID GENDER BIASES IN LANGUAGE
Q No 3 (a)
The way we phrase a message is often as important as the message itself.
Traditionally, writers in the English language have used masculine identifiers and pronouns to address the idea of the “Universal Singular” terms like “mankind,” “men of faith” “Master” and so on. For centuries, use of masculine language, women were, in the main, considered less than men.
How to Avoid Gender Biases In Language
2. While using the male form of labels and pronouns to refer to a mixed gender group used to be acceptable, formal writing in the English language now must be gender neutral. Following are some useful tips to avoid gender biases in language:-
Replace labels such as “mailman” or “stewardess” with gender-neutral “mail carrier” or “flight attendant.” We can use person in place of man.
Avoiding gendered pronouns will avoid gender biases.
Use the gender free plural form or the second person.
Include both genders simultaneously: she/he, his/her, or him/her.
Alternate between genders
3. Finally, it is up to us to select the approach that is best suited for our own unique writing demands. Simple awareness of the inherent biases of our language will typically clear up many of the different errors concerning gender usage.
Total Word Count = 210
FREE WRITING TECHNIQUE
Q No 3 (b)
Writing is a complex job and needs concentration of mind and expertise. For effective writing experts have developed various techniques. Free writing is one of those techniques. It is a simple process but yields best results for initial stage writers. In this technique a writer writes the random ideas coming to his/her mind without deep thinking.
Basic Rules of Free Writing
2. Basic free writing follows these guidelines:
Write on a piece of paper or use computer according to your convenience.
Practice writing from 10 to 15 minutes.
Do not think whether you are writing on the topic or not.
Do not care about punctuation or grammatical mistakes.
Do not stop the chain of ideas coming to your mind.
Increase writing time if you have more ideas / sentences
Advantages of Free Writing
Free writing has following advantages:-
It helps in streamlining your ideas.
It releases all types of tensions.
It leads to the discovery of new ideas.
It improves general writing skills.
Good writers can write on without much preparation. However, writing techniques are good for the initial writers. Free writing technique is simple and easy to apply. It is very productive and produces excellent results if produndly applied and practiced.
Total Word Count = 204
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