Abstract¼š In modern society, people can not survive without using language. However, language is like a sword with two edges. On one hand, it is of good advantages; on the other hand, it may cause conflicts and may cause the people fail to achieve effective communications. Especially in the enterprise managing business, good managers often have to use good communicative skills and principles to make good management push their companies to develop successfully which is the ultimate goal of managing. As for the realization of the good management, it is closely depend on the managers’ language communicative competence. This essay examines the relationship between management and effective communication, and tries to draw a conclusion of the use of language communicative competence based on Johari Window in enterprise managing.
Keywords: language, language communicative competence, effective communication, Johari Window, management.
Language is the way for human communication, and reflects the high level of modern human civilization. Besides, language communication refers to the process which people use the language to express the meaningful information among others. In daily life, people can not survive without any connection of the others, and the communication must be efficient and meaningful so that the good communicative skills are badly required. Unfortunately, this is not so easy at all for most of the people in modern society due to the highly connected relationships with others. The way for people to convey efficient communication is kind of research which involves plenty of language communicative knowledge including communicative principles, strategies, etc.
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As for this, some scholars have done so many researches on the people’s language communicative competence in all kinds of areas. Take the Johari Window as an example, Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, the famous scholars, had done the study of language communication, they proposed a window concept model focusing on how to achieve effective communication and this model is known as Johari Window later.
It is also should be known that, in the modern business management, the excellent supervisors convey good human relations through the use of appropriate language communicative strategies and the principles with subordinates , and this have so much to do with the communicative model–Johari Window.
Therefore, if we take the language communication, Johari Window model and enterprise managing altogether into the consideration; or briefly, we can put the language communication in use in enterprise managing; and thus making the managers’ language communicative competence become the key point of the their managing efficiency. This will be a new research of the linguistics as well as a new study of the enterprise managing.
Based on the Johari Window model and language communicative knowledge, this paper focuses on the above aspects, and shows the use of language communicative competence under the Johari Window to achieve effective communication and finally achieve the good management in enterprise managing business. The aim of this article is to explain the essential and distinct features of the language communication, and I will emphasize on those features of language that are related to social communication and enterprise managements. Focusing on “What is language communication?”, “What is Johari Window and how can it be explained and used?” and “How the effective management is achieved by using language communication based on Johari Window in enterprise managing business?” ,this paper is a dramatic trial for the new study of language communication.
2. Johari Window and language communication
2.1. Language and language communication
2.1.1. The mastery of language
Firstly, when we talk about language communication, the top priority is the mastery of language, for language mastery serves as the essential powerful means of interacting with one another.
People who want to achieve effective communication must acquire the language first and so it is with the managers in all the enterprises. No matter how powerful the managers are, they can not avoid communicating with their employers by using language. Thus requiring him or her must be a good language learner as well as a good language speaker. The mastery of language requires people have the basic knowledge of the language they use, which means they have to the rules of how to use language correctly. As for managers, they must be capable of speaking their official language. Suppose the managers are in China at present, so the mastery of standard Chinese – Mandarin or “Putonghua” is a must for those managers who want to use their language competence to win their subordinates’ trust and support.
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2.1.2. The language communicative object
Of course, the mastery of language just the basic element and the first step of the language communication .When communicating with others, we have to take “Who are we taking with?” into consideration, which is the reason why the “language communicative object” should be the key factor. So in enterprise managing businesses, managers should pay due attention to their communicative objects: their supervisors, their colleagues, their subordinates, and of course their partners.
What managers should be mindful is that addressing wisely when greeting or starting conversations with others.
In the first place, managers would better to address others according to their positions and identities. Addresses like “Master Li”, “Sir or Madam”, “Miss”, “Lao Zhang” are used when communicating with them.
Secondly, managers also should notice whether the people are educated or not when they are communicating. As for the educated people, paying enough attention to the dictions is considered to be wise, and managers may gain their reputation by speaking politely. However, if the managers have noticed that the people who they are going to talk with are not educated, choosing to use plain words is the best option for managers to gain others’ good first impression on themselves.
2.1.3. The purpose of language communication
Generally speaking, the purpose of communication is to send your message effectively to the receivers or listeners. Communication links people who believe in a common cause, together with a view to strengthen relationships. To be more specific, the managers want to achieve the following goals in enterprise managing business. Giving orders or assignments, maintaining good relationships with colleagues as well as subordinates, enhancing the bond of team spirits , improving the working efficiency and finally achieving good management, which are all the products of the effective language communications between the managers and co-workers.
2.2. Johari Window
As a matter of fact, in enterprise managing business, it is not easy at all to achieve effective communications between managers and their co-workers. All these have to rely on the effective communicative theory —-the Johari Window Model.
2.2.1. Origin of Johari Window
The Johari Window is a creative model of language communication and interaction. It comes from the first names of Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, who created it.
Like the happy centipede, many people get along well working with others, without thinking about which foot to put forward. But when there are obstacles, when the usual methods do not work, and when we want to learn more, there is no other optional choice for us to choose but to examine our own behaviors in relation to others. The top issue is that, among other things it is so hard to find ways of thinking about such matters, particularly for people who have no extensive background knowledge in the social sciences. When Harry Ingham and Joseph Luft first presented the Johari Window Model to illustrate relationships in terms of awareness(at Western Training Laboratories , in 1955), they were surprised to find so many people , academicians and nonprofessionals alike , using and tinkering with the model . It seems to lend itself as a heuristic device to speculating about relations.
2.2.2. Explanation of Johari Window
The model employs a grid with regions that illustrate four levels of informational exchange between individuals. It is simple to visualize the four quadrants which represent The Johari Window. The underlying concept of the Johari Window is that the open area, or two-way communication enhances interpersonal effectiveness and that when information is mutually held and freely exchanged, organizational productivity will increase.
And the four regions are described as follows.
(The brief chart of the Johari Window Model)
Region one -the Arena. This region represents information that is known by oneself and known by others or we can say the information is mutually held and exchanged. The region -the Arena is the most productive area in which people can operate within an organization. The larger this region is, the more effective, productive, and mutually beneficial interpersonal relationships can become. The managers who care about team work productivity and efficiency will take steps to enlarge this region to the fullest extent.
Region two – the Blindspot. This region of the grid represents information that id know by others rather than oneself. Blind spot occurs when we fail to pay close attention, or are purposely kept out of the information loop. Whatever the cause, our blind spot area can prevent us from taking needed action in a timely manner or understanding the actions of others. Our informational blind spot can hamper our effectiveness at work, even showing or dealing our career progress. Managers or leaders should be mindful of information dissemination among everyone in the work place, recognizing that those who are out of the information loop can not be maximally efficient or productive.
Region three-The Façade. This region represents information that is known by oneself but not known by others. This information that could be useful to others in the organization but which we may purposely withhold , either because we wish to wield power over others by carving out an advantage for ourselves , because we fear that others might use the information to their advantages or to our disadvantages , or because we simply misperceive the importance to the organization of our sharing information with others. Managers must be mindful of hoarded or unshared information by some in the organization toward others. Maximal organizational progress requires free flow information among all the players.
Region four-the Unkown. This region represents information that is not known by oneself and others. This represents the collective “Blindspot” for everyone in the organization. Potentially useful information that is not known by anyone in the organization is the stuff of which innovative breakthroughs could be made, if only certain key information were known and acted upon. The leader who wants to keep the organization successful and moving ahead of the competition of new information and knowledge by all individuals within the organization and dissemination of that information and knowledge into Region one – the Arena.
Open communication is the key to effective leadership and good management. In terms of the Model presented here, this means the managers have to enlarge the Arena to the fullest extent, simultaneously closing down the other three regions of the Johari Window which are less productive.
2.3. Language communication based on Johari Window
2.3.1. The enlargement of the Arena in Johari Window
2.3.2. The elimination of the barriers
3. Language communicative competence based on Johari Window in enterprise managing
3.1. Purpose of language communication in management
3.2. Principles of language communicative competence
3.2.1. The cooperative principle
3.2.2. The politeness principle
3.2.3. The reality principle
3.3. Strategies of language communicative competence
3.3.1. The avoidance strategy
3.3.2. The cooperative strategy
3.3.3. The delaying strategy
3.3.4. The compensatory strategy
3.4. The application of language communicative competence
3.3.1. The accuracy of using language
3.3.2. The control of other’s emotion
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