Phoneme is the smallest unit and meaning full sound feature in the sound system of language. The most basic elements in the sound system of a language are called phonemes. Phonemes are the minimal (smallest) meaningful elements in the sound system of language. For example /p/, /b/, /t/, /@/ is called phonemes. In any language, there is a definite number of phonemes. In English, for example, there are 44 phonemes grouped into 20 vowels and 24 consonants. If there is a minor change in the sound of a phoneme, the sound is called allophone. For example./t/ is a phoneme; th/ is its allophone. Some contemporary linguists has defined the phoneme is minimum bundle of relevant sounds. English has two types of phoneme:-
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Normally stress is known as degree of force. In English language some words are stressed and some are unstressed. According to Joanne Kenworthy, Teaching English pronunciation ( 1987 :27 ) stress is crucial in English pronunciation. Stress serves to mark function of words in spoken English. In normal speech, all nouns, pronouns, main verbs, adjective and adverbs are stressed. It is rightly said by the contemporary linguists that it is easy to mastered in English language but much difficult to mastered in stress and intonation. There are are two level of stress:-
a. Primary stress
b. Secondary stress
Phonemes are organized into syllables in a quite definite and systematic way. Each syllable must have one or more consonants before the vowel. For example, there are three syllables in the word ‘unkindness’ un-kind-ness. In each, there is a vowel sound. The maximum number of consonants which can appear before a vowel in a syllable in English language is three, while the maximum number of consonants that appear after the vowel is four. There are quite intricate restrictions on the combination of vowels and consonants that each language permits. Of all the possible combinations of English sounds, only a small promotion are admitted as complying with the patterns of English speech structure.
Next to syllable in the phonological structure of any language is food, and feet combine to make tone units in a discourse. Discourse means large meaningful units such as sentences, paragraphs. Thus a philologist is concerned with drawing up a comprehensive phoneme inventory of a language, its classification into vowels, consonants, diphthongs, trip thongs and allophones.
2.7.9 Branches of Phonology
With in phonology two branches of study are usually recognized, segmental and supra-segmental. The minimum unit in segmental phonology is phoneme, whereas, the minimum unit in supra-segmental phonology is syllable. Segmental phonology analyses speech into discrete segments such as phonemes, while supra-segmental phonology analyses those features which extend over more than one segment such as stress, rhythm and intonation. When works are used in connected speech, certain changes take place in their sounds such as assimilation (one sound mixes with the other) elision (leaving out a sound0 neutralization (weakening of sounds), liaison (linking of sounds) and juncture (boundary between two sounds) they are studied in supra-segmental phonology.
2.7. 10 Difference between Phonetics and Phonology
Phonetics and Phonology are two fields within Linguistics which is the scientific study of various aspects of Language. The two fields focus on the same phenomenon and complement each other in the comprehensive investigation of the speech sounds of any language. Phonology is just one of the several aspects of language. It is related to other aspects such as phonetics, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. Given below is an illustration that shows the place of phonology in an interacting hierarchy of (lower to higher) levels in linguistics. Simply phonetic of all the language is same where as phonology of English is separate, Arabic is separate and so on. The major difference between phonetic and phonology is generality and particularity.
a. Pragmatic (language in communication)
b. Semantics (study of meaning)
c. Syntax (study of sentence structures)
d. Morphology (study of word structure)
e. Phonology (study of arrangements of sounds)
f. Phonetics (study of production of sounds)
g. Phonetics (study of production sound)
2.8.1 METHODS AND APPROACHES OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH
According to Asher and James (1982), methods are the combination of
Techniques that are used in the teaching system, and are practiced by the teachers in
the classroom whereas approaches are the language teaching philosophies that can be
Interpreted and applied in variety of different ways in the classroom. Different
Teaching methods demand different linguistic skills of the teacher. A teacher who lacks the language proficiency can not use any of the teaching methods with success. A mild-natured teacher can impart more to his students as compared to a hard rigid. Following are some of the more popular and prominent second language teaching methods of the last half century:-
2.8.2 The Direct Method
In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not
allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is
Emphasis on good pronunciation.
2.8.3 The Grammar-translation Method
Learning is largely by translation to and from the target language. Grammar rules
are to be memorized and long lists of vocabulary learned by heart. There is little or
no emphasis placed on developing oral ability.
2.8.4 The Audio-lingual Method
The theory behind this method is that learning a language means acquiring habits.
There is much practice of dialogues of every situation. New language is first heard
and extensively drilled before being seen in its written form.
2.8.5 The Structural Approach
This method sees language as a complex of grammatical rules, which are to be learned one at a time in a set order. So for example the verb “to be” is introduced and practiced before the present continuous tense which uses “to be” as an auxiliary.
The theory underlying this method is that a language can be acquired only when the learner is receptive and has no mental blocks. By various methods it is suggested to the student that the language is easy – and in this way the mental blocks to learning are removed.
2.8.7 Total Physical Response
TPR works by having the learner respond to simple commands such as “Stand up”, “Close your book”, “Go to the window and open it.” The method stresses the importance of aural comprehension.
2.8.8 Communicative Language Teaching
The focus of this method is to enable the learner to communicate effectively and appropriately in the various situations he / she would be likely to find herself/ him in. The content of CLT courses are functions such as inviting, suggesting, complaining or notions such as the expression of time, quantity, location.
2.8.9 The Silent Way
The aim of the teacher in this method is to say as little as possible in order to enable the learner to be in control of what he wants to say. No use is made of the mother tongue.
2.8.10 Community Language Learning
In this method attempts are made to build strong personal links between the teacher and student so that there are no blocks to learning. There is much talk in the mother tongue, which is translated by the teacher for repetition by the student.
Language students are immersed in the English language for the whole of the school day and expected to learn math, science, humanities etc. through the medium of the target language, English.
2.8.12 Task-based Language Learning
The focus of the teaching is on the completion of a task, which in itself is interesting to the learners. Learners use the language they already have to complete the task and there is little correction of errors.
2.8.13 The Natural Approach
This approach, propounded by Professor S. Krashen, stresses the similarities between learning the first and second languages. There is no correction of mistakes. Learning takes place by the students being exposed to language that is either comprehensible or made comprehensible to them.
2.8.14 The Lexical Approach
This approach is based on a computer analysis of language, which identifies the most common (and hence most useful) words in the language and their various uses. The syllabus teaches these words broadly in the order of their frequency, and great emphasis is placed on the authentic use of these words.
2.8.15 The Substitution Method
Haq (1995) narrated that the Substitution Method aims at taking a structure or phrase and using it in a model sentence. Thus, the sentence is practiced again and again till it is well mastered. The structure is graded according to the abilities of the students. When pattern or structure is mastered; the problem of vocabulary building is accomplished.
2.8.16 The Bilingual Method
According to Shafqat as cited in Naeem (2002), ‘Selection’, ‘Gradation’, ‘Presentation’ and ‘Repetition’ are the four cardinal principles of all the language teaching methodologies. The Bilingual Method is based upon the following principles:
a. controlled and systematic use of the mother tongue by the teacher.
b. Early introduction of writing/reading during the course of language learning.
c. Integration of ‘writing’, and ‘speaking’ skills.
d. Advantages of the Bilingual Method
In this method the use of mother tongue is not recommended exactly like in the Grammar Translation Method. However, in this method mother tongue is:
a Used to explain the meanings of new words or sentences etc.
b Not used word for word translation.
c. Used during early stages only.
d. Emphasis is not laid on creating situations as in the Direct Method.
e. Rigorous practice is undertaken in sentences patterns.
f. Translation is done by the teacher not by the students to explain the matter.
LANGUAGE TEACHING IN PAKISTAN
In Pakistani Educational institutions only two language capabilities are being trained. Oral shows capabilities are not being developed at the secondary stage British terminology training. The very Ist reason is that Punjab written text guide at secondary stage have included material of composing and studying capabilities only which can not meet the mistake of other dental capabilities. The second factors are that the instructors are not trained with modern techniques and techniques. , the instructors combine themselves to educate the composing and studying capabilities only. Their significant concentrate on is to finish the program and to prepare the students for the forth-coming assessments only. Whereas the very vital elements of British terminology i.e hearing and discussing are totally been ignored. Due to which Pakistani students are experiencing problems in verbal British particularly in pressure, tuning, and other supra segmental features of British terminology. It has been decided at appropriate stage and nationwide plan of studies for training British as second terminology from Ist stage. However it could not be applied in the whole of the nation so far due to some factors. In the area of Islamabad in Federal Government Educational institutions as well as in Private Public schools it is being trained from category Ist and other Areas it is taught from category 6th. Some attempts are being created to to create it as necessary topic from the Ist category stage. As for as secondary stage is concerned it is a necessary topic and it has weightage similar to the Urdu terminology. In examining program, yearly evaluation document carrying 75 represents in SSC Aspect I and SSC part 2 documents. This research document would also features the conclusion of significant goals of training of British terminology according to the significant goals of National Curriculum 2002 being in fashion in the education system:-
2.9.2 DEFINITION OF TEXTBOOK
Textbook is containing details of a topic used in the educational setting by learners and instructors in which images are used. Buckingham (1958) in Tarigan (1993:13) declares that ” A publication is book which usually used by instructor to back up the training studying procedure in university and colleges “.Hall Pursuit (1915)in Tarigan (1993 :11) declares that publication is ” a conventional components of believed that is arranged For the educational purposes”. Lange (1940) in Tarigan (1993:11) declares that publication is ” a conventional guide for each division of technology and it is separated into two type: the primary publication and the additional Textbook”. While Bread (1935) in Tarigan (1993 :11) declares ” publication is a Book used in college, it is organized perfectly and it is ready by the professional in his area. It is also finished with appropriate and appropriate device of teaching”. The author confirms with the declaration mentioned by Bread that publication should be finished with the appropriate and appropriate equipment of training and also should be organized perfectly by the professional in its area to be used in college. So, it can assistance the training studying procedure to get the goals of the studying that is high excellent of studying results.
2.9.3 Criteria of Text Design
Greene and Small (1971) in Tarigan (1993:20-21) have created the
Way to organize the publication with 10 requirements. Excellent publication have following the Qualities:-
a. The publication must be fascinated and eye-catching toward the l earners. So, they will be enthusiastic about using guides.
b. The publication must be able to encourage the learners.
c. The publication must be illustrative.
d. The publication should consider the language element. So, it will be
Suitable with the learners’ capability.
e. The publication must be relevant to the other division of technology.
f. The publication must activate the individual action of the learners.
g. The publication must be obvious in published to prevent the kids to be puzzled in using publication.
h. The publication must have the obvious perspective because it will be the Learners’ perspective.
i. The publication must be able to provide the stability and highlighted on the Competency of the learners.
The publication must be able to regard to the variations of the person.
2.9.4 The other criteria which can be found
a. Publication should go with to learners’ needs. They should go with the is designed and objectives of the studying program. Aims and objectives can indicate learners’ needs with regards to both terminology content and communicative capabilities. It is very important that guides should accomplish learners’ success and take them forward as successfully as possible towards their objectives. Consequently the content of the content should go with to what learners need to understand with regards to terminology products, capabilities, and communicative techniques.
b. Textbooks should indicate the uses (present or future) which learners will make of the terminology. Choose guides which help to provide learners to use terminology successfully for their specifications. The most appropriate guides for the learners will indicate as properly as possible the terminology content, vocabulary capabilities, and styles of terminology use that are needed. By interesting learners’ interest and complicated their intelligence, guides can offer much of the pleasure which will encourage hem to become more separate in their studying and in their use of British terminology. This can be done by such as exciting, exciting subjects and by motivating learners to think for themselves around these subjects and talk about them with others.
c. Textbooks should take account of kids’ needs as learners and should accomplish their studying procedures, without dogmatically magnificent a firm method. Textbooks help the undergraduate to understand in a plethora of possibilities. They find the products to be found (grammar, features, capabilities, etc) break them down into controllable designs and series them in a way which is designed to lead from the acquainted to the different and from easier to more difficult products with regards to ‘ learn- ability’. Few would don’t agree that some sort of principled choice and purchasing, even if based on user-friendly specifications, is necessary. The strategy to understand is implemented by a text, should not so much encourage studying designs as fulfill kids’ need by enabling them to use designs of studying which matches them, where is possible motivating the use of a range of designs so as to offer learners some choice in the way they understand. An exciting text, vibrant and well provided with variety of subject and action can be a highly effective factor in building up the inspiration of the learners and often of instructors too.
Program and education and learning are properly related. They cannot be divided each other. It is difficult the program to train and learning in modern era is not followed by the lifestyle of curriculum because there will be no actions without any curriculum. Program contains everything that should be the assistance of the training and learning. The demonstration of the term “curriculum” has been different in different times. Some popular understanding is duplicated below: While Cruz, Stanley and Shoreline (1957) describes the curriculum as “curriculum
is a series of hidden encounters designed in university self-discipline in team discovering and performing.” Taba (1962) indicated that “a curriculum is the information of is designed and objectives of a certain choice or framework of material. It also indicates certain styles of studying or training which are either the specifications of set objectives or that of the content framework. It also contains an assessment program to research the results. The curriculum is, after all, a means of planning the adolescents to perform their effective part in the community. Saylor and Alexander (1954) considered the curriculum as the “sum total of university initiatives to impact the studying, whether in the educational setting, on the gemstone or out of school”. Most of the professionals usually view the curricular phenomena from one of the following three viewpoints i.e. curriculum as item, curriculum as connections, or curriculum as purpose. Program is aids, etc. considered as the main source for instructors to figure out the way, how to educate, what content to take , the time allowance and also deal with examining evicts. Beauchamp (in Sukmadinata, 2001:5) declares that ” a curriculum is an itemized papers which may contain many substances, but generally it is a plan document which may contain many ingredients, but basically it is a plan for the education of pupils during their enrolment in given school. David Pratt (1980) in Nurgiyantoro (1988: 5) states that curriculum is;a set of organization of formal education or the main exercises”. Then he makes the implication of the curriculum explicitly as follows:-
a. Curriculum is a plan or an intention. It may on the shape of a plan but it is hawed in the written form
b. Curriculum is not an activity, but it is a plan of activity
c. Curriculum contains all of the subject matters what should be developed for the students, evaluation to interpret, the learning outcomes, the material and the instruments of education that are used, and the teacher’s quality
d. Curriculum involves the aim of the formal education. Curriculum denies the education without planning and the activity without learning.
e. Curriculum is a set of the education’s organization. Curriculum is a system.
f. Education and the exercises are aimed to avoid the misunderstanding
Parallel with the progress of era and the society’s need, a traditional thought of curriculum began to be left because it is emphasized on the teacher as the manager or it is called Teacher Centered Curriculum.
2.9.6 Student Centered Curriculum.
In globalization era like nowadays, it is changed from Teacher Centered Curriculum becomes the Student Centered Curriculum. Smith, Stanley, and Shores (1957)in Sukmadinata (2001:163) state that the principles of the developing curriculum are as follows:
a. The curriculum will improve only as the professional competence of Teacher improved.
b. The competence of teachers will be improved only as the teachers become involved personally in the problems of the curriculum revision.
c. The teachers share in shaping the goals to be attained in selecting, defining, and solving the problems to be encountered, and in judging and evaluating the results, their involvement will be most nearly assured.
2.9.7 The Components of Curriculum
Curriculum as a planned program has the main components, such
as: the goal, the content, the organization and the strategy Surahmad
(1977) in Nurgiyantoro (1998:9)
Curriculum is a program aimed to achieve a certain goal of
education. In every curriculum of school, it is always included the goals
of education that to be achieved by the school. The goals are:
(1). The whole goals that want be achieved in every school. It involves the aspect of knowledge, skill, attitude, value that are hoped the learners have those aspects. It is general goal of curriculum.
(2). The goals that want be achieved in every branch of study. The
Learners are hoped having those aspects after they learn every
branch of study in classroom. It means that the goals viewed from the learning outcomes. If the learners have a good result, it means that they succeed in achieving the goal of the curriculum.
The content of curriculum program is all the syllabuses given to the earners in teaching learning process in order to achieve the general goal of curriculum.
It is a structure of curriculum program and it contains framework of the teaching programs that will be taught to the learners. It is divided into two: horizontal’s structure and vertical’ structure. The horizontal’s structure is related to the organizational matter of curriculum in arranging the teaching materials. The vertical’s structure of curriculum is related to the implementation of curriculum in school.
It can be viewed in the way of implementation the teaching, Evaluation, guidance and counseling, arranging the whole activities of School, choosing the appropriate teaching method, instruments and the teaching.
2.10.1 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN
According to Jumani (1999), in Pakistan the curriculum is ready at national level according to Act No. X of 1976. It is an act to allow of govt support of curriculum guides and servicing of requirements to exercise and studying (The curriculum of English topic, at school is being qualified with the help of guides launched according to curriculum, recommended by Nationwide Program Panel. The difference in curriculum started at all levels in Pakistan in delayed 1960s. From category I to X, local professionals developed the English curriculum while understanding and recommendations were also taken from the curriculum developed mainly in globally nations. The curriculum development is an on-going procedure and a aspect of actions of the Program Aspect of the Associate of situation for Knowledge. Any cost knowledgeable on analyzing the techniques of research, curriculum and guides is met from the frequent price range. In Pakistan the curriculum modification was performed on ad-hoc platform and was never based on research, research and assessment. During the five years applications and in details recommendations it was developed to create up necessary research functions. Organizations to exercise and studying and research, exercising companies, TTCs, BISEs and launched published written text information forums have performed operator in this regard (Rehman, 2004).The main technique in regards to curriculum and guides is targeted at qualitative Improvement to exercise and studying. Program development is seen as the hub of the Educational procedure and you will and amazing to exercise and studying is mostly identified by the curriculum content. The curriculum side has the liability of changing all the curricula and guides for the sessions from KG to 12 such as non-degree programmes. It also indicates the government in the ingredients as well as of national recommendations with regard to curriculum development and information development.
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2.10.2 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN PAKISTAN
It has been identified at appropriate level and national technique of research for exercising English as second terminology from Ist level. However it could not be used in the whole of the country so far due to some aspects. In the area of Islamabad in Government Educational companies as well as in Personal Group schools it is being qualified from category Ist and other Locations it is taught from category 6th. Some efforts are being developed to to make it as necessary topic from the Ist category level. As for as extra level is involved it is a necessary topic and it has weightage just like the urdu terminology. In analyzing program, annually assessment records having 75 symbolizes in SSC Factor I and SSC aspect 2 details. This research records would also functions the summary of important objectives of exercising of English terminology according to the important objectives of Nationwide Program 2002 being in design in the exercising and studying system:-
In pursuance of Nation wide Knowledge Plan (1998-2010), the Program Aspect of the Federal Associate of situation for Knowledge has started a procedure of curriculum change to enhance the amazing to exercise and studying through curriculum modification and information development (Preface, Nationwide Program details 2000 and 2002). was offered in Pakistani details. National Curriculum for English Language Grade I-XII 2006 was introduced having competency and integrated skills benchmarks.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter deals with the type of study, source of data, method of Collection of the data, and technique of analyzing the data.
3.2 Type of the Study
In this research, the researcher uses a descriptive qualitative research.Bogdan and Tayler (1975) in Moleong (1991:3) state that qualitative research is a research which produces the descriptive data in the form of written or oral Words from observing people and behavior. In other word, a qualitative research is a type of research which doesn’t include any calculation of numerical or statistical data. Therefore, the data concerned appear in words rather than in numbers. The methodology used in the research is qualitative.
3.3 Source of Data
The data are taken from the content materials of the textbook for the secondary level prescribed by the Punjab textbook board. It is based on recommendations of National curriculum for English grade I-XII 2006 and Competencies, Standards and Benchmarks for Grade IX and X in the National Curriculum (2006). The researcher personally visited National Curriculum wing, Ministry of Education Islamabad for collection of original copy of National curriculum English language Grades I-XII 2006, which is required for documentary data of the research. 2x Textbooks i.e Book-I and Book-II was also arranged by the researcher for research document.
3.4 Data Collection
In this study, the researcher uses documentary to collect the data. The documents are the content of textbooks that will be taken from the Book I and Book II at secondary level published by Punjab Textbook Board . has selected first four unit i.e 1-4 from Book I which appended at Annexure ‘A’. and first four units from Book II which are appended at Annexure ‘B “. The researcher uses the comparison analysis in which the he tries to analyze the contents of Textbook and compared the materials contained in the textbook suggested by Competencies, Standards and Benchmarks for Grade IX and X in the National Curriculum (2006) and National Curriculum for English Language Grade I-XII 2006 designed by the Curriculum wing, Government of Pakistan Ministry of Education Islamabad.
3.5 Data Analyzing Techniques
There are two types of research; qualitative and quantitative Research. This research uses descriptive research which describes the consistency of the content materials of textbook with the Curriculum 2006, that is why the researcher describes it without giving any calculation or statistic Procedure.
4.1 PART -1 CONTENT ANALYSIS
4.1.1 Content Analysis of General Theme and Skills weightage of whole Current Textbooks of English Language
Book -I Class IX
a. Moral and religious 40%
b. Culture of Pakistan and Social matters of Pakistani Society 10%
c. Geographical and nature matters – Nil
d. Modern science and industries 5%
e. Agro and commerce matters -Nil
f. National issues -10%
h. Population 5%
j. National Heros 5%
k. General and common matters 25%
Book -II Class X
a. Religious / Moral 30%
b. Social and Cultural Life of Pakistan Society 5%
c. Nature & Geography 10%
d. Science and Industry 0%
e. Agriculture and Commerce 0%
f. Games and Sports 5%
g. Population & Environmental 10%
h. Plants and Animals of Pakistan 5%
j. Social Issues 5%
k. Miscellaneous 30%
-Active and passive voice
-Direct and indirect narration
-Singular and plural
-Correct form of Idiomatic phrases
Skills weightage Book-I Class IX
Reading skill 30%
Choose the correct answer
Tick True/ False
Correction of sentences
Match the column
Tick the correct
Read and fill in the blank
Writing Skill 25%
Correction of Sentences
Fill in the blanks
Direct and indirect speech
Changing of verb
d. . Making of verb
a. Presentation of students
b. Group Discussion Interviews
Speaking / Oral Communication 10%
Vowels, consonant and syllable
Skill’s weightage Book II Class X
Reading skill 35%
Choose the correct answer
Tick True/ False
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