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Paralanguage, It refers to something that may be expressed consciously or unconsciously and it includes the pitch, volume and in some cases intonation of speech.
Example: A teacher shouting after giving prior polite warning to a student misbehaving again and again in the school. The volume as well as the pitch can be seen changing from low (polite warning) to high (anger).
Kinesics: Kinesics is the interpretation of body language such as facial expressions and gestures – or, more formally, non-verbal behaviour related to movement, any part of the body.
Example: A supervisor moving his head from left to right to his junior employee engaging in a argument situation with a customer at the till.
Proxemics: It means the distance between people when they are interacting with each other.
Example: Informal communication, between friends and peers is usually marked by lesser distance between them as compared to greater distance between delegates in a formal communication.
Chronemics: It means that use of time, waiting or pausing etc. Chromatics is related to culture. It includes punctuality, willingness to wait, and interactions.
Example: In the business world, peoples are living in western countries and Americans are expected to arrive to meetings on time and, usually, even early. On the other hand, Arabs give less preference to time.
Haptics: is the means by which people communicate via touching. Touch is an extremely important sense for humans; as well as providing information about surfaces and textures it is a component of nonverbal communication in interpersonal relationships, and vital in conveying physical.
Example: A doctor touching a patient’s wrist to measure the heartbeat rate.
Oculesics: Oculesics is the study of eye-contact as a form of non-verbal communication. In my opinion, eye contact is one of the most important aspect of nonverbal communication.
Example: A teacher expects direct eye contact with his students during lecture as a mark of attention.
Environment: A good environment plays a great role to run the business. It is obvious that your personal space and environment affect the level of your comfort and your status and facilitate the communication process.
Example: Wearing a proper uniform at workplace to suit the surrounding environment.
ii) How did the use of them effect the communication? Processes in the situations explained in affect?
Ans: Effects in accordance with the above stated examples:
Paralanguage: The effect was the student feeling insulted and stopped doing what the teacher didn`t wants him to do.
Kinesics: The result was the junior employee backing out of the argument and apologising to the customer.
Proxemics: Close distance communications gives a sense of friendliness whereas greater distance as compared to informal communication creates a required formal environment.
Chronemics: An Arab arriving late at a meeting with an American and the American feeling insulted as a result.
Haptics: The effect is the doctor being able to assess the patient`s health.
Oculesics: Effect is the teacher being able to assess as to who is paying attention and who is not.
Environment: The effect is the creation of an ethical workplace environment.
2) QUES: Give two examples of when active listening skills were applied in a work/study situation to ensure was effective? In both instances first describe the situation and state who were involved?
Ans: Example 1: (work related) When I got my first job. My manager addressed me in the organization as an orientation programme. Me and manger were involved in this situation. Manger told me about the history of the organization, introduced me to my fellow workers, addressed me about the job rules and regulations.
Example 2: (study related) A business tycoon addressed us students in college sharing his strategies to success. He and the students were involved in this situation. He shared his personal life experience with the students and told them what to do and not to do in life. He also told them different strategies to adopt to be successful in life.
(i) Explain what active listening skills you used in each situation and how you used them?
Ans: Active listening skills used:
Example 1: I listened to my manager with full attention while he was explaining me about my job description. I also used supportive eye contact and showed that I was listening to the speaker. Then I asked him questions to my queries and my manager gives me answers and then I was able to remove my queries.
Example 2: Business tycoon addressed us and told us different things to do in life. We were listening effectively to him. We were raising questions on his speech and examples and satisfied ourselves by getting suitable answers from that experienced person.
(ii)Describe what the outcomes were in each situation?
Example 1: I was able to get a friendly environment as well as all the answers to my questions and lot more information regarding my work so that I could do my job effectively and efficiently.
Example 2: We got a preview of what is ahead in our life as well as tips and success mantras to move on the road to success.
3)Ques: interview someone you know has a fulltime or part time job and find out what they like and dislike about job.
Use a questionnaire with open, close and probing question to get the information required.
I took an interview of my friend who is working as a Customer Service (Check out) Manager in WOOLWORTHS RETAIL STORE “COUNTDOWN”. Before starting the interview, I clarified him that this interview will be considered as part of my college assignment.
1. Describe about yourself?
Ans: Myself Manav Sharma I have finished my study in business L-6. At the moment I am working here as a manager.
2. Why did u choose this field?
Ans:Because of my versatile personality and good communication skills.
3. What are your responsibilities at work?
Ans: Preparing rosters and handling customer grievance system.
4. Is there anything you dislike about the job?
Ans: Though I am quite satisfied with my job except two things:
When people engage in unethical activities like theft, stealing things etc.
When people are drunk and misbehave with the staff
(ii) In the report offer them suggestions on how might remove any of the dislikes they might have about the job.
Ans:1) You should equip your security system with latest cameras.
2) There should be adequate security guards at the store and the staff should be advised to be more calm and composed.
In case of a heated argument between the staff and the respective customer the case should be referred to a senior executive in charge.
(iii) Obtain written feedback from the person you interviewed on how well you conducted the interview and how relevant or helpful your feedback of them was?
Ans: I MANAV SHARMA am quite happy to talk about my job, responsibilities, likes and dislike etc. about my work. Having freely discussed my problems, likes and dislikes I also welcomed suggestions on the things that I disliked and it is also good to learn and gain knowledge from any source possible. After reading the suggestions I would like to mention that these are worth applying to my work related problems and reflect the interviewer’s maturity and knowledge sphere. I think I gave my best and real answer of my job and the interview has been well conducted by the interviewer.
4) Ques: Describe the situation at work / study in New Zealand where you had to be assertive in negotiate with your boss, another colleague, customer or client, or someone in a more senior position.
1) Describe the situation and who was involved?
Ans: Having employed at MASALA RESTAURANT as a receptionist, one day I was on work and a customer complained my manager regarding the delivery of a wrong meal. The case was that he had ordered cheese chilly but the one that was actually delivered was chilly chicken. The people involved were me and the customer.
2) Explain the outcome you wanted?
Ans: I wanted to make sure that the customer is satisfied at any cost because for us customer is the king.
3) Explain the outcome the other party wanted?
Ans: The other party wanted what he had originally ordered.
4) Explain what steps you took in the negotiation to work towards your outcome?
Ans: In order to rectify the mistake and Compensate for the same I made sure that the customer is made happy and retained for the future by providing the actual ordered dish and gave the wrong delivered dish as a complimentary one to compensate for the mistake plus 25% discount on the next dine in.
5) Explain the outcome i.e. whether you received all you wanted, some of it or none of all?
Ans: Having taken the necessary corrective action the customer was again restored and thus my main motive of retaining the customer was fulfilled.
6) Explain the assertiveness techniques you made use of in your negotiation?
Ans: Firstly, I felt sorry and tried to calm him down. Next I tried to bring the customer back on track by offering him a deal he couldn’t refuse by providing him the wrongly delivered dish as a complimentary one as well as a 25% discount on the next dine in which he perceived as a beneficial one and agreed at last.
7) Use the experience you have gained from this exercise to draw up an action plan explaining how you might work towards further improving your negotiating and assertiveness skills?
1) Firstly, I need to improve my listening skills so that this won`t happen in future.
2) Write the order first on a piece of paper and confirm it twice and then put it in the order list.
3) Learn more and more from my seniors by asking them for suggestions from their experiences.
4) Improve my conflict handling skills by trying to be calm and flexible in every situation.
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