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“An effective oral presentation achieve their objective and usually bring some benefit and learning to all the people involved in them, whether presenter, audience or tutor”
Chivers, B. & Shoolbred, M. (2007)
1.1 What Is Oral Presentation
Oral presentation involves communication between a speaker and an audience. Oral presentation is a process of speaking to a group of audience.
The aim of presentation is usually to inform, to persuade the audience to act, to influence, to entertain, or to make audience think in a certain way.
1.2 Outline Academic Context Where English Is Important
According to Crystal, D. (1997), English language is important because it has been widely dispersed around the world, become the leading language of international discourse, and has acquired use as lingua franca in many regions.
English is a dominant language or in some instance even the required international language of communication, science, information technology, business, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy. 
1.3 Need For Speech Training In English
Speaker can refine their craft with ongoing training and education. Speaker will be a more effective communicator and will be able to influence and persuade audience as speech training increase speaker confident in spoken skills.
Skills training included:
Interpretion of symbols to create meaning.
Regulative rules and constitutive rules in communication.
Punctuation in communication affects meaning.
Voice attributes (i.e., volume, pitch, intonation, tone, tempo, enunciation and pronunciation) affect speech quality.
A confident speaker is more likely to use this as excitement and create effective speech thus increasing their overall ethos. 
SPEAKING IN A FORMAL ACADEMIC CONTEXT
2.1 Description Of The Transactional Model Of Communication
Transactional model shows communication as an ongoing and continuously changing process which takes into consideration the effects of noise, time and systems. In transaction model, communicators can be a speaker and a listener, and can send and receive messages simultaneously.
In fact, the word transaction indicates that the communication process is cooperative. In other words, communicators that is senders and receivers are both responsible for the effect and effectiveness of communication. In a transactional encounter, people do not simply send meaning from one to other and then back again; rather, they build share meaning. 
2.2 Public Speaking Skills And Strategies
Speaker can improve social skills to conquer fear of speaking in front of an audience. Speaker can boost self-confidence and project better in diverse situations. An effective speaker exerts a dynamic hold on an audience and can be very persuasive. A good speaker is usually sensitive to audience needs and reactions.
Public speaking enhance academic and professional abilities. Speaker can be more critical when analysing arguments and information given. Speaker also able to respond appropriately to criticism and arguments.
Public speaking skills help speaker to be more adept at reaching out to various types of people as speaker tailor speech to the needs of different audiences. Speaker also enhance leadership skills as speaker learn to present views and convince, and sway audience all without causing offence or slight to any group of people.
There are many strategies to delivery presentation:
Think positively. Change the way to think. Build confidence through careful preparation. Make use of a positive visualisation process to reduce anxiaty. Go through a positive public speaking experience or enlist the help of someone who can guide.
Systemic desensitisation is used to treat many fear. It focuses on reducing the physical symptoms related to anxiety associated with any event and teaches people how to relax. The aim is to associate feeling good and relaxed with communication situations.
Skills training in public speaking will teach ways to organise ideas as well as prepare and delivery speeches. Learning more about oral presentation skills will also help feel confident about giving speeches.
Prepare and practse speech. Remember the main points, write down notes on cue cards and express what to say naturally.Get family or friends to listen and get feedback.
Many relaxation techniques can be used to help to release tension when to give a speech. A simple one is to breathe deeply and then exhale slowly.
The best way to minimize fear or anxiety is to get as much public speaking experience. With experience, initial fear will give way to comfort, confidence and even enjoyment.
2.3 Importance And Types Of Audience Analysis
Audience analysis is essential in determining how speaker can build their presentation. Speaker would need to know the audience and purpose of the presentation because it affects the equipment to use, the level of preparation need to make, the type of attire need to wear etc.
Make enquiries about the audience, with respect to their gender, age, social, economic, and educational backgrounds, prior knowledge, expectation, likes and dislikes, occupational backgrounds, place of residence, habits personality etc.
The style of presentation should also be in tune with audience.
PREPARING AN ORAL PRESENTATION
3.1 Setting And Audience
Speaker familiar with the setting in which the speech is to be made is one way to reduce panic attacks and minimise the risk of unexpected problem cropping up at the last minute. For instance, speaker should find out the exact location of the place where the presentation is to be held. Start off early for the place if it is in the midst of a traffic congestion area. If arrive early, check whether need to go up on stage to present talk, and if there is a rostrum or not.
Also check the public address system and the equipment that needs to be utilised. There is always the risk that the computer and the LCD projector might not function properly, find out how can get in touch with technicians who can assist when this happen.
Purpose And Topic
Purpose of presentation must be linked to the presentation topic. Based on this purpose, speaker must then spell out the objective.
According to Cleary, S. (2008), the presentation must have a clearly defined purpose, to ensure a clear focus. The purpose of the presentation influences the choice of objective.
The objective should be more specific.
Structuring The Presentation
Presentation must be structured in such a way so as to reflect clarity and smoothness. Audience is a listening audience and not a reading one. Audience cannot pay attention for a long period of time and may find the presentation difficult to follow if it is not systematically structured and organised.
Structuring begin from main ideas. The issues that need to be discussed within each main point should be reduced in scope, especially when there is a likehood that the presentation would go beyond the limit. Each of the main ideas should be properly introduces, arranged and concluded.
The sequence of main ideas should in a a manner that makes it easy for the audience to follow, such as start from the easier to the more difficult, or from the known to the unknown. Speaker can also opt to follow a time sequence. The arrangement of the points can also follow a logical sequence.
Choosing Appropriate Support Materials
Information can be found anywhere. In formal ways as in lectures, tutorials, books, newspapers, speeches, radio, TV etc., or in informal ways as in conversations, gossip, personal notes, memo, hearsay etc. Information can be found in a variety of media, formats and scripts.
Not all information is relevant or suitable for speaker presentation. Evaluate the information obtained and select that which important for presentation. The ideal stage for evaluating the materials retrieved should be at the point of reading them, following the criteria setted. The scope, range and depth of presentation will depend on the evaluation and selection criteria that have setted. There are five criteria used in evaluating information; authority, accuracy and reliability, objectivity, currency and scope. 
The material collected can be put into certain categories based on the main ideas raised. There might be a nedd to create sub-ideas under each main idea.
Rehearsing The Presentation
Speaker should rehearse presentation until confident that speaker can handle all aspect with finesse. Rehearse not only the verbal content of the presentation but also speaker posture, gesture and use of presentation aids. 
Rehearsing can be done in front of a mirror. Speaker can see how their stand, look and deliver presentation. Rehearsing also can be done in front of friends who will give fair and honest feedback about content and delivery.
MAKING AN EFFECTIVE ORAL PRESENTATION
4.1 Introducing The Topic
An important step when giving an oral presentation is to introduce the topic before beginning to talk about it. This help to prepare the audience to listen to the presentation.
4.2 Presenting The Content
When presenting the content, it is important to organise the presentation. It is good to outline what is speaker going to speak about. Make sure that the outline consists of introduction, body of content and conclusion.
When making a presentation, make sure to stand straight and maintain eye contact with the audience. Dont forget to greet the audience before start presentation. Try not to read from notes. Talk to audience instead. Speak with an even tone. Be loud enough to be heard but do not shout.
Drawing A Conclusion
An important step when giving an oral presentation is to conclude the talk well. Speaker should summarise the main points of the presentation. This helps the audience to grasp what has been said.
When its over, thank the audience for being good listener and leave with a smile.
4.4 Tips For Effective Delivery
Here some proven tips on how to build confident and give better presentation:
Know more about material than what been include in presentation. Use humour or personal storiese. So, that way speaker would not easily forget what to say. 
Practise, practise and practise! Rehearse out loud with all equipment to use. Revise as necessary. Work to control filler word; practise, pause, breathe. Practise with a timer and allow time for unexpected. 
Know the room. Arrive early, walk around the speaking area and practise using the microphone and any visual aids. 
Know the audience. Greet the audiences. It’s easier to speak to a group of friends than to strangers. 
Relax. Transform nervous into enthusiasm.
Concentrate on the presentation. Focus attention away from anxiety.
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