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Communication is a very important tool in a human live. It is an essential requirement in this world to survive. We can look back in the times of ignorance when no language was developed even than communication existed in form of sign language and other forms. It is impossible for any educational institute, organization or domestic life to exist without it.
It is more than just speaking. An interaction session of speaking results in bringing out meaning to any words or actions. Communication is usually considered to be restricted to language and words but in reality body language and action play an important role in perception of the message in communication (Alder, 1996).
Similarly it is not only depended on the sender to depict the meaning of any communication, the receiver plays a major role in the out come of the communication. The message send by the sender may not be interpreted the same way it was intended. Hence communication or expression goes a great way towards determining how the expressions are interpreted.
Flaw in communication or incomplete communication may affect the purpose of the communication and can result in damaging the consequences. Karl Popper said about this issue, "it is impossible to speak in such a way that you cannot be misunderstood". Thus effective communication is important in every walk of life professional, personal or social. Not everyone is able to effectively express themselves and this is where the importance of communication skills can be truly understood.
The communication process includes the following components: sender, message, encoding, receiver, decoding and feedback. There are different models which describe the basic process of communication. These communication models serve to clarify the nature of communication, to provide a guide for research, and to offer a means of displaying research findings (Narula, 2006). Such models are a tool by which researchers, practitioners, and students can demonstrate their ideas about what they believe to be the most essential features of communication.
The Transmission Model of Communication is a highly acclaimed model of communication developed by Shannon and Weaver (1949). It is a model of communication which reduces message to a process that transmits information. The model includes five elements; a source of information, the transmitter, a channel, receiver and a destination where the message arrives.
According to Daniel Chandler(2007) this model is not the best example for communication as it does not include a two way communication rather is based only on getting the message across to the receiver which can result in technical problem such as uncertainty of how accurately has the message been transmitted. Another problem which can be faced in this model of communication is the semantic error that means how precisely the meaning of the message is covered. Above all the problem of effectiveness is really important; the sender would not be able to confirm that how effectively the message has affected the behavior of the receiver.
This model is definitely one of the simplest models of communication but it carries around the major issue of one way model. One way communication brings uncertainty to the sender of the purpose of the communication being served or destroyed. The whole concept of communication revolves around the feedback; which is a two-way communication model.
If we analyze this model in a class room scenario, it is impossible for a teacher to give the lecture to the students without knowing that whether her message has been understood by the students or not. She might even face the transmission error considering that the students are unable to understand her language. Chances of semantic error are very much possible in a classroom session as the teacher might be explaining to her level best but the students might not be précising it as accurately as the teacher is thinking. Effectiveness of the lecture is surely doubtful without any feedback. This model is a complete failure especially in education sector because interaction between the teacher and student is the key factor.
Derivative Models of the Communication Process is another model of communication it is also referred as two-way flow or the gatekeeper model (Katz, 1957). This model was the main focus of mass communication as there are limitation in this model of communication to decide which message should reach out to the receivers and how should they depict the message. In news rooms and media networks journalists have the power to prevent the outflow of the message; it is also known as gateway as the message or news goes through a censor (Lorimer, & Scannell, 2004).
This model of communication is also widely being used in all forms of communication. Whether it is personal, social or educational communication; we often observe this model being practiced by our teachers. A lecturer might censor the information she is not well prepared to deliver or if her own concepts are vague. This would limit the students with less information.
Although this model of communication is majorly used by mass communication but our interpersonal communication has also adapted its attributes. The educational sector is dependant on the communication theories. It is often observed that the students are not enjoying the liberty to think out of the box or to explore new things as the lecturers have restricted their lectures to what they decide is important for the students to learn; in a way they act as the gatekeepers in the process of communication.
Third model of communication is the New Model of Communication Process which includes feedback which may be delayed but is regarded as an interactive session of communication. All the new models of the modern world of communication are following two-way communication methods (Narula, 2008).
Two-way communication enables the sender to confirm that the receiver has received the message. Also it helps the sender to confirm that the receiver has understood the message clearly. It allows the receiver to share his opinion about the message he has received. Also it allows the receiver to question the sender and change the message. If we observe this in an educational setup, we might pronounce that this is the most suitable model of communication. In modern world this model of communication is being used every where regardless of its use in any organization or any inter personal communication session. Also now mostly all forms of mass communication are also practicing two-way communication including print media, electronic media, radio and online journalism.
The educational system is observing it in many different ways. The interactive class room session allows the students to question and share their knowledge with the teachers and other students of the class. The students are given in class take home assignments which are forms of student response for the teacher as she would get feedback of the understanding of the student regarding lecture executed to them. Projects and presentation further assists the examiner that how far the student has understood the concepts and how good is he in implementing the knowledge served to him by the lecturer. Teacher-student inter personal relationship is also a form of two way communication to understand the subject in depth.
Written communication involves any type of interaction that makes use of the written word. It is one of the two main types of communication, along with oral/spoken communication. Written communication is the foremost communication required and used in education. All the books and reference material are in form of written communication. The assignments submitted are in written form and also the presentations and most projects are given using written communication.
The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face. Some of the key components of verbal communication are sound, words, speaking, and language. Verbal communication is also the key for the teachers to make the understanding clear for the students of any concept. Written material provided to them would not help them alone. Any guidance regarding their subject is based on verbal communication (Hulme, 2002).
Nonverbal communication is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. i.e., language is not the only source of communication, there are other means also. Messages can be communicated through gestures and touch, by facial expression and eye contact. Meaning can also be communicated through object or artifacts. Numerous examples are observed in a classroom session of non-verbal communication (Robert, 2010). It is a very important consideration when marking the presentations. Teachers have separate marks allocated to the body language, dressing and eye contact.
A direct communication where all the participants of the communication are physically present at a time is known as Synchronous communication. A telephone call or boards of directors meeting are good examples of synchronous communication. In a class room it helps the students to have a better understanding to get instant feedback from the teacher on any topic, which may interrupt his understanding for the entire lecture if not cleared at that point.
In asynchronous communication all the participants of the communication may not be available at the same time. Instead of telephone if we take the example of emails, the receiver may not check the email right at that point, blogs are also a good example of asynchronous communication. In an educational setup students are sent informative emails which help them ascertain a better understanding of the lesson.
Electronic communication involves use of the digital technology in the communication system. In modern times computers and internet has made education very much digital. The students are highly depended on mass media for seeking help in the learning (Coffield, 2002).
Visual communication is the communication through visual aid and is explained as the transfer of ideas and information in a way which can be looked upon and read as well; including diagrams, signs, drawings, electronic sources. Visual displays of ideas have better changes of informing, education and persuading the audiences. Presentations given by the lecturers and other diagrams are the basic use of visual communication in a classroom.
Kinesthetic communication is very common in educational systems. Few students can just learn by listening and reading. They need to do it. These types of students learn only while they perform it. They might learn better if they type their notes or do a practical to understand the concept behind a theory. All these forms of communication come with barriers. The effectiveness of the communication is relative provided it does not face any barriers in communication process. Physical barrier can be observed in case the teacher or a student is unreachable. The lecture a student would miss due to his absence might be deemed as barrier of communication. Contextual barrier may be observed in a communication of a classroom session. The students might not take the right reference of the lecture and may misinterpret the information provided to them. Technical skills are a huge problem in case a student is not well aware of internet usage his ability to gain from some major information will be restricted. Technical errors may occur due to designing faults observed in the machinery.
Cultural differences are also a common barrier of communication observed in a classroom of student from different backgrounds. This may cause problems of language which will definitely interrupt the smooth flow of lectures as the student who does not understand what is being delivered by the teacher will definitely not benefit from the information provided(Claire, 2008).
Behavior is very important when it comes to education. The three important elements of any educational system is language, behavior and the programming of how we execute the information the students get (Dean, 2008). Neuro-Linguistic Programming includes neurology, language and programming which are the three key factors of a human experience. The system in which our body functions is known as neurological system. The interface and communication with other individuals is through language (Widdowson, 2001). The reproduction of the world we create is the programming done by us. Closing the above statement Neuro-Linguistic Programming is the primary connection between mind and language with how their relationship with each other affects human body and behavior.
Epistemology addresses multiple levels involved in being a human being. Neuro-Linguistic Programming is a very realistic school of thought. It includes the development of behavioral mechanism and flexibility. It is a multi- dimensional process. NLP is also involved in premeditated thinking and is considered a cognitive and mental procedure behind human behavior. It also provides utensils and abilities for the progress of an individual's excellence. At the same time it also provides a system of sanctioning beliefs and presupposition about who human beings are in real; what is the procedure of change and what is communication (Knight, 1999).
On the other hand NLP also consists of agenda, exploring individuality and doing self analysis to rediscover one self. It provides the framework for better perception and relation to the spirituality of a human experience that goes beyond their status as a member to the family, community and to this world. NLP is about the wisdom and vision of an individual with excellence. Personalized learning is a public educational model which is exclusive to cater to the interests and need of each student individually. It can be a classroom-based or non-class-room based mythology
According to Tabard (2010) the latest educational researcher found out that students learn most successfully with parental involvement, less number of pupils in each class, one-on-one interaction between student and teacher (Dean, 2006). Students feel a connection between them and their teacher which also brings a different level of confidence in the pupil. It is the most affective way of teaching.