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Information technology refers to an entire industry which is based on computers, software, Telecommunication, information's and data management, it is a study of computer its systems and applications, the application of computer, communications and software technology to the data management. The use of computers and other electronic means to access and process large amount of data to the user. The combination of both computer and communication technologies result in information technology or also called as InfoTech. IT being an entire industry comes under service sector, an industry in that part of the market that creates service rather than producing tangible goods. IT is a professional service such as software development, computer engineering, and technical aspects relating to latest technologies.
Introduction to information technology
Since past decade has eye witnessed a spectacular improvement in the computational capability of calculators and computers, and also recently, dramatic advances have been made in their communication capabilities. The combination of these two serviceable modes has produced a powerful information technology tool that has dramatically changed the whole scenario of world towards the life n it's routine. People of today's generation cannot rely on their daily work without the use of technology. It has long had a significant impact on innovation and development of societies, civilization and economies. The pace of technological innovation throughout the globe is relentlessly moving forward. Hence it can be concluded that the use of this service sector is building in everyone's mind as to simplify solve their problems with the help of information and technological services. Today every business, for there effective run and survival in the competitive market rely on the new technology and advancement of the business in the same manner.
Definition of IT:-
‘The first rule of any technology used in a business is that automation applied to an efficiency operation will magnify the efficiency. The second is that automation applied to an inefficient operation will magnify the inefficiency'
‘BILL GATES' (http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/technology.html) Requirements of information technology at each level of management An information system is a technical system that provides management and other personnel of the organization with up-to-date information regarding the organization's performance by the use of latest technology; for example, current inventory and sales, production, accounting, human resource and profits etc. This automation system outputs information in such a structure that is useable at all levels of the organization top, middle, and low level: strategic, tactical, and operational.
In any organizations, there are typically three levels of management, such as top-level (executive or senior managers), middle-level (general or departmental), and lower level (first-line or supervisor). These are the three main levels of managers in an enterprise, forms a hierarchy, in which they are ranked in order of importance and designation.
Top level management:-
- To make effective decision of entire organization
- Maintain the stability in financial and human resource of the firm for the long run of the organization.
- By the use of latest technology and information managers are required to achieve the organization's goals set by the senior manager
- To maintain the day to day transaction of the enterprise
- To deal with all the internal and external affairs which affect the smooth working of the organization.
First-line or lower level management:-
- to maintain the daily management of the line workers with the payroll system
- Use of machine to produce goods or provide service to the customers.
Information systems used by the management
Top level management:-
It is one of the highest levels in the organization which comprises of BOD and executives CEO CFO. Information technology is required by this management for the long run of the organization. There are different systems which are used by this level such as:-
- Executive support system: -
- Executive Support System (ESS) is a reporting device that allows you to turn your organization's data into useful pr'cis information.
- Includes data about external measures like new tax policies and government formulations as well as review information from internal and middle level management.
- Systems examination and Design
- Application advancement
- Network design
- Database improvement
Middle level management:-
Middle-level managers, are those in the levels below top management. Middle level managers' job titles include: General Manager, Regional manager, and Divisional manager etc. these level managers are responsible for carrying out the aims set by their top management. They act upon it by setting goals for their departments and other units.
Management information system:-
Management information system is mainly functional in the allocation of business data and the Production of reports to be used as tool for decision making techniques.
E.g.:- providing financial data, planning reports, implementation of strategies.
Decision support system:-
Decision Support Systems (DSS) is a specific class of computerized information method that supports the business and organizational decision-making activities. It is a software-based system projected to help decision makers to collect useful information from raw data, documents, and solve the problems and make effective decisions.
E.g.:- expected revenue figures, relative sales figures, external environment (law policies and competitors).
Transaction processing system:-
Transaction processing system is a type of electronic system which gathers, stores, transform, and retrieves the data transaction of an organization. It performs all the day to day activity of the enterprise. E.g.:- tps pay roll, biometric system, hand and eye scanning systems
Enterprise application system:-
Enterprise application is computer based software which operates at all the area of the firm including the three levels of management and makes sure the application systems like MIS, DSS, TPS, and ESS work together efficiently.
E.g.:- customer management, supply chain management, human resource management, knowledge management.
Apollo hospitals enterprises limited
Apollo Hospitals is the biggest healthcare chain group in Asia pacific. It was first established in the year 1979 by a Dr. Prathap c Reddy. A dream so powerful which help the founder (Dr. reddy) to transform it into the medical landscape in India. Apollo hospitals started with just 150 beds in Chennai (present headquarter) and now the group owns more than 46 hospitals in and around India with more than 8000 beds capacity.
It was the first hospitals that delivered the concept of corporate healthcare in India. It is the second largest chain of healthcare in India and 10 largest in the world.
Information and technologies used by Apollo hospitals
Can hospitals survive without information and technology?
In today's era technology plays an important role as next to the doctors, and there can't be any function taken place without the use of technology. Since much year technology have played an important role for the development of human civilization.
Technologies used by Apollo hospitals:-
Harnessing moving forward in technology, Apollo Hospitals has been the pioneer in establishing it in India, several new breakthrough technologies such as:-
- 320 Slice CT Scanner, the first of its kind in India was bought by the Apollo hospitals.
- Asia Pacific's most advanced CyberKnife, a new spark of hope in cancer care and treatment.
- The Novalis, the world's strongest NS versatile raised area for non-invasive and image-guided radio surgery. Patients with, spine, lung and prostate tumors have by now treated and benefited from the Apollo CyberKnife treatment.
- Telemedicine is a novel concept in field of health care, where Information Communication Technologies (ICT's) is being used by hospitals to provide specialized services to patients living in the different parts of the globe by using the computer aided transmission.
- Microsoft Windows 2000 Server
- 100Mbps network using Cisco routers
- 300 Hewlett-Packard computers
These are the most advanced technologies used by Apollo hospital for the better growth and benefits of the human care. This makes it the unique and the most advanced healthcare center among other hospitals.
In regard to information and technology security, there are varieties of tools used by a majority of the business firms.
The basic Security measures taken by Apollo hospital are:-
- Login Password
- Antivirus Program
- Digital signatures
- Router Filters
- Secured Socket Layer
- Intrusion Detection
Introduction to cloud computing:-
One of the biggest things since the web world and technology introduced. The fifth generation (5G) of computing after main frames, personal computers, client server, the web and now its cloud computing. The term refers to the delivery of IT resources through internet; these resources include applications, services and IT infrastructure. By developing this any organization can buy these resources as and when they are in need and avoid the capital cost of software and hardware. With this facility the organization can quickly adjust and accommodate the changes in demand and supply through cloud computing.
Anyone with an internet connection and a standard browser can access a cloud application anywhere anytime.
Advantages of cloud computing:-
1) Costumer perspective:-
- Faster, cheaper, simpler to use cloud application.
- It can be accessed from anywhere anytime.
2) Sellers perspective:-
- Lowest cost for delivering the application.
- Easy to reach new and existing customers.
Innovation in every organization is necessary to ride the unavoidable tide of change. Indeed, the success of the transformation of Apollo hospitals onto on demand business and emergency depends on driving the right balance of productivity, service, collaboration, innovation, and technology to achieve sustained, stable, organic high growth and underneath profitability. In regard to cloud computing it can reduce the costs of hospital in providing service and also the operational cost through enhanced utilization, compact administration and infrastructure costs, and faster employment cycles.
By the use of cloud computing the hospital can look forward for the future sustainability in the existing market. Hence; it can be easy for access for the customers towards the hospital in all the emergencies, interlinked with the suppliers for the daily needs e.g. ambulance as its rapid pace, blood and oxygen supply to internal and external environment, all the necessary surgical and pharmaceutical goods, all this can be possible by cloud computing.
- The existing information and technological systems used by Apollo are the suitable and also the latest of their use; hence it should also look forward for all the up-coming IT systems which are helpful for the hospital system.
- Apollo with all the new and latest technologies is doing the best in the critical field of healthcare, but it should improve in its security measures as and when there is a need for it, or else it can weaken the function and can also destroy the organizational fame, as it is an critical field of death and alive security is there first and foremost function to look into.
- The opt to the cloud computing is advisable for the hospital in regards to the benefits mentioned above, today the generation is moving too fast as the same the hospital should to provide the better and best care to it patients using this new fifth generation technology.