Water accessibility is more significant in present days .U.N i.e.[united nation ] estimate it will take nearly further than $90 billion in order to meet the current world deficits for clean water alone in 1980's 'Decade for water' moving forward in 1990's it was clear that even with huge amount of money needs of water of tens of millions of citizens will not be meet by the end of Decade . although problems in delivering water has identified for so many years . reasonable and easiest way is to divert rainfall i.e. water due to rain by a gravity flow structure to the required site this process is not available in the world at least not on a regular or request basis . which is not achievable . General process for many years .manual pumping is been used even though this pump need regular maintenance and it should be attended. Their use is crucial to supply water. Throughout the world particularly for human consumption . This process is been selected by the U.N as the primary process in order to improve the supply of water. Pumping water from deep wells or moving water in large volume is not done very effectively by hand pump. It requires the use of mechanical powered pump .which is powered by engines or electric motor .powered engine systems are supplying water to big communities all over the world. Infrastructure of these big communities can supply fuel and maintenance required by the engine. Solar powered system or process is also available in large amount in the world. Which is powered by P.V i.e.[photovoltaic ] array or by wind generators . Photovoltaic system has established high reliability and lesser price as compare to another method in a huge ground of application.
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This report is about photovoltaic power pumping system in which it includes its installation including its simplicity of procurement and the required maintenance. Which explain about their rising reputation it is useful for intermediate application for agriculture requirement and in small villages. This report gives a methodology in choosing the finest system design for a particular purpose regularly a mixture of techniques can significantly reduce price and advance the dependability of a pumping system or make available of a flexible design in order to face a large range of application.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SOLAR POWER
- The use of photovoltaic in solar systems accounts for long life expectancy
of the system (more than 20 years).
- Solar facilities operated with little maintenance or intervention after initial
- Solar power is pollution free.
- Solar electric generation is economically competitive where grid connection
or fuel transportation is difficult, costly or impossible e.g satellites, remote
locations, ocean vessels etc.
- P.V cells produce d.c which must be converted to A.C before using with
- To get enough energy for applications, a larger number of P.V cells are
needed. This increases the cost.
- Solar cells are expensive, and require a large initial capital when
Two typical ways of using solar water pump are as follow:
Using a battery by charging it with solar photovoltaic panel and with the help of that pump running the pump.
Direct connecting between pump and the solar photovoltaic panel.
Both this method also have their drawbacks which are as follow:
Making use of batteries by charging it by solar pump and than using it to run the pump that mean we have to use two batteries while one is running at that time other one will be charging which makes it more costly.
If we are connecting solar panel directly to the pump than the water will be pump only during the sun glowing.
The aim of this study work is to construct a solar based DC water pump which would be used in rural and isolated zones. There are ample amount of villages and towns who do not have the privilege of possessing electric current supplies in their respective areas. By taking a look at the current scenario of our present economic choric. The solar water pumping system would be a benefited boon to the people. It not only saves the electricity but also in turn saves the wealth i.e. the capital. It is only easily available in the market but can be constructed as well.
The development of the human kind has derived n number of methods of developing a water pump. The different sources of power used by people as a form of energy are as follow:
Human energy [man power].
Animal power [cows, ox to pull out water].
Hydro power [at water dames and water bund].
Wind power [solar water heater, solar cooker, etc].
Fuels such as diesel for small generator.
The most common pumps used in the rural and isolated communities are hand pumps, borehole pump which are driven by fuel such as diesel, electric submersible pumps which are run by diesel generator last but not the least solar pump
Following are the different types of pumps with their advantages and disadvantages
Can be easily manufactured locally
Less capital cost
Fuel cost zero
Trouncing of human efficiency
Repeated and unproductive use of borehole
Flow rates are minimal
Prevailing than humans
Subordinate remuneration than human power
Dung used as cooking fuel
Constant food requirement to be met for animal
Regularly abstracted to other actions at critical irrigation periods
No supervision required
Fuel cost zero
Effortless to preserve
Involve precise location settings
No fuel required
Easily manufactured locally
No supervision required
Effortless to preserve
Water has to be stored due to the scarcity of wind
High project planning and system design needed
Difficult to install
Zero fuel cost
Long life [20 years approx]
Easily manufacture locally
Can be easily installed
No supervision required
Water has to be cloudy stored for cloudy period
Often undergoes repairing [skilled technicians required]
Diesel & gasoline pump
Minimal capital cost
It is portable
Fuel is expansive
Result in noise & fume pollution
Aim: Is to construct a solar water pump constituting P.V array .which would convert solar energy in to electrical energy as direct current [DC].
Application of solar water pumps:
Water supply for rural and isolated areas.
Village and water supply is very dominating. Though there is a very high demand of water storage for the period of low solar radiation during rainy season this demands can be met by rain water harvesting .the main application of solar water pumping are for livestock watering mainly in the U.S and Australia .village water system and livestock watering are used in Africa where as solar water pumping for irrigation are mainly used in countries like India and china where expositor of sun are very good.
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P.V pumps constituents of the following components the P.V array converts solar energy directly in to electricity as direct current [DC] .the pump is driven by an electric motor. All the different characteristic of these components ought to be matched to get the efficient result the pump motor unit has its own optimum speed and load depending on the type and the size of the pump.
Two types of motor is being able to use such as DC motor or the AC motor .inverter is required if we are using AC motor .which exist more broadly .inverter's have become low cost and are well organized. Electronic controller frequency -variable inverter is used mainly in solar pumping system. By which panel and the pump linking can be optimise in order to maintain and due to the method or the system is fewer proficient batteries are also required for a usual AC motor system .
The permanent magnet motor is generally proficient for a DC motor and CD motors might contain carbon brushes .when the brushed DC motor is being made into use than in order to change brushes [roughly around every two years] equipment required to pull out of the well. design without brushes are present in which as a replacement for commentators along with brushes electric circuits is use. The design without brush of DC motors needed electronic commutation which is being well liked in solar pumping system.
Presently are few type of different pump are in the bazaar which include.
Piston pump: in this pump before the output piston movement of the pump draw water in a assembly room i.e.[compartment].
Thread screw pump: in this pump water capsule is focused next to the screw in axial way. Starting from the opening to the way out for example [cavity progressive pump, rotor helical pump, and mono pump].
Centrifugal pump: in this pump impeller drive water for the exit with high revolving pace more or less near the border of the pump. In the middle of impeller situates an inlet from where the water is drawn.
Following are the system configuration and the pumps option:
Positive displacement helical pumps:
Similar specs of water relief head as well as volume pressure positive displacement helical pump contains most excellent effectiveness with the least P.V panel. Their rotational speed is short. Inside a rubber covering a metallic helical rotor rotate .which is fit designed for greater head .during cloudy season mono solar pump is time consuming but due to its lowest speed water flow is continues not like centrifugal pump.
Submerged pump with motor mounted on the surface:
Benefit for this type of pump is
Motor maintenance can be easily accessible
Power victims ( losses) is shortly effected in shaft bearings
Installation prise of the pump is high which is its disadvantage for which it is mostly replaced by submersible pump set as well as the motor
Floating pump set motor:
Due to its flexibility of floating .it is perfectly used in irrigation purpose of pumping water from canals as well as the well it is easily movable and there is a minor possibility of the pump operating dry. Majority of this pump sets apply solo step submerged centrifugal pump. Majority of this type contain DC motor without brush frequently with solar array hold. Like wheel barrow or handle. Like troll to permit transport
SURFACE SUCTION PUMPS:
Surface suction pumps set is moreover appropriate in short head application because of its export system. It requires presence of operator for the purpose of its security as well as its maintanence.
In order to have additional than 8 suction head is not possible . fever ordinary solar power pumps along with PV motorized reciprocating piston pumps or thermo phones as thermal solar pump are present which are not used commercially.
Pump with electronic load controller can be flooded with load controller above the earth or surface. It can be easily installed with lay flat pipe work and motor pump is positioned if flooded away from potential harm.
MULTISTAGE CENTRIFUGAL PUMP:
It can be switched on at low torque. With no electronic controller can be synchronized with the solar array it is not well organised as positive dislocation pumps with low cost electronic load controllers useful for short heads.
Selection of the pump:
Photovoltaic pumps contain their influence rate as well as flow rate in order to design a P.V pump structure .following are the most important factors.
Current voltage requirement of the pump.
Tallness of the storage reservoir i.e.[tank] as well as the deepness of the water resource.
Mechanical job completed via the pump.
Required flow rate.
Price of the structure.
The following are the points that are measured for additional complicated design:
Tube i.e.[pipe line] force allowness.
Temperature of the water.
Heat as well as electric loss.
Quality of the pump.
The above points are not always needed in order to design complicated P.V pumps. It is required to realize the principal of water pumping.
Following equation is used in order to verify flow rate conversion.
p[ /h] = meter cub per hour.
[ /d] = meter cub per day.
Standard equal hour of solar power i.e.[sun energy] received for each day is equal to the peak sun hours which vary according to the site and the time of year.
( /m), ( /m), (l/m), ( /s) this are the other unite which are used to measure flow rate of pump structure .
Usg/m = U.S gallon per minute.
Lg/m = imperial gallon per minute.
L/m = litre per minute.
Kg/s = kilogram per second.
Understanding the principle of photovoltaic process:
The working principal of photovoltaic irrigation system is quite straight forward. A photovoltaic array is the source of electricity for driving a surface motor pump. Which basically pumps out water from well reservoir into a accumulating basin. The P.V array contain 20 modules and each v trough module [ 50 watt peak] is made up of 36 square single silicon solar cells the pumping subsystem constitute of an MPPT [maximum power point tracker] and a motor pump. The components of motor pump are DC motor [746 watt] unswervingly attached to a surface centrifugal pump.
Photovoltaic pumping system efficiencies:
Total efficiency of photovoltaic pumping system is defined as the product of efficiencies of the P.V array & the pumping sub system .
= P.V efficiency
It is the ratio between operating electrical power and the incident radiation on the tilted surface of a photovoltaic module.
= operating electrical power of the system [w]
G = global radiance on P.V array [w/ ]
M = no of modules is parallel in P.V array
= pumping sub system efficiency
is defined as the ratio between the output hydraulic power required for lifting a volume of water and the input electrical power of subsystem.
Q = water flow rate
[m] = total dynamic head
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