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Chinese and Western Cultural Differences
I am going to start a series of discussions on cultural differences between Chinese and Western culture. Please keep in mind that I am not saying that "all Chinese are like this" or "all Westerners are like this"; I am talking only in generalities, referring to broad patterns. Obviously, there are many differences in specific individuals; and particularly as the rapid pace of development and change continues in China, the younger generation will tend to have significant changes. Nor am I saying that one way is good, and the other is bad; I personally believe that both sides have their strengths and weaknesses. But I believe that these are interesting topics for discussion, and can improve understanding and communication on both sides.
Different nations have different cultures during the long developing history. Various cultural factors resulted in different language forms. According to observation, analysis, and study, the discrepancies between the Chinese and Western culture include culture of allusions, of numbers, of colors, etc.. It is an important issue to understand and handle the relationship between culture and language while translating English idioms. Meanwhile, language is not only the culture's important content but also the carrier of culture, so culture and language are a whole. Since different culture gives rise to alternative language structures, while translating, you must know its fundamental cultural obstacles, and then you can do translation more correctly and suitably.
I.What is cultural difference?
There are many meanings of the word "culture". Sometimes, we say that people who know about music, art, and literature are cultured. However, for anthropologist, the word "culture" has a different meaning. To an anthropologist the word "culture" means all the ways that a group of people think, feel, art, and dress. The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English gives such an explanation of culture: the customs, beliefs, art, music, and all the other products of human thought made by a particular group of people at a particular time.
Different nations hold different cultures. For instance, "full moon" symbolizes jubilation and reunion in China, and "a bright moon in the sky" makes people feel quiet and at leisure. Ideas of beauty differ from one culture to another. For example, the Flathead Indian of North America used to bind the heads of babies between board so they would have long sloping foreheads. In the Flathead culture, long sloping foreheads were beautiful. Other cultures might think that they are strange-looking and unattractive. For another example, when people die, different cultures deals with their bodies in different ways. Sometimes bodies are buried. Sometimes bodies are buried under the ground. In many cultures in the past, people were buried with food, weapons, and other things that might be useful in the next life. For instance, the ancient Egyptians buried people with little human figures which were from clay. This clay figure were intended to work the death person in the other world.
From these examples, we can see that cultures are quite different from one country to another. It is brief that different people do the same things or consider the same things in different ways.
Every country own itself cultural, cultural is country's soul and its place of origin. In order to establish a good international relationship with others countries, so we are need to understand their cultural and find their differences with our country. Because
With China entry the WTO and will hold the Olympic Games in 2008, the relationship between China and Western in politics, economy, culture will become more and more close. It is undoubtedly that the etiquette will play an important role in this process. To the definition of etiquette, China and Western have a different understanding. As Chinese thinks that the etiquette is the common behavior standards that all the members must obey, and its purpose is to keep the normal living order of the society. In ancient China, a famous philosopher thinks that etiquette is a principal to deal with the relationship between man and supernatural beings, man and ghosts, man and men. There are also many words about etiquette in English, therefore we need to understand the Chinese and western cultural differences.
Culture is an integrated development course, whose soul is the cultural concept or idea. The author tries to study the cultural difference between Western and Chinese culture from the perspective of economical ethics and draw the conclusion that Chinese should critically assimilate Western culture and inherit traditional Chinese culture to create a new culture which fits the needs of the new era.
The differences between Chinese and Western social initiatives
First, by the family of the impact of ethical conduct, the Chinese people always put yourself in a group (ethics groups) to look at themselves in order to determine their own initiatives, "bad sequence style."Only targeted by Professor Fei Xiaotong said, in such a poor sequence style, the individual's behavior so self-centered, but it only shows the starting point of individual initiatives.Indeed the basis for such a move from the starting point is on the basis of ethical conduct.Therefore, in China, the individual is basically digestion among the group.Group is the purpose of individual existence, but not the means.Groups of ethical conduct ordered, probably that group of patriarchal order that is the absolute ethical order.By the abstraction of rational conduct and the resulting impact of character and independence in the West, people always put themselves as a separate entity, the individual for their own survival and growth needs to unite to create groups and join groupsactivity.Individual and group are mutually exclusive, is a Zuoquan connected.Although the unity of the individual in the group, but individuals are free to the balance of payments pursuant to Zuoquan groups.Although in order to achieve the advantages of the individual, the individual in the enjoyment of community empowerment must be accompanied by the group seriously, the implementation of the mission of the individual pairs of groups. Secondly, the family as a starting point of the structure of the difference sequence initiative, blood related initiatives has become an important frame of reference, by the Chinese people's social initiatives have been given a dark mood of color
In the social interaction or correspondence of the people first of all think about is the emotional intimacy of sexual, to consider the feelings of others on a thoughtful, considerate, and admire, that is, pay attention to human.Emotion and the Chinese people are Nanshe hard to leave, became the first requirement of life.China does not conform to the most is the indifference to human connection.In between in which people not only value the sentiment, but also sub-fur sentiment a letter, as long as with the emotions related to the incident will be hard to get much easier to handle more.Insinuation sets of feelings the Chinese people have become just as normal dealings consistent with the essentials.The emotional life, so that the formation of Chinese society, a humane society, but this has to society in the public and a moderate yield growth has brought endless variables.In the eyes of the Chinese people, whether private or public events, can all be factoring in the emotional front or modification.Law enforcement, the rules of human development, though should be a human face.In the West, as the ancient Greek philosophers, the human abstract, or because people go beyond the Christian right, people in the community initiatives either a rational as a guideline, or succumb to the call of God.Where the family connected, blood related, emotional connection is not the main people's social initiatives, the only all thinking.This is important because of their emotional and non emotional drew a clear-cut between the boundaries, and boundaries of the two sides do not have to replace nature.Sentiment in the West essentially has been compressed into a very cramped area where, it is important the family is now living in the table.
- Cross-cultural communication, cultural differences, cultural conflict
With China's gradual opening-up level of depth, Western society more and more people and things into our field of vision, in this case, the cross-domain, cross-ethnic, cross-cultural economic and social contacts will be increasing This provides us with many opportunities for contact and exchanges between the West, which for deepening our understanding of Western society is a good thing, but this is not a simple matter, because we are facing from the unfamiliar cultures and countries, ways of thinking, habits and behavior patterns with our very different people, in the process of interaction with the inevitable phenomenon of cultural conflict occurs.
- Western cross-cultural communication in the cultural conflicts that often appear inCross-cultural Communication in Chinese and Western cultural conflict occurs there are many, here we have it is impossible to describe, only the more common are listed in several.
1.1 The privacy of the conflict
The Chinese concept of privacy is relatively weak, that the individual should be vested in a collective, together pay attention to unity and friendship, mutual interest and therefore I understand the Chinese people are often very willing to other people's ups and downs, the other party is willing to frankly say so. The Westerners are a very good personal privacy, pay attention to personal space, too many people are reluctant to mention their own affairs, but also reluctant to allow others to interfere. Therefore, privacy issues on the two sides are frequent conflicts, such as: Chinese people tend to ask first met each other's age, marital status, children, occupation, or income, in the eyes of the Chinese people it is an act of courtesy, but in the West the eyes of the view that these questions violated their privacy.
1.2 concept of time in the conflict
Western concept of time and money concept is linked, time is money, the concept of deep-rooted, so they are very much value his time and of time in their lives often have done a careful arrangements and plans, and develop a good time to meet this woman habits. In the West, to visit someone, you must give advance notice or agreement, and explain the purpose of visit, time and place, it was agreed upon to proceed. The Chinese people belonged to more time to get used to the country, the use of time has great randomness, as Westerners are generally not as stringent as those according to plan, Westerners have often uncomfortable.
1.3 polite language in the conflict
The Chinese emphasis on humility, in communication with others, the habit of "humble have respect," and this as a virtue, it is a rich Chinese cultural characteristics courtesy of the phenomenon. Others praised us, we tend to be self-deprecating about it, in order to form modest and polite. Western countries have no such cultural practices, when they were praised, there will always am happy to say "Thank you" accepted. As the differences between Chinese and Western cultures, we believe that Westerners are too self-confident, without modesty; and when Westerners learn that the Chinese people who do deny others their own praise, or to hear their own deny their own achievements, even when their own derogatory worth a penny , would be very surprised that the Chinese people dishonest.
1.4 dining customs in the conflict
Is known hospitality of the Chinese nation's fine traditions. In the communication occasions and feast on the warm toast the Chinese people offering each other cigarettes are often each other. The Chinese banquet, even if a table filled with delicious food, the owner, he always used to say a few words, "excuse me" and other polite words. Sometimes the owner will use chopsticks to guests bowl Jia Cai, using a variety of ways to persuade customers more Chi cai more drink. In Western countries, people emphasis on respect for individual rights and personal privacy, so they will not do an imposing task. Dinner time, you will not be hard to bowl Jia Cai, Eat what you own, they would not use a variety of ways to persuade guests to drink, do not insisted until you have drunk.
2. Causes of cultural conflict caused by the phenomenon of inquiry Of conflict caused by the phenomenon of Chinese and Western cultures a variety of reasons, study its fundamental, it is because the two sides have different Chinese and Western cultures, different historical backgrounds, will inevitably bring about people's thinking, behavior, and many other differences, or even conflict, here we come specifically look at What are the main reason.
2.1 The differences in thinking patterns
Culture will affect people's views and understanding of the outside world of things, different countries have different cultures, so there must be differences in thinking patterns, which is in the Eastern and Western culture has been particularly evident among. Western cultures focus on logic and analytical thinking, while the Oriental culture of thinking is to show integrity intuition, which is also the characteristics of traditional Chinese culture and thinking. Because of this the impact of traditional culture, Chinese people are often special attention to intuition and pay attention to recognize the process of experience and feeling, often in exchanges of experience and feeling to this "to have relieve people." Compared with the Western mode of thinking, the Chinese people of this mode of thinking has obvious broad and vague nature of the passage of time, will develop a mindset that can be interpreted as recognition and to simplify the classification of things outside the process of perception. In essence, mindset, often ignore the individual differences of things, exaggerate a particular social group associated with the other cognitive attitudes, often with emotional and accompanied by a fixed creed. In all the set, some fixed potential is correct, while others are wrong, will directly affect the cross-cultural communication, resulting in communication failures.
The specific meaning of a code of conduct refers to socially accepted by the ethical standards and codes of conduct, simply, is to tell people what to do and not do as a norm. People of different cultural background in communication, we often occurs a phenomenon is to apply its own code of conduct for the society to determine the reasonableness of each other's behavior, due to differences in norms of both sides, often misleading, offensive or even worse results. For example, tapping the Chinese people, said the head of a child in a friendly, while in Western countries, this is a great lack of respect for the practice of children, parents would have very angry. So, in a cross-cultural communication is able to correctly identify and apply a code of conduct is to ensure the smooth progress of cross-cultural communication an important factor. To safeguard the smooth progress of cross-cultural communication, we must understand each other's codes of conduct, in particular, what conduct is prohibited, the best way is to follow the principle of Romans do.
2.3 The values of different
People's communicative competence is the process of socialization produced inevitably and values together. Every culture has its own unique value system, this system can help people distinguish between beauty and ugliness, good and evil, this is the people's philosophy of life, moral standards and code of conduct. But it can not be divorced from the specific culture of the existence of criteria for judging every culture is different, this culture that it is good, another culture may think that bad, but they are in their own culture, and their existence within the system is reasonable, must not be understood as a standard of value is advanced, while another standard of value behind. In Chinese and Western cultures, for example, in Chinese culture, people respected modest chirye, the pursuit of adaptable and do not like assertive or aggressive, and social trends are often blocked too prominent individuals, are the so-called "line above the masses, people will be non of." In Chinese culture, the collective orientation of the dominant, the pursuit of personal development is seen as a serious individualism, is bound to be condemned. The Western culture is very much advocating individualism, "adaptable" is seen as a lack of entrepreneurial performance, are lazy, incompetent synonymous for society and individuals are not taken. Human-based thinking is rooted in their hearts, people advocating independent thinking, independent judgments, relying on their ability to achieve their personal interests, and that the supremacy of individual interests.
2. Comparison study from the perspective of Advertisement
Language and culture are inseparable. Each national's special culture mode comes out of the speech and behavior of that race by all means. They use their own language to record the things happened by them. The advertisement is a kind of manifestation of culture, it's under the influence and restrict of local culture. National culture influences and restricts the development and expression of advertising language which is the core content of advertisement .advertising language contains and reflects the social culture. Language exists in the community and with the development of society and development, and culture among the definite role to play. A philosophy idea, thinking mode of race, the cultural mental state, moral concept, life style, customs and habits, social system, religion and faith...etc, will produce a function to the advertisement language by all means. No matter how the advertising art develop, as long as it is a popular method of communication involved, it will never take part from language , language will be the most important and effective communication tool. Advertisement through the performance function of language to describe the image of product, express the taste sensibility and make an introduction of related products knowledge lively and specifically. However, the current language is not merely the carrier of products; it adjusts tradition and modern culture factors to make them carry more contents richer than it. In fact, the advertisement language of the social culture reflection is easily comprehended and accepted by people, this can promote the effect of advertisement. Take cognizance of this, make great effort to discuss the inside relation of national culture and advertisement language, it has important function to create and design the advertisement language which matches the basic principle of advertisement expression and suites particular national cultural characteristic. Each advertisement language has its trace of social national culture, according to every nation's thinking mode, mental characteristic, living custom, value judgment ,even the political belief, social system to consider an advertisement creation, in order to keep with "native son" taste, match "native son" mindset has already been earnestly practiced by numerous advertisement plan personnel. The influence of Chinese and Western culture on advertising language is various, The Chinese and Western advertising language also reflect the Chinese and Western culture in many ways. The company of American P&G named its shampoo "pert-plus" in the United States, being named "perjoice" in the Asia, and its Chinese name is "float soft" to cater for Chinese market, and it can explain a problem very much. Owing to the differences of Chinese and Western culture, the representation form of Chinese and Western advertisement is diverse, advertising language also manifests different culture value and thinking mode. As the culture background, customs, behavior principle, life style of Chinese and Western have great distinction. Therefore, every country's advertisement businessman will think over the culture background of consumers. The aim of the paper is to lay out the influences to by comparing Chinese and Western advertising languages.
II. The relationship between culture and language
2.1 The concept of the language and culture
Culture is the all and the one which consist by social behavior, art, beliefs, customs transmission through society conduct and all other products of human work and thinking .Language is accompanied by the creation of the human society, it is the direct manifestation of thinking. Language reflects the characteristics of a nation, which not only includes the nation's historical and cultural backgrounds, but holds on the nation's view of life, the way of life and thinking. Culture is diverse, language is also varied (Chen, 2000:20).When the nation as a language, living areas, economic life and psychological stability community appears in the history of mankind, language is deeply stamped with the brand of a nation; it is the most typical characterization of the nation and national culture.
2.2 The relations of language and culture
Language can not separate from related culture to be independent. Some sociologists believe that the language is the cornerstone of culture-no language, no culture.From another aspect, language is affected by language and reflected the culture. Language is based on the historical and cultural aspects. The nation's way of thinking, values, concepts, habits and behavior will affect aesthetic language development. The formation of a national culture, development and absorption ought to pass the language to achieve. Language and culture influence each other; we should try to understand language and culture and to learn them. Language is like a mirror which reflects the entire culture, and every nation has its own culture. Language as the carrier and idea of culture, its representation form is influenced and restricted by culture. Understand their unique cultural background to understand the language features. Only more exposure to foreign cultures, familiar with different language national history amorous feelings, way of life, value and national psychology, open up their vision, learn more about the cultural and language differences. Culture promotes the development of advertising language, the language of advertising propagandize its culture. Chinese and Western advertising language has its own unique form of language which contain the beautiful scenery of language and culture. The charm of the language of instruction is fully displayed in the advertisement. Meanwhile, the Chinese and Western social and cultural knowledge which contained in language make us experience the infinitude delight .Chinese and Western advertising languages let us deepen our understanding of foreign countries, and bring to the world of cross-cultural exchanges
2.3 Culture of numbers and translation
Numbers are used here and there so that culture of numbers has come into being.
Cultures are carried by language, and there are differences between the English and Chinese languages. The differences her I will mention is not the one of the figure's calculation or arrangement, but the different phenomenon of idioms composed of numbers displayed in the two different cultures.
As far as Chinese culture is concerned, there are numerous Chinese idioms and idiomatic usages with "numbers", we are familiar with them: ????;????;????,????;????;????;???????,???????(??«???»),etc. If you want to translate these Chinese idioms into English literally, the version will not be accepted by western culture. For example, translate " ????" into "one eye sees it all clearly"; "????" into "seven mouths and eight tongues"; "????" into "three longs and two shorts"; no one will understand what does it really mean.
And in English culture, there exists culture of numbers everywhere, which deals with many fields, showing that culture of numbers should be paid attention to, too. "seven " is holy and mysterious number which is regarded as a lucky numbers, if "seven" or "nine" times any of the odd numbers, and your age is one of them: 21,27,35,45,49,63,81, you will be considered as the one who has a dangerous time. The seventh son of one's seventh son is always accepted as an outstanding. And what is more, there are many idiomatic usages with "seven" in English culture. For instance, how do you translate this sentence into Chinese: Seventy times seven did I take counsel with my soul. Some one will translate it like this: ???????????????,but the right one should like this: ???????????????Here "seventy times seven" can be translated into "?????" which comes from the Bible: Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, until seven times: but, until seventy times seven.
From the above examples we can see that, either Chinese or English idioms with numbers, we should translate them freely for cultural differences exist everywhere. ?.The features of Chinese and Western advertisement
Advertising, a kind of war as a modern business strategy and weapons, their purpose is commercial in nature, but its manifestations is a cultural and artistic.Emergence and development of advertising is the inevitable product of social development, the same time, is also a product of culture. Advertisement is the special performance of modern culture spirit. As a means of reflecting the reality, advertising language also is the component of culture. Advertisements adjust people's activity or bring the society effect into play. Advertisement is a multi-language arts conveying information to people and using language for the carrier .Therefore, the advertising language should be simple and easily understood, fluency and clear, we should also pay attention to the rhetoric manner at the same time. Chinese and Western advertisement cited a variety of rhetoric to achieve the effect of merchandise promotion, and consumers are not consciously deepened the impression of the product after gaining the spirit edifying and enjoying aesthetic feeling, arousing people's desire to buy it , such as antithesis, Hyperbole, Parody, metaphor, rhyme and repeatedly. Etc
Owing to the differences of Chinese and Western culture, the representation form is diverse. Advertising language also manifests different culture values and thinking mode. Chinese and Western culture has large different culture background, customs, behavior conduct and way of life. Thus, advertisers will no doubt consider the demands of consumer through their cultural background. There I list some examples of advertisement to compare and analyze how the Chinese and Western national culture influence their advertising language:
3.1 Different Philosophy concept
The Chinese nation has insists that the heaven and human units as the harmonious one. For example: something unexpected may happen any time, I have life insurance (The People's Insurance Company of China).This ad indicates that people are not afraid of accident because the people have insurance. The accident and insurance is a unit and are dispensable. That the business loves customs is showed in this ad and it will come to an agreement between them. At last the goal of the ad comes into truth. .
But in western culture they insist the standpoint of pluralistic. They pay attention to diversity and changes of material, emphasis specially on the change and difference of the nature ,stressed that personal freedom, self-development and personal enterprise. The biggest different between harmonious and pluralists if that the pluralists is not limited. Look at this English ad:Olympus, No limits. There is little you can't be with the Olympus Zoom Lens Reflex series. The all-in-X cameras that won't limit your creative ability. (Olympus camera). The camera have one more features make photographs produce different then to reflect individual creativity is in the continuing development and is not limited in this ad. The advertisements show the ultimate challenge and seek freedom can greatly stimulate consumer desire so enthusiastic consumption.
3.2 Different cultural values-oriented
Chinese cultural has a long history and the alcohol cultural is significant. To illustrate the quality of goods, they attempt to explain how long the water life by quotating the history. For example: (1) Legend quality, Century ZHANG YU.( ZHANG YU Tokay) (2) Tang palace drink, JIAN NAN CHUN (JIAN NAN CHUN Drink) Those two alcohol's long history were given expression to only sentences, showing the deep feeling toward consumers, narrowing the gap between the products and consumers.
The Western countries insisted the short term oriented culture; the main reason is the history is shorter than China. They don't do the business like Chinese who often use the factors of history and tradition, but use the strong and direct marketing strategy (hard sale), a product of the "immediate results" as a selling point. For example: "go and get it at once", "buy it" , "fit it well", "take action right now", "call now" etc. is the common use in foreign ads .
Value is the different views and attitudes of people regarding the matter. China is a traditional agricultural economy society, it is said that Chinese cultural system emphasized the collectivism and authoritative character, using the natural value orientation. This ad is a manifestation of this feature of Chinese culture: HUA LI killing mosquito tool-"silence without mosquito" dedication. This ad was excellent for using the partial tone of "mosquito" and "listen". It builds the image of unknown to public dedication of products and corporation. To praises of the heroes of our community who quietly worked hard, this identity arouses the resonance in the minds of vast consumers.
But in the Western capital society, individualism?equality and the dominant natural were the orientation ,they stress personality differences. This can be seen from many American ads products, there are many differences trying to explain from, even in the absence of any differences as well. In the United States ads, there is a popular phrase, it would be: to create different. For example: One airline painted the vivid colors on the airframe in order to catch people's eye. In fact, the plane and service of other airplane company are not much different.
3.3 Different cultural psychology
Advertiser often reflecting takes me the psychology and tries to appear the customers. Ads reflected the cultural psychology of language is quite common. Such as:1?congratulate to make a pile to welcome new year, have long luck Goldlion (Goldlion wearing advertisement); 2?WEI LI washing machine, dedicated to a mother. (WEI LI washing machine); the advertising language cater to the cultural psychology of Chinese, has persuaded function. Good fortune?salary?longevity ?happy and wealth were the symbol of Chinese traditional culture. Chinese have the psychology of hearing nice words, so many products related to the common use show menu of the family affection. For example: "A lot of good luck, a lot of satisfaction" (FU MAN DUO instant noodles) and "A bowl nice glue ball round and round , a good reunion after eating (a advertisement of Chinese glutinous rice flour) are two types examples which emphasis Chinese value. In contrast, the Western culture takes more emphasis on independence and individuality; their ads pay more attention to character display, ideas and humor. "Kodak film and your family happiness" Is a popular advertisement in China's market, but its ads in U.S is a picture of one boy holding ponchos in one hand, and the other standing on a sword with the statements. "He just killed his last dragon". Kodak keeps happiness for Chinese, keep the feat for American.
The whole world has a common human emotion, such as kinship, friendship and love, but the expression is different. Westerners are more candid and Asians are more subtle. "Using your telephone to transmit love". Bell Telephone Company deliver the message by illustrating picture of that: the daughter of an elderly parent far away give a phone call to them and say "I love you", and excite the older parents by contract." Find one day for us to look through the romantic" (ads of one Hotel in Taipei) this conveys the love between husband and wife. The romance is subtle
In accordance with Chinese laws the content in ads about ethnic racial difference and gender discrimination is illegal, ads language must be truthful and standardized. It should conform to the construction of socialist spiritual civilization. The following example shows the difference. One American company plants to recruit a female secretary, who looks like puberty girl, thinks like an adult male, walks like adult woman, works like a donkey! In American culture, this parlance has humorous effect. But it makes Chinese viewers angry: because it has the discrimination meaning toward to the female and the donkey means stupid in Chinese culture.
Below there are two ads of advocating non-smoking: The first one was a foreign plane that will make public service announcements, its center is a picture of a rifle, a bullet and a cigarette. The title is: rapid death, slow suicide. This ad directly put the death linked to smoking the language is explicit and straightforward, and has a strong visual impact. It works with undisguised and straightforward method of smoking hazards, to alert people not to smoke. However the other one is a domestic television commercial. It shows us that there is a glass of water on the table, and then a drop of ink is dropping in it, after that clean water turning into muddy, and the last is bigger ,with three drops... until the whole clean water mixed to dirty completely. Accompanied outer sound: "If smokes, the lung of us will be like this cup of water..." This ads like the first one, want to remind people of the hazards on body health, but it keeps away from the death and through the subtle language like the clean water become muddy, hints the relations between smoking and death. The ads above show the different cultural atmosphere of different nation and countries. From this, we can see that the foreign ads try to forbid smoking strongly and straightforwardly, but local ads is meant to remind the rise of smoking people quit smoking subtly and unobjectionable. The western ads make people think seriously after shocked, the domestic ads is allowed people know the hazards while tasting. This is not just the feeling difference of performance, but more important is that it is through language and images to reflect the cultural differences.
3.4 Different cultural atmosphere
Chinese people are not accustomed to express their ideas directly, but to use the euphemism, tortuous way to express. Han nationality affected by Confucian ideas is modest, introverted and conservative. This is unlike European and American national export and lively personality. In France, for example, a perfume advertisement: "The one drop is to the beauty, two drop is for the lover, three drop is enough to lead to one love affair." . French people think that this expression is very romantic and attractive, but Chinese consumers think it hard to accept this extreme expression. Three drops can bring a love is fast open. Chinese people are conservative and cautious. They believe down-to-earth do not believe that asking for the moon. So the instant love more difficult to accept.
Chinese culture is known to family peace and harmonious, this is consistent with the physical environment, and this is related closely to the past several thousand years of self-sufficiency family's economy systems. For example, the "Confucian Temple home wine" ads "home state" . Its ads creativity is from their wine name "home wine Confucian Temples" in "home". The phrase "Confucian Temple home wine, make people homesick." is able to touch the hearts of so many people, because it reflects the homesick feelings of the people. Linked the liquor with a long history of traditional Chinese culture, it shows a profound cultural implication. The ad has strong cultural features, the values embodied in ads does not seem the least competitive, utilitarian, but with a human feeling and a great reunion of the family. 3.5 Different concept of authority and self-worth
Honor and certificates are often used as a tool to attract Chinese customers, because Chinese people always believe in authority. In fact, the honorary certificates don't relate to the products self characteristic. For example: Shanghai shoes factory recommends selection for the national well-known trademarks, famous trademarks in Shanghai, Ministry of light industry. Shanghai high-quality products. (Shanghai shoes factory), which is basically used for listing a large number of certificates and accolades in large space, this is persuasive to Chinese readers. These certificates and identification evidence means the reputation of high quality and reliable assurance. Several thousand years of feudal system produced the firm official position worship; the idea has been affecting the country. The government awarded a certificate of honor and technology to company, than the certificates have priceless efficiency.
In sharp contrast with China's ads, English ads is not seen such expression in the ads. Even some international brands and ads will not honor any identification certificates to prove. In the British-based culture, people pursue the self-worth, not deliberately seeking to cross over location. Through individual efforts to shoot for success in career means the dramatic increase of social status and material wealth. The practical spirit has been fully reflected in ads. This can be seen in the following example: Selected by James Bond the sign of Excellence (OMEGA) Switzerland famous swatch, superb work and expensive, is the best option of successful people. Ads have chosen James Bond, the successful spy, to represent the swatch, he has a tremendous attraction for ads, has galactic impel power.
3.6 Different gender image
Chinese and Western culture have different gender image position, this can be found in ads language. Two thousands traditional Confucian ideology influences Chinese idea, the concept of Chinese women has been defined within the framework of gentle graciousness. Thus, in the ads, female models are basically the front feminine beauty. If ads creativity wants to show the performance of lofty aspiration, it will do through man to express generally. To list the example of alcohol ads, in the long course of several thousand years of China history, it seems that alcohol is only the matter for man to express his emotion. In Chinese alcohol ads, a lot of that background is ancient warrior uniform and they carouse do as their pleases, displayed the heroic mettle. And in the 1920s of 20th century, feminist movement began in the United States and then spread to the entire Western world narrowing the gender gap significantly. There is a liquor ads for a blow mobile coach and matcher, women's pride soaring. China also had female heroes, but if a woman used to the ads, I wonder if people can accept psychologically.
3.7 Different customs
As the differences of natural environment, economic levels and national development history, each nation has its own unique and accustomed lifestyle. For example: Chinese and Japanese use chopsticks to dine, Westerners use forks. Chinese people like to invite guests and give gifts, and the Westerners rarely entertain guests at home; Chinese people like to wear red setting, glue "XI" word and send gifts when they get married , the color red is regarded as lucky. In the west, the red color is not ghillie. For example, one import and export company of China uses the red material packaged the Red fireworks to sell to former Federal Republic of Germany and Sweden , as a result, nobody cared about them , only after using gray package ,the sales began. But many successful examples of "into the taboo, do as the Romans do were numerous. For example, the Swiss Nestle company put the ads into Chinese market in 1984, use the psychological of "hospitality" of Chinese as breakthrough to occupy the consumer market, the warm hospitality and decency as a customer-led is dominant.Quote one Chinese official phrase "extreme surprise" to suit the favor of Chinese people. This led to a strong emotional response, eliminate the psychological distance between Chinese and Westerners, develop and occupy China's coffee market effectively.
The national holiday is an important component of national customs and traditions. Each nation has its own traditional method of celebrating festival. For example: China has many important traditional festivals, Spring Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, and Dragon Boat Festival and so on. Different festival has different customs. Chinese festival is like the family reunion in Spring Festival, children wearing new clothes, fire the firecrackers, gift the red envelopes to each other, and say a few lucky phrases to get the fortune. In Dragon Boat Festival, everybody eats Chibaozi and dumplings, Mid-Autumn Festival is one of the festivals that Han ethnic miss his distant relatives; they will eat moon cakes and salty egg, etc. The background music to these ads gives a sense that arouses people's cultural identity and makes people feel friendliness.
3.8 Different aesthetics
Beautiful music, the moving pictures, wonderful words and beautiful image, all above will give pleasure and deep impression to people. Many ads executives understand this very point; they do everything possible to the consumer to create visual and auditory sense of beauty, to enhance the consumer's impression. People in different countries, nationalities, estate and era have different taste standard, this can be reflected in the architecture and style of clothes. In China's feudal society, women with small feet is seems to be beautiful. But the taste standard of modern people is well proportioned. To the different taste standard, the association arousing in people's brain is different. For example, the "cock" and "white elephant" are considered as the gook luck and lovely symbol in China. However, in Western eyes, "white elephant" is considered the "harm than benefit, useless and cumbersome things", and "cock" is the slang meaning of "discharge of abusive words". Another example is the "lotus" which is the symbol of clearness thing in China, but in Japan is not auspicious.
Advertising Language contains a wealth of cultural connotations. Language itself is a carrier of culture; it divorced from the national culture factors, and divorce from the language exercise of national culture factors. Advertising language has profound society property and national culture connotation. We can dredge up special cultural connotation from different national culture's advertising language. The Chinese and Western advertising language features have something in common and also have differences, it should learn from each other and complement each other. English advertisement has some practices; it is worth studying by Chinese advertising workers. Chinese advertising workers must work hard, innovate and make foreign things serve for China. Then, Chinese advertisement could make progress and exceed the level of the world's advertising art. Therefore, in order to increase the attractiveness of advertising and promotion the cultural development. First of all, the western culture essence should be absorbed. Second, traditional culture and modern pop culture should be morally and civilly missed together. Third, it should make the traditional culture adapted to the development of the modern advertising, so to promote international communication. Thus it will make Chinese culture internationalize.
Nowadays, advertisement not only represents the pure commerce, but also it is one new pattern language species which already is accepted by the public. Culture has a significant impact on the production of advertising execution. All successful advertisements were created according local national culture and advertising culture. Chinese and Western cultures have significant diversity, if the advertising producer didn't pay attention to distinguishing different culture features while producing the advertisement, he will be hampered. Therefore, the thesis aims to combine Chinese culture and Western culture. In fact, only in this way, can people from different cultures communicate well so as to make China prosperous.
Culture Differences of Chinese and Western Traditional Festivals Every nation has its own culture. On the soil of culture, there grows its traditional festival. Traditional festival is a very important part of culture. It is not only a way of showing the social life of its people, but also a good way of passing on the culture. Different culture has different traditional festival. With the development of culture interaction, we have got to know lots of western festivals. We even celebrate some of them. While we are celebrating Chinese and western festivals, we can find out some differences between them.
The first difference between Chinese and western traditional festivals are the way of naming the festivals. By observing the names of the festivals, we can easily find out the difference. Chinese festivals were mostly named after the season, while western festivals were more often named after the religious figures or events. As we know, china is a traditional agricultural country. Since weather and season play an important role in agriculture, the traditional festivals, which were originally created for agricultural celebration, were in connection with season. It was easy and helpful for the peasants to remember the festivals named after seasons. Judging from the names, they knew how to deal with their crops at that time. For example, the spring festival is the time to sow the seeds. There are also Mid Autumn Day, Summer solstice and Winter Solstice and so on. Though there are some western festivals named after seasons like Midsummer Day of Finland in history, after the spread of religion, especially Christianity, festivals are mostly named after religion. Unlike china, religion plays a dominating role in western world. Westerners cannot live without religions. God and Jesus Christ are deep ingrained in their mind. It is not startle for us to learn that most of the festivals were named after religions. So, there is Nativity of St. Mary, Christmas, All Saints' Day and Holy Saturday.
When we talk about festival, celebration is an indispensable part. Because of culture differences, the celebration activities of Chinese and western traditional festivals are quite different. As known to all, Chinese Diet has a long history. So, it inevitably became one of the most important factors of festival celebration. One interesting figure is that different festivals have different food and different food carry different wishes of Chinese people. On the spring festival, people have New Year's Cake hoping that family members will get promotion in the coming year, have New Year's Eve Meal wishing the whole family could unite every year. Almost every tradition festival has one special such as glutinous rice dumpling on lantern Festival, Moon cake on Mid Autumn Day. However, western festivals have no fixed menu. They pay more attention to festival gifts, cards and entertainments. According to legend, Santa Clause sends Christmas gifts to children on Christmas Eve. To a certain extent, gifts have become the most important part of Christmas celebration nowadays. Besides, people also give presents to others on other festivals. For instance, on Saint Valentine's Day, people send roses or chocolates to their beloved persons. Entertainment is another essential parts. On festivals, there are a lot of parties and carnivals held by different community. They may go out to the street and dance crazily with strangers. This also reflects that westerners are more open- minded.
Another difference is that people of different countries can accept western festivals more easily than Chinese traditional festivals. One important reason is that western festivals are based on solar calendar, which is world-wide-used, while Chinese traditional festivals are based on lunar calendar, which is used only in China. For this reason, it is hard for people from other countries to follow us. Besides, western culture shows great respect to human rights and pays special attention to individual development. This sense can be found in western festivals. Take Saint Valentine's Day as an example again. It has become a worldwide festival. It is a festival for lovers only. On that day, people can show their love to their beloved persons without hesitation. It is human nature. No matter what nationality he or she is, he or she needs love. So, it can be accepted by the whole word. And it was formed in that certain culture. However, under the atmosphere of feudalism, it was impossible for Chinese to develop such kind of festival at that time as men and women were allowed to touch each other unless they were couples. Since most of the Chinese traditional festivals were developed under the guidance of feudalism, it was difficult for foreign to absorb the ideas.
Though there are a lot of differences between Chinese and western traditional festivals, with the rapid development of communication technology, the overlap of the two cultures is becoming larger and larger. More and more Chinese celebrate western festivals especially Christmas. And westerners are showing interest in Chinese traditional festivals. By the way of culture interaction, Chinese and westerners will know each other more and more better.
Culture between China and the West show the different create ability and create spirit between east and west races, also show the different history characters and special styles of culture between east and west. We can take advantage of comparing the difference culture between the two. The Chinese concept of friendship differs significantly and subtly from that of the West. Due to the predominance of both kinship and kingship, friendship is the last and the least important of the "Five Ethical Modes" in the traditional Chinese culture. On the contrary, friendship is the most important value in Western culture. The Western concept of friendship covers nearly all kinds of human love. The difference between the Chinese and the Western concepts of friendship has a long history and profo..and he Taoist ethics is an unique and important part of the traditional Chinese ethicalsystem.The Taoists emphasized as a premise the limitation of human reason and humanability,and tried to put forward a methodology to solve this problem.?Tao moves tothe opposite direction?is the central theory by which the Taoists solve the problems ofuniverse and life.Proceeded from the Taoist value judgement of highly estimating life,the Taoists expound the ethical ideas of attaining the ideal state of Tao and becominuring the process of building socialist contract culture that is suited to socialistmarket economy, the Chinese traditional culture is both an object to be surmounted anda treasure-house to be made use of. Its structural pattern of?three keylines guidesand five criteria? which was used in building its own system can be used for reference inbuilding the system of our socialist contract culture. This is one of the areas where Chinese and foreigners often face significant conflict; Chinese tend to view foreigners as not respecting past tradition, and loving "change for the sake of change", even if it may not be necessary. Foreigners tend to view Chinese as lacking creativity and proactivity, unable to come up with new ideas, trapped by tradition. Is there a difference? Most definitely! And I'd like to illustrate this with a very simple, basic examination of Chinese language.Let's look at the Chinese words for Past and Future. Past is "yi qian"; Future is "yi hou" (my apologies, my computer doesn't write Chinese characters, so I will use Pinyin). Now, the character for "qian" in "yi qian" is the same as the character for "in front of" -- "qian mian". And the character for "hou" in "yi hou" is the same as the character for "behind" in "hou mian". What does this mean? It means that in traditional Chinese culture, the PAST is "in front of them", and the future is "behind them". To the Western mind, this is almost incomprehensible; even many Chinese have never really thought about it. Allow me to illustrate the difference using an illustration. Picture a river flowing through a field. The "past" is represented by where the river is coming from; the "future" is represented by where the river is flowing towards. In the middle of this field sit two men, sitting back-to-back. One is looking towards where the river comes from; the other looks towards where the river is going.
The first man -- representing Chinese culture -- can see where the river is coming from; he looks at the past. He can see all the things that have happened, and makes his decisions based on past events. To him, past events are an indication of what will happen now; making decisions without being aware of what has happened in the past is foolish. But the future is behind him; he cannot see it, he cannot predict it. For him, he must simply wait and see what happens, and then react appropriately, based on his knowledge of past events.
The second man -- representing Western culture -- can see where the river is going. He tries to anticipate what is coming in the future, and to take appropriate actions now. He believes that he can control his future by making the right decisions now. For him, the past is behind him; he knows it is there, but it is not important, because he cannot change it or control it...it has already happened. For him, the future is more exciting and interesting. Now, I know that not all Chinese (or all Westerners) are like this; especially younger Chinese. Please don't write just to say, "I'm not like that". But in a professional environment, when foreigners and Chinese are working together, these perspectives often cause problems. How to handle this? Well, first of course, is to understand the different perspectives, and how they affect the people involved. Second, try to avoid negative stereotypes; rather, recognize the strengths that each side shows. Ultimately, I personally think that a COMBINATION of both perspectives is best. There are many valuable lessons that can be learned from the past, that can help us now; and there is great value in trying to anticipate and control one's future.
The moral sense of authority in Chinese traditional culture has always influenced people's thought and life. Although the slogan of democracy and equality has been put forward for a long time, in today's real life, the conflicts between the traditional sense of authority and the sense of equal rights in western countries make young generation fall into the awkward position. The phenomenon of superior and inferior still exists in the relationship between man and woman, parents and children, teachers and students. However young generation is being affected by the sense of equal rights of the west, it provides some developing clues for their future. The differences of the sense between China and the west left them enough space to think.
There are many cultural differences between China and the west. One of the differences is the problem of morality. The doctrine of Confucius and Mencius represents the traditional morals of China. Male superiority, Three Main Principles and the dignity of the teaching profession are all the ideologies of the doctrine. However, the sense of equal rights, democracy, liberty is always advocated by western countries. These new senses have gradually entered into China as the development of society. Thus it is unavoidable that two different kinds of senses conflict with each other. And these conflicts of morals between China and the west make young generation fall into some difficult positions. The article will elaborate the question from two major aspects. The first aspect is the sense of authority in Chinese traditional culture; the second aspect is the sense of equal rights in western culture, and this article will be carried on from three angles separately: the sexual relations, the relations between parents and children as well as the relations between teachers and students. At present there is not too much research on the topic of superiors and inferiors and equal rights at home and abroad, and the research which could be used is quite scattered, therefore the methods of contrasting and giving examples will be adopted to simplify the proof process, and enable everybody to have a clear train of thought. Although China and the west respectively have its fit and unfit quality in the two aspects of high and low and equal, the article puts its emphasis on the different performances of Chinese high and low idea in the social life and carries on the description of the thought of equal in the west as one side. Through two different ideas and their performances, people will know that there are some problems in Chinese traditional morals and the reasons for the moral differences. This paper will help Chinese people understand the difficult positions of morals and make them obtain some enlightenment.
The Chinese traditional morals produced in the pre-Qin period, in the long process of history of several thousand years, it is affecting people's thought and life throughout. The authority makes the idea also seep along with it to society's aspects. Confucianism as the representative Confucian thought is precisely the root in which this idea can exist and develop. The treatment of women as inferiors, the precedence maintained between seniors and juniors and the teacher said the dignity are all the main performances of this idea. Regardless of any type of authorities, its characteristics could be summarized as observing custom strictly, obey the authority without criticize, trust destiny and so on. Because of the restraint of authority, many inferior phenomena appeared in the relations between human and human
The culture is created by human, a special existing way of human, is a human common wealth. But the human's existents and development differ from regions and races. Nation and race, as a result the culture presents various styles again and each a culture contains special features. The culture between China and the West are created of China and the West race under the different humanities and the ecosystem environment term, having different special features each. Chinese traditional culture, be broad and deep with long standing history, a social ethics culture for center involve the humanities nature, have restrained system as well as small words but rich meaning, limpid style and easily understood though sometimes it just can be understood than to be explained. Western culture are diversity and separable?radical ness and opening?constantly changing;Religious belief and science reasonableness for center include abundant of humanities spirit; a quirky twist but the thread can be look for, having the nobility gentlemanly deportment with expansion and aggression.