Translation is not only about language, but also it is associated with many non-language factors. Logic is the most active and important factor. A translator in Hungary said that translation is a logic activity; Translation work is the product of logical events. Qian Gechuan said that logic is the basic factor of the translator, all the translation should conform to logic and reason, and otherwise, the translation would be wrong. As we all know, language is the material form of thinking existence. The translation process is not a simple, straight line from one language to another language, but thinking as an intermediary between two languages which is the end of translation. The Soviet linguist, Barl HuDaLuoFu once gave an example, “John is in the pen”. Nobody will translate “pen” into”ç¬””, but only translate it into “ç‰²å£åœˆ”, because”äººåœ¨é’¢ç¬”é‡Œ” is not reasonable. This shows that in translation there always some illogical language problems which need to use logical thinking to judge and solve. It is obvious that there is a close relation between the translation and logic. Therefore, the original translator should fully understand the logic of the source text and make the target text smooth and consistent. To study logic in translation can help us correctly understand the nature of translation. The article from the differences of way of logical thinking between Chinese and English, the explicitation of logical relation in Chinese-English translation and logic conversion three sections to study the logic of Chinese-English translation with a purpose of revealing some translation laws.
ã€Key wordsã€‘ Logic; Translation; Logic conversion; Logical thinking; The explicitation of logical relation
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A Study of Logic in Chinese-English Translation
Logic is a kind of abstract thinking, and it is also a process of thinking which through conception, judgment, inference and demonstration to understand and distinguish the objective world. One of the basic differences between Chinese and western way of thinking is that the former focuses on intuition, while the latter focuses on logic. Therefore, in the course of Chinese-English translation, what matters much for the translator is to analyze the implicit and logical relations between the sentences in the source text by employing Chinese grammatical knowledge and logical thinking. And then, the translator should transform the relations and rearrange the sentences according to the way of thinking of English and syntactic structures. In doing so, the target text could be more idiomatic.
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Logical thinking is also known as theoretical thinking and it arises as thinking and the understanding of the structure and functioning of law. It is recognized that things can be achieved only through logical thinking, then grasp the law of its nature. There is no exception as a bilingual translation transformation, and its whole process of logical thinking are all subject to the logical thinking. In translation, if the translator is not familiar with the thinking differences of the English and Chinese, there will be “hard-translation”, and “mistranslation”.
Differences way of logical thinking between Chinese and English
2.1 The source of “logic”
From the etymological point of view, the “logic” comes from the Ancient Greek “Logos” (Transliteration: logos.) Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus introduces the “logos” to philosophy, and then it becomes one of the central subjects of Western philosophy. The meaning of the word is wide, and it covers the talk, write, think, reason, formulas and principles. It is through the “Logos” that we can get a glimpse of “the identity of language and thought, unity of language and philosophy”.
Differences of way of thinking between English and Chinese
As we all know, language is the carrier of culture and thinking, logical thinking is reflected in language. “Way of thinking is the integration and unification of the form, way and process of thinking which the main object is reflected in the process of thinking”. Due to the geographical structure, and natural climatic and environmental factors such as long exposure to the religion and ethnic which
gradually forms an unique cultural tradition and way of thinking. The way of thinking reflects in the language, it makes each language has its own unique internal logic. In essence, differences in the way of thinking are the performance of cultural differences.
East and West belong to two different cultural systems; ways of thinking will be different. Fu Lei¼Œa translator once said: “The ways of thinking of Asians and Westerners have basic differences. Our people focus on synthesis, induction, suggestion and implicitation; Westerners focus on analysis, subtle twists and turns”. 
In other words, the basic characteristics of different ways of thinking between English and Chinese are intuition and logic. Generally speaking, the traditional Chinese thinking through contemplation realization, inspiration, insight, but without strict logical procedures and access to the overall feeling and general understanding.Western traditional thinking focuses on science and reason, through logic it gains the nature and laws of things in demonstration.  This different ways of thinking reflect in the language, that is, different language forms. Interlingua translation is not only an activity between Interlingua transitions, but also an activity of thinking; the logic must play an important role. Newmark, the British scholar in translation theory and translation skills, wrote, “If we have studied logic, the translator would be able to assess which parts are clear, which parts have the implied meaning; in choice of words, the logic is also a direction of specified compass needle.” In the process of translation, the translator should strive to grasp the logic of the original sentence (which has explicit relation and implicit relation, the translator should pay more attention to implicit relation), and determine the level and structure arrangement of the translation. From different point of view, the author superficially discusses the logic of the translation. Chinese and English belong to different languages; there are many differences in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar.
The hypotaxis and parataxis between English and Chinese
Nida had thought that the most important difference of English and Chinese in linguistics may be the difference between hypotaxis and parataxis. In English and most Indo-European, a large number of affiliations are stated by the connected words if, although, because, when, in order to, so and so that.  The so-called parataxis refers to the arranging of clauses one after the other without connectives showing the relation between them. The hypotaxis refers to the dependent or subordinate construction or relationship of clauses with connectives. In short, Chinese mainly based on word order changes, the linguistic context and logical implication to achieve the purpose of clear ideas. Such as, “the road is slippery, he cannot walk fast” (the clauses are cause relation); If you add the implicit logical words, it will appear some of procrastination. And English pays attention to tenses, inflections, and use more logical connectives to explain the syntax within a sentence, between sentences, and paragraphs. Such as: While I admit that here are problems, I don’t agree that they
cannot be solved. If the “while” were deleted, it would be a wrong sentence. Language differences in this respect are the differences of way of thinking. In translation, to gain flexible conversion the translators not only needs solid bilingual skills, but also they should attach great importance to the deep-rooted unique way of logical thinking which caused by cultural accumulation. This means that translation is the transformation, deformation and re-creation of a culture, philosophy, and ideology in another culture, thought and ideology. 
The explicitation of logical relation in Chinese-English translation
Based on the above understanding, Chinese-English translation process can be summarized as follows: logic analysis – English thinking- comprehensive expression.
In Chinese to English translation, it is critical for the translator to use the Chinese grammar and logical thinking to dialysis the implicit relation, level relation and modified relation between sentences, and then use English logical thinking and sentence structure, complemented by appropriate translation skills to correctly express the original “flavor”. As Joan â€¢ Ms. Pinkham said in “Identify Chinglish”, “Most often, when logical relations between ideas have only to be suggested in Chinese, they must be plainly stated in English”. 
3.1 The definition of explicitation
The explicitation in translation refers to the translator’s efforts to make explicit the implicit relationship between sentences in the source language.
Qian Zhongshu said I first find myself prefer to read Linshu’s translation, but rather than read Hague’s original text. Linshu’s writing is bright, but Hague’s dialogue is boring and rough.
Germany functionalism, Justa Helz Mantari divided translation to implicit translation and explicit translation, he pointed out that the implicit translation tries to completely maintain the original text’s function and makes the target text seems to be the same as the original work; the explicit translation is to make the reader realize the article is target text.
In Shifts of Cohesion and Coherence in Translation, Blum Kulka pointed out a successful translation needs to deal with the text and discourse. The process of the translator explains the original text may lead to the target text tediously longer than the source text. This redundant phenomenon may be caused by the improved explicit degree of the cohesion. She believes that the explicit cohesive relation in every part of the text and one language’s grammatical system are connected with each other. The two languages’ grammatical systems are different, so their ways of cohesion are different. When one language is translated into another language and needs to make
cohesive conversion, this kind of cohesive conversion often results in explicitation or implicitation of the text’s cohesive relation.
3.3 Adding connective words to make the sentence explicit
Some Chinese sentences don’t use logical relation’s connective words, but the internal logical relation can be inferred from the context. The translator uses some connective words to state the logical relation within sentence, so the source text’s implicit cohesion transformed to explicit cohesion. For example:
(1). æˆ‘ä»¬åº”è¯¥äº’ç›¸å°Šé‡¼Œäº’ç›¸å¦ä¹ ¼Œå-é•¿è¡¥çŸ¼Œå…±åŒè¿›æ¥ã€‚We should respect and learn from each other and draw upon other’s strong points to offset one’s deficiencies for achieving common progress.
(2). é“è·¯æ˜¯æ›²æŠ˜çš„, å‰é€”æ˜¯å…‰æ˜Žçš„. The future is bright while the road ahead is tortuous. [Analysis] We are familiar with this statement, the implicit concession relations are clear, and the corresponding translation manifested “while”, otherwise it would not comply with the expressions in English.
(3). ä»-æ˜¯å¹¿ä¸œäºº, æˆ‘ä»¬èƒ½ä»Žä»-çš„å£éŸ³ä¸å¬å‡ºæ¥. [Analysis] The two clauses are causal relation, a conjunctive word should be added in English translation, and we try to translate it as follows: He is a Cantonese, as we can perceive from his accent. The translation (1) (2) (3) not only manifests the internal logical relation, but also is very loyal.
However, our practical translation is by no means confined to this simple correspondence. For example:
(4). æœ€è¿‘äºŒä¸‰åå¹´æ¥, ä¸-ç•Œç‘å¦æŠ€æœ¯çš„å‘å±•æ-¥æ-°æœˆå¼‚, ä¸“ä¸šåŒ-åˆ†å·¥æ›´ç»†, åä½œè„æ¨¡æ›´å¤ã€‚[Analysis] “æœ€è¿‘äºŒä¸‰åå¹´æ¥”is a time adverbial, and is easy to handle. Carefully read the following clauses, we can see that the latter parallel clauses are the “results” of the previous clause. Try to translate it as follows: Over the last two or three decades, the world science and technology have advanced day by day, resulting in a more minute division of labor on the basis of specification and in more extensive cooperation. Though the translation not directly uses obvious conjunctive word, it cleverly uses present participle phrase “resulting in” shows the causal relation between the sentences.
(5). åœ¨20 ä¸-çºªçš„ç™¾å¹´åŽ†ç¨‹ä¸, äºšæ´²äººæ°‘ä¸ºäº‰å-å›½å®¶ç‹¬ç«‹å’Œæ°‘æ-è£æ”¾, ä¸ºæ‘†è„±è´«ç©·è½åŽ, å®žçŽ°å‘å±•ç¹è£, è¿›è¡Œäº†ä¸å±ˆä¸æŒ çš„æ–äº‰, å-å¾-äº†ä¸¾ä¸-çž©ç›®çš„æˆå°±, ä¸ºäºšæ´²å’Œä¸-ç•Œçš„å’Œå¹³åšå‡ºäº†é‡å¤è´¡çŒ®ã€‚[Analysis] “ä¸ºäº‰å-“â‹¯, “ä¸ºæ‘†è„±â‹¯” is the purpose of “è¿›è¡Œäº†ä¸å±ˆä¸æŒ çš„æ–äº‰”and as a purpose adverbial. “è¿›è¡Œäº†â‹¯â‹¯”, “å-å¾-äº†â‹¯â‹¯” are two parallel verb phrases. “ä¸ºäºšæ´²â‹¯â‹¯” is the results adverbial, which means “ä¸ºäºšæ´²å’Œä¸-ç•Œçš„å’Œå¹³åšå‡ºäº†é‡å¤è´¡çŒ®”ã€‚ In the course
of the 20th century, the Asian people waged an unyielding struggle to win national independence and liberation, get rid of poverty and backwardness, and bring about development and prosperity, and scored remarkable achievements. All this has contributed significantly to peace and development in Asia and the world at large.
In addition to the above analysis, when the long sentence is translated into English, it uses “All this” as the subject, and translates”ä¸ºäºšæ´²â‹¯â‹¯”into a single sentence, the purpose of this translation is to avoid the previous sentence being too long, more importantly, it stresses the”è´¡çŒ®”.
In summary, in English translation we should pay attention to the explicit of the implicit logic relation and according to the logic analysis – English thinking – comprehensive expression to flexibly adjust the original structure to meet the English expression and reproduce the original form. Of course, English learners not only should pay attention to the macro differences between parataxis and hypotaxis, but also should practice, review and accumulate a lot in translation to make their own translation level improved.
4. The logic conversion in translation
Logic differences between the English and Chinese cause great difficulties in translation, so translators convert the logic. This logic conversion is mainly reflected in the words, sentences, and chapter levels. Levels of words, in the choice of meaning and analysis of the implicit relation of the words, logic conversion is needed. Sentence level, it is necessary to converse logic in the analysis of English subject omission or predicate structure, deal with affirmation and negation, the relationship between explicit and implicit, active and passive voice and the overall logic of sentence structure. Chapter level, the translation should be based on a variety ofcohesive devices in English to achieve the conversion between explicit and implicit
relation, “bamboo-based” and “water-based” text.
Logic conversion should be based on correctly understand the logic of the source texts. If the logic of the source text is abnormal, we should use the original language’s logical thinking to analyze, do not “forced reasoning”. Logical thinking can focus on the words, sentences, and chapter three levels.
4.1 The logic conversion in words level
Words are an essential part of the language; they are composed by surface meaning and deeper meaning. The translator must choose the correct meaning in the translation. In addition to relying on the books, the choice and extending of the words meaning depends on the context logic to a large extent, especially translation is influenced by the thinking habit and cultural tradition, and the words with an extending meaning and strong cultural color, the translator should depend on the original logical thinking habits to analyze and determine, through the logical relations
of the context, digging deeper meaning with context, choosing the right meaning, then based on the target language to make logical choice. Finally, restructure the words expressions to make the translation consistent.
In addition to the choice of word meaning needs to consider the logical relationship, the translation process should also notice the implied logical relation of the words. This relationship is easy to escape the translator’s attention, thus affecting the quality of the translation.
4.1.1 Subtle negative words
For example, the English and Chinese have a lot of subtle negative words, but there is a big difference in logic expression between them. There are many English words, their forms are affirmative, and logic is negative. If the translator is not based on the original language’s logical thinking, but use the target language to analyze problems, the translation logic often contrary to the original’s real deep logic. Such as the “next”:
The next best thing for her is to marry George Green, a handsome yet poor man. In fact, she always dreams of marrying Peter Brown who is handsome and rich, but doesn’t love her.
This example translates “the next best thing” into “ç¬¬äºŒå¥½çš„äº‹” is not proper. It seems the words too literally, but shows that the English translator does not take the different logical expression ways between Chinese and English into account not sort out the logic of the original relationship between the components, but also reflects the
thinking interference in English and Chinese. Chinese emphasis on parataxis and its logical meaning often hides in semantics. Therefore, “ç¬¬äºŒå¥½çš„” å’Œ”ä¸‹ä¸€ä¸ªæœ€å¥½
çš„” express the same meaning in Chinese, and have the positive affirmative meaning.
English emphasis on hypotaxis, the language’s logic form is very strict; the form’s mini difference often reflects logical difference. In English”ç¬¬äºŒå¥½çš„äº‹” expressed with “the second best thing” and “the next best thing” has implied negative meaning. Therefore, “ç¬¬äºŒå¥½çš„äº‹” and “the next best thing” their deeper meaning and tone of expression is different. The translator is influenced by Chinese thinking to understand this sentence, not taking strict form logic of English into account, and making the
implied negative tone of the original into a positive affirmative tone.
4.1.2 Recognize genus and species
For example: Automobiles and trucks would be powered by quickly replaceable electric batteries.
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As far as the logical concept concerned, “automobiles” is genus, and “trucks” is species. Based on the logic principle, these two concepts cannot in parallel. In Webster’s New World Dictionary (p.93), automobile: a passenger car, usually four wheeledâ€¦meant for travelling on streets on roads. The first word is (è½½äºº)è½¿è½¦, the latter is (è½½è´)å¡è½¦, so they are translated into “è½¿è½¦¼Œå¡è½¦”.
Tom Mann said he must speak to him, and advanced as Lenin came towards us. How glad he was to greet Ton Mann. His face lit up with pleasure as he told Tom how closely he had followed his activities all over the world.
The sentence includes seven personal pronouns. In “His face lit up with pleasureâ€¦” “His face” refers to whose face, Lenin’s or Tom’s? Some translators believe that it is the latter.
In fact, “his face”ä¸çš„”his” is consistent with the clause’s subject “he”, it refers to Lenin . In the sentence “His face lit up with pleasure as he told Tom how closely he had followed his activities all over the world”. Its four pronouns represent the same
4.1.4 Eliminate the ambiguous word
Lint is then blown into the press and compressed into bales-Aimer.ã€Šè‹±æ±‰è¾ž
In the sentence lint’s meaning is ambiguous: a) scraped and softened linen formerly used as a dressing for wounds; b) cotton fiber used to make yarn. If we analyze the sentence’s logic, the ambiguous meaning can be eliminated.
4.2 The logic conversion in sentences level
Comprehensive thinking of Chinese emphasis on parataxis, relaxed syntactic structure, and it uses more meaning connected and accumulated clause or independent clauses. It adopts “topic-comment”. So Chinese sentence does not require the presence of the subject, as long as the semantics and the topic is clear, it can be no subject or no main clause. The Chinese sentence can have several predicates in one sentence and the sentence is short, it always narrative one by one short phrase, so it is often referred to as “pole-type” structure. English nation’s analyzed thinking focuses on reason. Its syntax manifested as a hypotaxis, emphasis the strict form logic, and
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uses more “subject-predicate” structure to constitute the whole sentence center, and focus on the verb, the verb generally has subject or logical subject. No subject-sentence is few, and it only has one predicate in a sentence, other verbs can only be used as participles or clauses, and English sentences focus on the “subject-predicate” structure, giving the feeling of well-structured, hierarchical clear. Therefore, some linguists call English sentence as the “grape type” structure. The grape trunk is very short, and attached rich fruit, the connection of the grape trunk and fruit is the essential English conjunctions.
The sentence level, the logic differences between the languages cause the translator to confuse logic in analyzing the English subject omission or non-predicate structure, and can not easy to achieve conversion between the “grape-type” and “bamboo-type” structures.
4.2.1 Analysis of the subject in the sentence
“After all, all living creatures live by feeding on something else whether it be plant or animal dead or alive”.
In the translation, the translator mistaken analyzes the subject “it”, so the sentence becomes very confused. There is also a serious problem about the logic of
the translation. “Dead creatures” how could “eat it”. If test the logic of the source text,
we can find what “it” really refers to. “Living creatures” or “something else” may be
the clause’s subject, with “it” and the strict English logic form; we can determine the
“Something else” is the real subject, as “living creatures” is plural.
4.2.2 Analysis of logical subject in the sentene
“Logic” is often directly used in the language study. Gerund usually has its own “logical subject”. If the “logical subject” were wrong, the tranlation would not be correct. For example,
Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self -accelerating.
“in science” is a part of the gerund composite structure, as we know, if the logical subject of the gerund is an abiotic noun, we should use common case but not use possessive case. The logical subject of “in science being to some extent self accelerating” is “science” or “particular advances”? Someone believes that it is “science”.
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In fact, this translation lack of logic when to analyze the logical subject of the
sentence. If the preposition before “science” is “of” not “in”, the translation”è€Œäºç”Ÿ” may be reasonable. However, “in” and “science” is an inseparable phrase and modifies “particular advances”. So the logical subject of “being to some extent self -accelerating” is not “science” but is “particular advances”.
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4.2.3 Logic confusion in the setence
She could get away with anything, because she looked such a baby.
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The words of this sentence are simple, but it is mistranslated. If we analyze the logical relation, it will be easily corrected. It is impossible for the “she looked such a
baby” to become the reason of “get away with anything”.
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4.3 The logic conversion in texts level
The internal logic of the text is always logical and coherent implementation of the discourse, this logical relation basically exists in two adjacent sentences. In addition, it may be exist in the context of a sentence and between sentences, even whole sentences, text, topic, and the author’s intentions. There are many methods to achieve coherence of the text, although these means are used for each language, and each language has different emphases on these means. English stresses form logic, so it often uses logic convergence, and grammar means to express the logical relationship between sentences, it is a typical “bamboo-type”, while Chinese emphasis on “self-evident” and the internal logic of the sentence. It embodies in the relationship between the Chinese text was “permutation.” To make the translation consistent with the target language’s logical expression, the translator should convert logic in the “bamboo-type” and “water type” texts. For example:
By comparison with the narrow, ironclad days of fathers, there was expansiveness, I thought, in the days of mothers. They went to see neighbors, to shop in town, to run errands at school, at the library, at church. (S.R.Sanders: “Women and Men”)
è¯‘æ-‡ è·Ÿçˆ¶äº²çš„é‚£çç‹çª„çš„ã€ä¸€æˆä¸å˜çš„æ-¥åç›¸æ¯”¼Œæˆ‘è‰å¾-æ¯äº²çš„æ-¥åè¿‡å¾-æ¯”è¾ƒé˜”ç»°ã€‚å¥¹ä»¬åŽ»çœ‹æœ›é‚»å±…¼Œä¸ŠåŸŽé‡Œä¹°ä¸œè¥¿¼Œåˆ°å¦æ ¡ã€å›¾ä¹¦é¦†ã€æ•™å ‚åŠžäº‹æƒ…ã€‚
In the text, “expansiveness” is difficult to understand. “Expansive” has the
meaning of “rich” and “wide”, so someone translated it into “æ¯äº²çš„æ-¥åè¿‡å¾-æ¯”è¾ƒé˜””. Obviously, it doesn’t conform to the context; the life of the labor woman is impossible rich. In the sentence the man’s life is narrow and ironclad, woman’s life is
contrasted to it. So “expansive” should be the antonym of “narrow” and “ironclad”. “Narrow” refers to the man makes money to raise a family day and night, and the
activity space is narrow. “Ironclad” is translated into “ä¸€æˆä¸å˜” which makes a
mistake. Its meaning is “exacting”(ç´å¼ ) in the dictionary. Based on the analyses, we
can conclude that the meaning of “expansiveness” is “å®½æ¾è‡ªåœ¨”.
æ”¹è¯‘ è·Ÿåšçˆ¶äº²çš„é‚£çç‹çª„ã€ç´å¼ çš„ç”Ÿæ´»ç›¸æ¯”¼Œæˆ‘è‰å¾-åšæ¯äº²çš„æ-¥åè¿‡å¾-æ¯”è¾ƒå®½æ¾è‡ªåœ¨ã€‚å¥¹ä»¬ä¸Šé‚»å±…å®¶ä¸²é-¨¼ŒåŽ»åŸŽé‡Œä¹°ä¸œè¥¿¼Œåˆ°å¦æ ¡ã€å›¾ä¹¦é¦†ã€æ•™å ‚è·‘è·‘è…¿
Logical thinking is the advanced form of human consciousness and is the objective things and phenomena indirectly reflected which summarized in people’s minds. The logic of language is one of three major factors to determine the language to use good or bad, so logic is often used as a standard to test language application quality, identify and solve problems in language applications. Translation embodies the translator’s ability to use two languages. To make translation accurate, fluent and image reproduction, logic is inseparable. Translation should properly use logical thinking form and ways to make the translation accurate, clear and reasoning appropriate.
Due to the geographical environment and cultural traditions, there are many differences in the expression of logical thinking between ethnic Chinese and British peoples. English nation advocates against Heaven, conquering nature, focusing on seeking out, emphases one to more, part priority, focus on the relationship between persons and things, form the analytical thinking. This kind of thinking makes Chinese
become a “fuzzy, intuitive, beautiful” language. It embodied as: English pays attention to hypotaxis, and uses more “non-personal subject”; Chinese focuses on parataxis and uses more “personal subject”. Chinese use more active voice, English use more passive voice. Chinese sentences and text, through the expressed significance’s internal logic to link, which belongs to implicit relation; English sentences and texts’ logic is clear, it is explicit relation. English logical relationship between expression forms caused certain difficulties to the translator; the translator must shuttle in two logical thinking, and constantly to converse.
[ 1 ] çŽ‹ã€€å¯…. è¯è¨€å¦æ-°å¢žé•¿ç‚¹æ€è€ƒä¹‹äºŒ:è¯è¨€ä¸Žå“²å¦çš„äº¤ç»‡å¯¹æˆ‘
ä»¬çš„å¯å‘–å¤å¸Œè…Šå“²å¦å®¶è®ºè¯è¨€[ J ] . ä¸å›½å¤-è¯, 2008 ¼ˆ1¼‰
[ 2 ] è¿žæ·‘èƒ½. è®ºä¸è¥¿æ€ç»´æ-¹å¼[J ] . å¤-è¯ä¸Žå¤-è¯æ•™å¦, 2002 (2) .
[ 3 ] å‚…ã€€é›·. å‚…é›·è°ˆç¿»è¯‘[M] . åŒ-äº¬:å½“ä»£ä¸-ç•Œå‡ºç‰ˆç¤¾, 2006.
[ 4 ] è£å¼€æ˜Ž,ç‰. çŽ°ä»£æ€ç»´æ-¹å¼æŽ¢ç•¥[M] . æ¦æ˜Œ:åŽä¸ç†å·¥å¤å¦å‡º
[ 5 ] Nida E A. Translating meaning[M] . San Dimas, California:
English Language Insti
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