Our societys emphasis on green living and the global focus on conservation provide the perfect backdrop for teaching students about fossil fuels. Children are naturally curious about what’s going on in the world around them. Now is the perfect time for us, as educators, to capitalize on our students’ innate curiosity by leveraging current events in the world — such as the rapidly increasing prices of gasoline for motor vehicles and the ongoing search for economical and efficient forms of renewable energy — to engage students in study about how fossil fuels, natural resources and Provide appropriate vocabulary words. Give students the basic vocabulary words they will need in order to achieve your lesson objectives. Basic vocabulary words for teaching students about fossil fuels would include: fossil fuels, coal, oil, natural gas, renewable and nonrenewable.
This module will help the students to learn about the fossils fuel , its importance ,need of its conservation and its harmful effects
The teacher may use various skills to decide the complexity level of the content. However teacher may take up the topic as given below-
(a)Complexity of content(concrete, Symbolic,Abstract)
Natural resources,Destructive distillation of coal, Combustion of fossils fuel
Exhaustible and non exhaustible energy resources ,
Formation of fossils fuel, Harmful effects of caused by fossils fuels
(b) Learning Environment-
1. The chapter may be introduced in class rooms, school lab (bringing sample of different items to the lab) , computer lab (by a power point presentation),Outdoor trip etc.
2.Sequence of the lesson can be taken this way_
Using concrete or symbolic material for group discussion or the class can be divided into groups or individually students may be engaged in a warm up activity as given in students module.
Students wi;ll be asked to make a table and fill that
The possible answers to the questions asked in students module will be-
Which column had the longest list? (Answer: It will very likely be plastic.)
Which category do you think you depend on most? Why? (Answers will vary.)
Where do you think these items come from? (Answer: Everything at some point comes from our natural resources. Paper and wood come from trees, plastics are made from oil, glass is made from sand, and metal is made from ore, etc.)
You may also do this as a whole class, instead of individually.
You may draw a puzzle with blanks and may ask the students to fill in the blanks to complete the schemetic diagram related to natural resources as shown in students module or show the diagram and ask them to list natural resources
1.2 RENEWABLE AND NON RENEWABLE RESOURCE
Teacher may begin the lesson with a small activity of hunting fossil fuel –STUDENT ACTIVITY 1 or any other activity or can narrate a story to introduce two categories of natural resources
Teacher may involve the students in activities highlighting the depelition of resources as in students module– Students Activity 2– DEPLETION OF RESOURCES SIMULATION
Through the activity, students will hypothesize that as the next generation comes along, there will be fewer resources available to them and eventually, there could be nothing at all.
In addition the number of people using a resource and the amount each person uses are critical in determining the rate at which resources, both renewable and nonrenewable, get used up.
Teacher may have a supply of extra popcorn (out of sight of the class) for those students who do not participate directly in the simulation
Students will probably eat as much of the popcorn as they can without any thought as to who will come after them. By the time the 3rd generation students are finished, there should be little or no popcorn left. Some of the generation coming next people will therefore have little or none at all.
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Do not discuss what is happening to the popcorn until all the generations have gotten their popcorn. Some students will begin to realize what is happening. Some students in the 2nd generation may think of the 3rd generation and not take as much. The teacher should just watch and listen without making any comments.
Review the definitions of renewable resource, and nonrenewable resource.
Relate these definitions to the popcorn simulation.
Did any of the students who were part of this simulation think about those who might be eating after them, or were they only trying to get as much popcorn as they could?
Assessment, Student Product
Each student will turn in their own report after they have gone over the discussion points.
Each group of 4 will create a slogan that advocates personal responsibility for resource conservation
Teacher may build up the lesson by asking the students to perform another activity in groups comparing renewable and non renewable resources as in students module or may use internet for the students research to compare different energy sources for which the class may be divided into groups and assign different energy resources to be researched and compared to coal energy. Students should include topics of safety, efficiency,environmental impacts and cost.
Teacher may involve the students in STUDENTS ACTIVITY 3 to understand symbolically that
Coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear fuels will last some day and so they are non renewable resource while renewable source will never finish
Have students explain the exercise and their findings to the class. Encourage them to discuss what other factors might dictate which energy sources are used by a community, such as environmental impact and the persuasion of special interest groups. What specific factors influence the choices of energy sources in your area? How have local energy costs changed over the past ten years?
Use a debate format to discuss factors that might dictate community decisions as stated above.
Encourage students to find out what energy sources are used in other countries. Direct them toward coal-dependent countries (such as the United Kingdom and Germany), as well as countries that do not rely primarily upon coal for their energy (such as Sweden, France, and Japan). Challenge them to find out and compare the energy costs of other countries to that of the United States.
Continue with researching 10 years of costs/supply and demand and graph the changes over the 10-year period. Have students compare and contrast the outcomes between the different energy sources.
Teacher may share the following facts with students to arouse their interest such as-
It took 10 feet of plant matter to make 1 foot of coal.
The first oil well in the world was drilled in Pennsylvania, USA.
World coal consumption is more than 5.3 billion tons annually of which three quarters are used for generating electricity.
The earliest known use of coal was in China. Coal from the Fu-shun mine in northeastern China may have been used to smelt copper as early as 3,000 years ago. The Chinese thought coal was a stone that could burn
To run a 100-watt light bulb 24 hours a day for a year we need to use about 714 pounds (325 kg) of coal in coal powered power plant (thermal efficiency of such power plant is typically abut 40%).
One liter of regular gasoline is the time-rendered result of about 23.5 tonnes of ancient organic material deposited on the ocean floor. .
On August 27, 1859, Edwin L. Drake (the man standing on the right in the black and white picture to the right), struck liquid oil at his well near Titusville, Pennsylvania. He found oil under ground and a way that could pump it to the surface. The well pumped the oil into barrels made out of wood. This method of drilling for oil is still being used today all over the world in areas where oil can be found below the surface.
Coal is a hard, black colored rock-like substance. It is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and varying amounts of sulphur. There are three main types of coal – anthracite, bituminous and lignite. Anthracite coal is the hardest and has more carbon, which gives it a higher energy content. Lignite is the softest and is low in carbon but high in hydrogen and oxygen content. Bituminous is in between. Today, the precursor to coal-peat-is still found in many countries and is also used as an energy source.
Teacher may introduce the concept by giving the students the basic knowledge about coal which they are already familiar of or may ask some general questions about the coal
1.3.1 COAL FORMATION
The teacher may plot a story of historical background of coal or give the idea by demonstrating an activity as described in student module-COAL FORMATION ACTIVITY
The teacher must arrange the material beforehand. The activity will help in reinforcing Critical thinking ,Cooperative learning
The activity may take two class periods over four weeks
I f you line your container with plastic wrap before you begin, you can lift the whole
formation out when it is dry.
T his is a smelly activity. If you have an area where you can put this out of the way and
observe it occasionally, you will like it better!
Teacher can further illustrate the mining of coal through the activity discussed in students module—students activity 4 –Chocolate Chip Cookie Mining
This activity teaches students about coal and mining.
Discuss with the students how coal is excavated .
Coal is mined out of the ground using various methods. Some coal mines are dug by sinking vertical or horizontal shafts deep underground, and coal miners travel by elevators or trains deep under ground to dig the coal. Other coal is mined in strip mines where huge steam shovels strip away the top layers above the coal. The layers are then restored after the coal is taken away.
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The coal is then shipped by train and boats and even in pipelines. In pipelines, the coal is ground up and mixed with water to make what’s called a slurry. This is then pumped many miles through pipelines. At the other end, the coal is used to fuel power plants and other factories.
1.3.2 TYPES OF COAL:
Types of coal may be introduced to the students by showing them samples of different types of coal and comparing their physical properties through STUDENTS ACTIVITY 5- coal identification activity.
This will help students to understand the characteristics of different types of coal and enhance their Critical thinking,Cooperative learning and skill of Comparison and contrast. They will lso understand that the harder coal absorbs more heat.
Teacher may discuss with students .
Does burning show that peat is the lowest rank of coal?
Does the manner of burning of bituminous coal show that it still has volatile material (gas) in it?
1.3.3 COMBUSTION OF COAL
Combustion or burning is the sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species. The release of heat can result in the production of light in the form of either glowing or a flame.
To understand that coal is combustible teacher may perform an activity as stated in students module—STUDENTS ACTIVITY- 6
Teacher must arrange for the material before hand . If lignite coal sample is not
available, charcoal may be used Students should be motivated to illustrate and describe their observations.
Teacher may discuss how coal may be useful because it is combustible and gives off heat.
Teacher may take a small sample of the dried plant matter from and hold with forceps. Place sample in the flame of a candle and observe combustion. (This matter can be compared to peat.) Discuss observations.
1.3.4 DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION OF COAL
Destructive distillation is the chemical process involving the decomposition of feedstock by heating to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols. The process breaks up or ‘cracks’ large molecules. Products like coke, coal gas, gas carbon, coal tar and ammonia liquor are formed after the destructive distillation of coal.
This helps in producing thousands of distinct chemical compounds.
Teacher may demonstrate the pocess of destructive distillation of coal in lab or class as illustrated in students module,and keep the students interest entact . Teacher will discuss different observations about the mixtures collected in the end in test tube and beaker and also explain their uses eith the help of placards or flashcards.
Petroleum or crude oil, and natural gas are important hydrocarbons that are found in nature within pores and fractures of rocks. Oil and gas form over millions of years as the result of the decay of marine organisms. These organisms die and collect on the ocean floor. Sediments such as clay and mud are deposited above these organisms. During burial and compaction, the organic matter becomes heated. Hydrocarbons are formed and are forced out of the source rock into permeable beds such as sandstone.
As by now the students are familiar with the concept of fossils fuel with its examples and its formation in case of coal the teacher may build the lesson on the previous knowledge of the students with the help of role play
Teacher may give students more information about the excretion of petroleum
Because oil and gas are not very dense, they migrate upward through the water-saturated rock layers. In some cases, this movement is stopped by overlying impermeable layers of rock such as shale or rock salt and the hydrocarbons are trapped. Then, the oil and natural gas form a reservoir in the porous rock. This type of hydrocarbon accumulation requires a source rock, a reservoir rock, and a cap rock. Most of the world’s reservoirs are in sandstone, limestone, and dolomites. Structural traps are related to folds, faults, or salt domes. When an anticline fold that contains hydrocarbons is drilled, the first material encountered is usually natural gas. This gas often is underlain by oil due to density differences. Water is the densest fluid and is found at the bottom of a reservoir.
Secondary recovery methods can be used to increase the amount of crude oil that can be pumped from wells. Presently only about 30 percent of the crude oil in a well can be recovered. However, as oil reserves dwindle, steam, carbon dioxide, and detergents can be used to force out the heavy oil that normally cannot be pumped.
1.4.1 REFINING OF PETROLEUM
Petroleum in its crude state consists of various organic compounds that must be refined to form usable products. After giving a brief idea about refining of petroleum and fractional distillation the divide the students into research teams. Each team will research how fractional distillation works, as well as describe one of the major products of fractional distillation. Students may then be motivated to use distillation to separate 2 liquids . The teacher must approve the distillation set-up of the students
Students will assume that the mixture will keep getting hotter and hotter as the water boils. They will not expect the temperature to stay steady until almost all the water has been converted to steam. Students may also think that the melted ice cube is dripping through the foil into the beaker.
Teacher needs to clarify their misconception
Students should be encouraged to use diagrams and charts to present their information.
A rubric is provided for assessing the group work at this stage. A copy of this rubric should be given to students before they start their research so that they are aware of the grading criteria.
The objectives of the activity performed are – .
Students will learn that fractional distillation is the first stage in processing crude oil into usable products. (The other two stages are: Conversion: cracking and rearranging of molecules, and Treatment.)
Students will understand how fractional distillation works and what products are produced. They will become aware of how these products are used in their world.
Students will familiarize themselves with 8 major products of fractional distillation.
Students will be able to perform a simple distillation of liquids modeling the distillation of crude oil.
Students will share, display, and explain specific information gathered in their research.
Research time will vary based on the availability of computers. Most of the research can be completed in 1 to 2 class periods on the computer. The actual distillation will take one period
The activity will help improving the following skills of the students
Student centered learning
Communication of information
Relevant application to daily life
Because so many petroleum-based products are found in the home,so teacher may motivate the students to perform a take home activity. To complete the activity, students work with their families to identify six petroleum-based products at home. They write those products on the list.
Then they think of one way to help conserve petroleum, by reducing their use of a petroleum product, reusing a petroleum product many times over, or recycling a product so it can be made into something else. They add their conservation idea to the bottom of the list, and have their at-home helper sign the form.
When students have completed this short at-home activity, they will bring their list back to school and share it with their classmate. If students are having difficulty completing the project at home, a few minutes could be devoted to the activity in school.
1.4.2 COMBUSTION OF PETROL
Teacher may correlate the topic with combustion of petrol in vehicles and explain that incomplete combustion of petrol is dreadful as it produces CO which is suffocating.
Students may be motivated to collect data in this regard and analyze and help them to differentiate between the combustion of coal and petrol.
1.5 HARMFUL EFFECTS OF EXCCESSIVE COMBUSTION OF COAL AND PETROLEUM
Many non renewable energy resources have detrimental consequences upon the environment. Most people are aware of the greenhouse effect created by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases that are released by gasoline-powered vehicles, but this is only one of many serious consequences. Coal plants alone generate hundreds of millions of tons of harmful byproducts, including flue gas, desulfurization sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash. These materials can poison waterways and leach harmful toxins such as arsenic, mercury, uranium, and thorium into the ground and water..
Combustion of these fossil fuels is considered to be the largest contributing factor to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Teacher may use powerpoint presentations or vedieosto illustrate the concept
1.6 IMPORTANCE OF NONRNEWABLE SOURCES
Fossil fuels are of great importance because they can be burned (oxidized to carbon dioxide and water), producing significant amounts of energy per unit weight. The use of coal as a fuel predates recorded history. Coal was used to run furnaces for the melting of metal ore.
. Teacher may introduce the topic with some questions such as–
What function crude oil serves in our life. Is it something that is really necessary in life? What if it was not available, how would our lives differ? (Students answers will vary).
Emind students that Petroleum is the Source of many objects ,e.g.
â€¢ bandage â€¢ glue â€¢ plastic bagâ€¢ bubble gum â€¢ golf ball â€¢ plastic container or bottleâ€¢ comb â€¢ lipstick
â€¢ toothbrush and toothpasteâ€¢ crayon â€¢ nail polish â€¢ tube of hand creamâ€¢ elastic band â€¢ panty hose
â€¢ wax paper
T ell students that one of the most common petroleum products is gasoline that goes into a car to make it run.
Remind students that petroleum-based products can last a very long time.
That’s why we should reuse and recycle them whenever we can.
For a greater challenge, students could be motivated to write their own “Who Am I?” questions for different petroleum-based products. When there are enough clues written, each student could read out a clue and ask the rest of the class to guess the product.
In the end teacher may guide the students to conserve the fossils fuel -coal and petoleum
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