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Prototype of 3D Cadaster Polygonal Model

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Abhijit Gujar

 

Table of Contents

1.Introduction

1.1.Background and Justification

1.2.Literature review

1.2.1.Review on concept though and ideas

1.2.2.Review on approaches

1.3.Research problem

1.4.Research objective

1.4.1.General objective

1.4.2.Specific objective

1.5.Research questions

1.6.Research limitations

2.Research design and methods

2.1.Study area

2.2.Data

2.3.Software and hardware requirement

2.4.Research design matrix

3.Framework

3.1.Research framework

3.2.Thesis framework

3.3.Work plan framework

4.Reference

1. Introduction

1.1. Background and Justification

Urbanization is an inevitable part of the economic development process for any country and is considered a global phenomenon (Rigg et al., 2009) . However, it is only in recent years that the rate of urbanization has begun to accelerate. More than half of the world population is dwelling in urban area. Urbanization is one of the inevitable phenomenon right now, as the result of this there is need and growth of high rise buildings which are having many types of uses and new types of shared ownership and also underground infrastructure such as sewage, train tunnels (subway), electrical and communication network is becoming dense and complex more over multi-use of land parcel creates new problems and challenges. (Jazayeri, Rajabifard, & Kalantari, 2014)

Traditionally the land parcel information which includes geometric, visual and legal data is managed in 2D. It is difficult in 2D map to make simple operation such as volume of space, cannot perform various spatial analysis that is necessary in various other field of urban planning as the data is in 2D. 3D visualization for dissemination is very difficult using just the 2D data in cadaster system (Mohamed & Anders, 2012). This is where the 3D cadaster comes into light.endi

One of the biggest hurdle in developing the 3D cadaster is the creating the 3D building geometry representation that are suitable for 3D cadaster. Although there are CAD model available that represent the 3D blue print of the building, the real on ground situation can be different then what is on the CAD model so it is necessary to calculate the 3D measurements of actual built building. I want to research how we can create a 3D model that is suitable for 3D cadaster, one of the possible methods can be using laser scanning data. Laser scanning data has very high accuracy which is suitable for land administration needs. AHN -2 (Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland) is the project in Netherlands that aims to collect high resolution laser data of entire country (van der Sande, Soudarissanane, & Khoshelham, 2010).

Although AHN-2 data is accurate the point density is not enough to be able to convert it into a polygonal geometry model as the AHN-2 is taken from high altitude it covers the roof of buildings adequately but the facades of the building generally have less point density which results in anomalies. The proposed solution to take multiple images of the building from all the sides (facades) to construct a point cloud of that building, the minimum number of images required will be analyzed using techniques discussed in (Alsadik, B., Gerke, M., Vosselman, G., Daham, A., & Jasim, L. ,2014), then register this point cloud with the AHN-2 point cloud then this point cloud is used to generate 3D model

1.2. Literature review

This section talks about the concepts, ideas that are discussed throughout this proposal.

Cadaster: Urbanization is a process by which town cities are slowly transformed from rural form to urban form

3D cadaster: Cadaster registers real status of real estate objects until now the spatial information use to register the legal status of land in two dimensional systems that is a parcel is defined by 2D juridical boundaries. 3D cadaster

What is a 3D Model

A 3D Model is a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object (real or imagined) in a 3D software environment. Unlike a 2D image, 3D models can be viewed in specialized software suites from any angle, and can be scaled, rotated, or freely modified. The process of creating and shaping a 3D model is known as 3d modeling

Laser scanning Laser scanning is technique of controlled deflection of laser beam visible or invisible to capture the information of target in 3D from airborne or terrestrial platform. Airborne laser scanning is carried out from aircraft while terrestrial laser scanning can be done from a stationary or moving platform.

Point cloud: point cloud is a set of 3D points in the same coordinate system. Often intended to represent a external surface of an object. Point cloud file is just the set of numbers representing X, Y, Z in coordinate system.

Point cloud registration: Point cloud registration is a process of merging 2 separate point cloud having different origin and into one .

Stratified sampling method: Stratified is probability sampling technique in which the researcher divides the entire population into different groups and then sample is collected from equally from each group. So that the selected sample can represent the population well.

1.3. Problem statement

In past recent years there has been a lot of development in 3D. Netherlands is actively promoting for participation of over 65 private, public and scientific organizations to promote the use of 3D information covering issues such as acquisition, standardization, storage and use (Elberink, Stoter, Ledoux, & Commandeur, 2013). Although there are many paper that suggest different methods to extract building from point cloud I want to look into alternative way of designing a 3D model of building by combining two point cloud from different sources.

1.4. Motivation

1.5. Research objective

Research objectives are divided into general objective and specific objective. General objective is overall goal of research and specific objective are the objectives that are needed to complete general objective.

1.5.1. General objective

To develop and test a prototype of 3D cadaster Polygonal model of building by combing the AHN-2 data with point cloud created by multiple high quality images of the building from all the facades.

1.5.2. Specific objective

  1. To formalize a benchmark for constructing a prototype 3D modelof buildingsatisfying the requirement for 3D cadaster.
  2. To create a prototype 3D model of a building using the benchmark.
  3. To evaluate applicability of developed 3D model based on developed benchmark.

1.6. Research questions

Specific objective 1: To formalize a benchmark for constructing a prototype 3D model of building satisfying the requirement for 3D cadaster.

  • What are important feature, constrain and requirement to construct a 3D model of a building for 3D cadaster?
  • What are the criteria of sampling buildings (e.g - height, type, length, width, building complexity of structure)

Specific objective 2: To create a prototype 3D model of a building using thebenchmark.

  • Which image processing techniques are better for 3D cadaster?
  • Which is appropriate 3D model for 3D cadaster? And why? (wireframe , surface or solid)

Specific objective 3: To evaluate applicability of developed 3D model based ondeveloped benchmark.

  • What is the strength and weakness of derived 3D model? What are the reasons of strength and weakness?
  • How can we access the accuracy (X,Y) of the 3D model using the existing 2D cadastral database?
  • How can we access the accuracy (Z) of the 3D model using the CAD model?
  • What are the possible recommendations to improve developed method?

1.7. Research limitations

The current research limits extracting the model of building from the exterior of the building and does not covers the interior design and structure of the building.

2. Research design and methods

In this section briefly describes the how the research will attempt to accomplish the formulated research questions. It includes the description of study area, people, data requirement, software to be used, proposed workflow/methodology.

2.1. Study area

Study area for this project is Enschede. Results from the specific objective one will be used to select sample building of different type, height, volume so that it can represent the building population well.

2.2. Data

Data description

Data use

Data source

     

Airborne laser data for study area

To create model

PDOK

Images of building taken from all the sides

For Image base modeling

field work

CAD model of the building

To assess accuracy (z) of developed model

Cadaster, Netherlands.

2D Cadastral data of the selected buildings

To assess accuracy (x,y) of developed model

Cadaster, Netherlands.

2.3. Software and hardware requirement

Software / Hardware

Use/ application

PCM

Point cloud segmentation, manipulation and visual interpretation

ImageModeler

To convert point cloud to 3D model

Matlab

Coordinate system transformation

3DF Samantha

 

AutoCAD

CAD model analysis

Endnote

Reference management

Microsoft Word

Thesis preparation

Professional camera

To capture building images

2.4. Research design matrix

Research Sub-Objective

Research Question

Research Method

Required input data

Anticipated Output

To determine important factors for constructing 3D model ofbuilding satisfying the requirement for 3D cadaster.

What are important feature, constrain and requirement to construct a 3D model of a building for 3D cadaster?

Literature review,

expert consultation,

Case study, previous research papers,

Case study, Literature, research paper, sample data from cadaster.

List of important characteristics/functions/ features.

In order to select the buildings for modeling, what are the parameters of sampling (selection)?

Stratified sampling method

Building type database

Selection of types of building to study for modeling

To create a prototype 3D model of a building.

How can we create a point cloud from the images of building?

Literature review,

expert consultation, Case study, previous research papers

High quality images of the building from all facades.

Point cloud data

How can we filter unwanted data (noise) from both of the point cloud?

Literature review,

expert consultation, Case study, previous research papers

Two point cloud from previous objective

Noise free point cloud

How can we create a 3D model of building from point cloud?

Literature review,

expert consultation, Case study, previous research papers

Noise free point cloud

3D model of a building

To evaluate applicability of developed 3D model in context of 3D cadaster standards derived from objective one.

What is the strength and weakness of derived 3D model? What are the reasons of strength and weakness?

Comparison with the result derived from first objective. Visual and statistical analysis.

Output from the first objective. Output from second objective.

A summarizing list of strength and weakness of the derived output, discussion, conclusion and recommendation.

How can we access the accuracy (X,Y) of the 3D model using the existing 2D Kadastral database?

Output from second objective. Database for that specific building from Kadaster

Table of accuracy analysis.

How can we access the accuracy (Z) of the 3D model using the CAD model?

Output from second objective. CAD model of same building

3. Framework

Framework is structure to organize concepts or steps of the research process for better communication with intended readers.

3.1. Research framework

Research framework will depict the overall structure and sequence of the major activities, task within each activity are of equal importance and cannot be skipped.

Figure 2: Research Framework

3.2. Thesis framework

Thesis framework describes and introduces the chapters that will be included in the main thesis.

  • Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter one offers the justification background of research it also discusses the research problem, research objective, research questions, any previous work done related to this research

  • Chapter 2: Literature Review and concepts

Chapter two will go more deep into the concepts and the terms their meaning.Various terminology used in research.

  • Chapter 3: 3D Cadaster

In this chapter we will talk about what is 3D cadaster? Why it is useful? Which countries are implementing/ implemented 3D cadaster? How these countries have implemented it?

  • Chapter 6: Field work

This chapter discuses about the pre field work and field work .

  • Chapter 5: Source of 3D data

In this chapter we will discuss about the various sources of the 3d data that are available in Netherlands. We will compare the advantages and disadvantages of each one.

  • Chapter 6: Technique of modeling

In this chapter we will discuss about the various methods, procedure, software’s, algorithms related to 3D modeling.

  • Chapter 7: Accuracy assessment

In this chapter we will discuss technique and method of analysis and comparison of the derived model with the benchmark that we obtained from the first objective of research.

  • Chapter 8: Prototype

In this chapter we will display the obtained results and then will discuss the finding of the prototype.

  • Chapter 9: Conclusion and Recommendation

This chapter consists of the conclusion derived from the results and recommendation for further improvement.

3.3. Work plan framework

Work plan framework depicts the activity and time allocated for each activity.

Table 1: Work Plan

4. Reference

Elberink, S. O., Stoter, J., Ledoux, H., & Commandeur, T. (2013). Generation and Dissemination of a National Virtual 3D City and Landscape Model for the Netherlands. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 79(2), 147-158.

Jazayeri, I., Rajabifard, A., & Kalantari, M. (2014). A geometric and semantic evaluation of 3D data sourcing methods for land and property information. Land Use Policy, 36(0), 219-230. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.08.004

Mohamed, E.-M., & Anders, Ö. (2012). Feasibility of Building Information Models for 3D Cadastre in Unified City Models. International Journal of E-Planning Research (IJEPR), 1(4), 35-58. doi: 10.4018/ijepr.2012100103

van der Sande, C., Soudarissanane, S., & Khoshelham, K. (2010). Assessment of Relative Accuracy of AHN-2 Laser Scanning Data Using Planar Features. Sensors, 10(9), 8198-8214. doi: 10.3390/s100908198

Rigg, J., Bebbington, A., Gough, K. V, Bryceson, D. F., Agergaard, J., Fold, N., & Tacoli, C. (2009). The World Development Report 2009 “reshapes economic geography”: geographical reflections. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 34(2), 128–136. doi:10.1111/j.1475-5661.2009.00340.x

FACULTY OF GEO-INFORMATION SCIENCE AND EARTH OBSERVATION – UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE


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