Amputation in poem is actually a metaphor of the doom on Dacca gauzes. Furthermore it also represents the similar fate of all rare art works. The author in the dark represents the young in modern society and his grandmother in the open is representative of people in old days
Amputation is to weavers what the agony of missing the old things is to grandmother, which is like the air saturated with sorrow and pain.
The old, with the high tempo of modern life, are not ready for getting used to the ever-changing society. Not only art works are turning to new forms and having a variety of styles in which modern elements can be found, but things except art are also changing totally. So the elderly prefer living in their memories –grief yet full of graceful and sadness added with sweet.
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In the poem grandmother’s saying — “No one knows what it was to wear or touch that cloth” — just tell readers how lonely she was. No one could understand why she treasured those transparent Dacca gauzes in the bottom of her heart so much. And the young seldom accurately estimated the value of those invaluable art works. So grandmother had to put down her words such as “heirloom sari” and “genuine”.
“Years later” when “heirloom sari” tore, nieces and daughters-in-law inherited all those beautiful handkerchiefs made from the torn Dacca gauzes. How excited these successors should have been at the time they received heirlooms.
Never. Those handkerchiefs “too now lost”.
As for the young, amputation is a metaphor of a fair way for them to success the treasure from their ancestors and also it is a lively symbol of their attitude towards these old precious treasures. Especially when we refer to various forms of art which are loved by people in different age groups, we can easily find that there is a totally difference among their preference. The young, looking for pleasure, indulge themselves in the moment of blink while the old, searching for old feelings, enjoy the perpetuity of delicacy and beauty.
So the old learned to face the increasingly changing reality towards everything despite their difficulty in getting used to it while the young pursuit new things which belong to the modern world even though they get ready to hear what their grandparents say about the past.
Finally a picturesque setting of the due-starched morning once again is providing to us. Grandmother has been pulling the muslins through her wing.
Literary studies â…¡
The story of Williamson’s mysterious disappearance made by Ambrose Bierce known for his satirical lexicon tells the issues of American society in pre-Civil War. That is people’s inward fear under the disoriented society with the unbalance between rigorous yet imperfect law system and seemingly harmonious yet cold social order.
People, on their own stand, reacted in various ways when they are witnessing the disappearance of William. And the court must to make sure that whether Mr. William was gone before his estate was distributed according to law.
The characters all forgot to tell something and the mystery of disappearance remained, from which the metaphor is the disappearing memory of the slavery in the endless American history.
In a nut shell, the truism about the relation between law and social order is that there is a functional gap between them despite they never isolated from each other. As a tool used to serve regime, the ruling class rely on it to keep the social order well within a certain scope. However law only compensates for the darkness of a society as it is drafted by men who were hampered by the culture of their time.
What metonymy is that figure of speech in which a word or expression normally or strictly used of one thing is used of something physically or otherwise associated with it. And from the book “Metaphors We Live By” written by Lakoff and Johnson in 1980 we can learn that metonymy is a cognitive process which involves conceptual mapping and reference point phenomena.
The expansion meaning of the word “log” is to meet the cognitive need when people develop vocabulary system. At first the word “log” was used as a noun to describe a bulky mass of wood. When we use a semantic triangle  to explain this, it is easy for us to understand the changes of the meaning and usage of this word.
 Semantic triangle
From the original concept of log we firstly refer to the symbol of something natural or raw. As a result, things such as “an unhewn portion of a felled tree” and “firewood” were related with that symbol. In 1574 an apparatus used as an indicator of the rate of ship’s motion was called “log” because the apparatus was of a thin quadrant of wood which had some similar qualities of “firewood”. To expand the meaning from indicator to measurement unit, the concept “of a vessel” occurred in the year 1883.
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Then the word “log-board” occurred as it was also related to a ship’s log. Continually the meaning expanded to “journal” as it was the content of “log-board”. At last “log” represented any progress or performance of something in the order considered logically right as “log” had ever had the meaning of an apparatus for ascertaining the rate of a ship’s motion.
Except all talked above, there is another kind of change which commonly occur in metonymy. That is change in part of speech which is considered as grammatical metonymy. We can see that the word “log” can use as a verb when people want to express the meaning such as opening or terminating a time-shared system such as database or email on computer.
The topic of this essay is as follows: Education in America has its unique purpose for serving the American social system not for others, so it is totally successful within the U.S. community.
It is never too late to reach a conclusion and take action before we are clear about the accurate definition of the success of education. So please give a second thought when this topic about the success of American education runs into your eyes, neither becoming so elated with cheers and applauses nor coming into immediate searing criticism with anger and frown on your face. The author argued in this article that on one hand philosophers, scientists and engineers are produced in the U.S. education system. On the other hand it also turns the other large group of people into the superficial, the ones pursing dazzling things in the torrent of fashion, the eye-blinded who are vulnerable to manipulation and the idiots at the annual peak of shopping mania, which are all required in the money-oriented capitalism economies.
Social-cultural sensitivity and cross-cultural awareness are required for translator especially when they do some translation of advertisement. What information a company wants to tell consumers in foreign markets can easily be distorted by mistranslation. So I will translate that slogan as follow:
TT1 is a direct translation of the Source Text. However TT2 is not because it is translated with more considering about the culture of target reader. As a saying in china, the sentence in TT2 is easier for Chinese to understand and “smoke” in the ST must be translated into “wind” and “fire” should also be translated into “white water” as this is a kind of faithfulness in Chinese culture. When we do translation, we should develop our awareness of the dialectic relationship between Chinese and English
Translation is a loyal recurrence of the beauty of the origins when we translate the art works and we should pay more attention to the effectiveness of the translated words and sentences especially when we do translation of the writings except for literary work.
An ideal translator should be a person who is both loyal to the original and is palatable to its target audience. However this is difficult sometimes especially when we translate works written in the years far from now or when we meet the cultural difference among different language systems. So keeping the balance between faithfulness in the text sources and service for target readers are the core issues concerning translation studies.
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