Oral Communication In English Forms Functions Strategies English Language Essay

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Communication is an important part of our daily lives. It mainly focusing on interact with any living organisms . We communicate with our self , at different age , different time & ways . Including with our though , family , friends , socially and professionally .

Oral communication benefits business by providing them an outlet through which to explain to and instruct employees. It can be also used to provide clear direction , affirmation and the ability for leadership to upload company policy and mission.

For example as what Carl Rogers (1952) one of the eminent psychologists of all time says , a real communication occurs when we listen with understanding - to see the expressed idea and attitude from the other person's point of view, to sense how it feels to him, to achieve his frame of reference in regard to the things he is talking about.

Elizabeth Tierney (1998) says, communication as a process which begin when you have a message that you want to deliver to an audience. Your audience receive the message, reacts to it and then responds to your message. That respond may lead you to react and give another message. This process may continue. The message can be an idea, a thought or feeling which we wish to share with others. It also can be shorter or lengthier with a important rules where there is a sender and a receiver.

Julia T. Wood (2009) says, communication as a systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings. The important terms are process which is ongoing, continuous and always changing; systemic which happen within a system of interconnected parts that affect each other; symbols which represent things and meanings where any act of communication involves two essential aspects.

Joseph Devito (2009) says, that communication take place when one person or more sends and receives message that are distorted by noise, occur within a context, have some effect, and provide some opportunity for feedback with some basic elements. These are context, source-receiver, messages, channels, noise and effects.

Communication will successfully if the receiver received the message clearly in any form. See 3.0

1.1 Form, Function and Strategies in Oral Communication

In this assignment I will be focusing on the discussion about how form, function and strategies are use in oral communication in the Malaysian context.

1.1.1 Form

Form are important in oral communication on how to deliver a message. There proven to be 7 forms .

Intrapersonal communication

Interpersonal communication

Small group communication

Public communication

Mass communication

Corporate communication

Intercultural communication

1.1.2 Function

We can define function as a function or action or evaluating self act in a conversation , arguments or even self talk.

Example :

A : do you want to eat roti chanai ?

B: i ate nasi lemak

The function over here is B is rejecting .

1.1.3 Strategies

Specifically focus on oral interaction and interlocutors' negotiation behavior for coping with communication breakdowns.

Strategies used for the purpose of the communication on how this use represented the extent of discourse in the oral proficiency tests. According to previous research dealing with transcription data analysis, strategies for communication have been listed as achievement and reduction strategies .

When the speakers had difficulties expressing an thought or idea, they used strategies to give themselves a time frame to figure out .

Example Strategy questionnaire as below :

When I need to think of what to say , I use filler such as 'um.'urh', well , etc to gain time .

When I have difficulty thinking of the right words, I let other say something first so that I use similar words to express my self.

When I don't understand others , I request them to repeat those words to make sure my self I understand.


2.1 In oral communication, information, thoughts and ideas are conveyed via a spoken language in the following ways:-

Face-to-face conversations;


Voice mail messages


Oral presentations; and

Public speaking.

2.2 We have 3 models of communication process where the sender and receiver communication take place .

2.2.1 Linear Model

Its invole two people . It's a one-way communication process which require one person to acts on another person . its a straigh forward message transmit from a speaker to a listener .

Shannon and Weaver's model

Laswell's (1948) describe how communication works in five question

Who said?


In what channel?

To whom?

With what effect?

2.2.2 Interactive Model

To be very short , Facebook and MSN are the examples of interactive model . This model can be focus as a succesesr for liner model which has greather chances of succesfull communication .

2.2.3 Transactional Model

This is a excellant model for face to face communication which takes the effects of noise , time , and systems into consideration . Transactional Model can be define as ongoing and continously changing proess communication.

In any form or forms of oral communication ( refer 3.0 ) , the 3 models and 6 elements are present directly and indirectly.

3.0 Form of oral communication

Intrapersonal communication

It is communicating your self .A internel dialoge for your self.A self talk most people say. Most of them bypass this process & much of their stress in life is from a feeling of not having any control in their lives. Meditation & prayer are part of this intrapersonal also.

Interpersonal communication

A simply any verbal or non verbal message transferred between people.

Small group communication

Its define as interpersonal communication within 3 or more persons.

Public communication

According to Wikipedia , Public Communication is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured , deliberate manner intended to inform , influence or entertain the listeners .

Mass communication

A communication thru radio , broadcast & news paper to reach the wide population.

Corporate communication;

Communication that takes place among members of an organization, within that building or organization.

Intercultural communication.

Communication between people of diverse cultures and ethnicity. A process of exchanging meaningful and unambiguous information across cultural boundaries.

I will mainly will be elaborating about Interpersonal communication , Small group communication & Public Communication. See below

3.1 Interpersonal communication

What is the ONE skill required of almost every job at online career?

Basic interpersonal communication such as a good intrapersonal communication , listening , language , emotions , non-verbal communication , communication climate, and others which this skills will make you excellent at being as a good friend , good spouse , good employee and boss.

By learning all them and putting them into practice as often as possible to become excellent at interpersonal communication.

Interpersonal communication involves a close group of participants such as the everyday conversations you carry on. Interpersonal communication involves face to face encounters which you get the immediate communication.

It also includes speeches, general friendly exchanges, arguments and basically anytime you speak to someone. Many variations make interpersonal communication flexibility important for difference circumstances. We use interpersonal communication to learn new information such as when asking questions . Plus , we use it to share information such as when telling a story. Even to define yourself in a speech. We do learn about different cultures and languages through interpersonal communication as well.

Interpersonal communication is very indeed important since it develop our self throughout the stages of life.You learn, teach and get an identity . You get so many things to share to others who you are. Basically learn how to pronounce words correctly and to speak properly in certain situation and how to communicate in general.

In recent years, interpersonal communication has taken back seat compare to other forms since more people are in to using social networks to exchange information and contacts.

Basically develop your interpersonal communication skills for success at work and at home.

3.2 Small group communication

Interpersonal communication define as within 3 or more persons. People join groups for variety of reasons. Some group members are motivated by task concerns and others are motivated by interpersonal attraction to other group of members.

There is a phrase, " the whole is greater than the sum of its parts ," which also refers to group synergy . A group synergy refers to the idea that two heads or more are better then one.

A group communication will increase the ability to perform more and multiple work which provide encouragement and support to its members within a project .This may lead to promote the interpersonal relationships between the group members.

Individuals often join a team or group to meet their interpersonal needs. Self Control is needed to exercise leadership and prove one's abilities . Some person do not want to be a leader. So , group communication is the necessary control over aspects of their lives.Take note that groups are an excellent way to make friends

We can split group communication into various types of groups.

Social Groups - This group is predominantly social in their orientation such as families and social clubs. Basically its provide for our safety and solidarity needs and they help to develop self-esteem.

Work Groups - This group work to complete a particular task . Their expertise is counted to full fill the mission or task . There are several work groups such as workplaces , campus organizations or juries. An example of this will be assembly line which each worker performs tasks to build a complete car.

A group members must be able to communicate freely and openly with all of the other members of the group. A group must have a common purpose or goal so that they must work together to achieve that goal. Basically a goal bring the team together.

3.3 Public Communication

According to Wikipedia , Public Communication is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured , deliberate manner intended to inform , influence or entertain the listeners .

Skill in public speaking is important. No matter what your career choice , most collage graduates enter occupations that require some form of speaking before groups.Culture affects the way people use , present and regards public speaking.

Public Communication usually dificult for most people and effective public speaking is a skill which must be learned. Not only do you listen in person , but receive information via technology. We hear speeches on television and radio.The basic components of public communication process are the source and the code , perceptions and attitudes , message , channel , receiver , feedback , noise and environment .

Audience awarness is very important when its comes to public communication .Its the ability to ensure that your communication level is interactive towards the listeners. Self-centered is very importand.

Public comunication can be define as public speaking as well. It can consider as fear for most of the people. But with proper preparation , anyone can make it happen.

Few tips to be a good public communicator or public speaker.

Dress for success. Be with good "packaging " such as dress code . Better to overdressd than undredressed. It definatly will enchance your image.

Prepare a great intro and closing . Practice till you even can say them forward and backward.

A great start with some humor or short story will definatly works.

Try to filter out the " ah ","Mmmm " the presentation. It will annoy or will definalty will give uncomfertable reaction to the audience . To skip this try to join the local Toastmasters international club.

Try to build your presentation in to an easy format to follow. Flip chat with key point works better on this .A handouts where participants can follow the topic that you will cover will works as well.

Time is the most important element in public communication. Sharp with point with proper timing will always lead to a great opening and ending. Rehearse as much as you can.

Always keep eye contact with the audience. Try to find some smiling audience . Move from one to one.

Its a rewarding expriences when its comes to public communication. Its boots everything up.

4.0 Conclusion

Oral communication is the most important component in any area such as business , relationship , family , work and etc. Without it interaction is almost imposible. Oral communication skills are crucial in handeling with others , and this is proven in any situation.

As we in malaysia , there are some example of our everyday oral communication as ' Manglish '. Originated from English , malay , hokkian , mandarin and tamil.

We intend to add ' Lah ' in all the words as below.

Come one lah , see how lah and etc.

Got or not

Means , do you have it ?

When ah? Who ah? Where ah?

in rising ahs mean respectively When? Who? Where?

It noted that we shoud start a good proper words to correct us for a better future with better oral language in communication.