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Programmable Logic Controller for Bottle Filling Machine

4752 words (19 pages) Essay in Engineering

18/05/20 Engineering Reference this

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  1. INTRODUCTION AND PROJECT BACKGROUND:-

This task is to design, develop and reveal Automatic bottle filling device the usage of PLC”. This work gives with a lot of advantages like low energy consumption, low operational cost, much less maintenance, accuracy and many more. This project is based on Industrial automation and is a vast application used in many industries like milk industries, chemical, food, mineral water and many industrial manufacturers. A Software prototype has been developed to illustrate the project. Filling is the undertaking that is carried out by a computing device and this system is extensively used in many industries. In this software simulation project, the filling of the bottle is controlled by the use of a controller regarded as PLC which is additionally which is the heart of the whole system. For the conveyor system, a dc motor has been chosen for higher performance and ease of operation. A sensor has been used to realize the position of the bottle. In our software machine simulation we have used less number of device for this reason the general fee has been reduced to an extent. Ladder logic has been used for the programming of the PLC, which is the most broadly used and accepted language for the programming of the PLC.

The system introduced by a group of researchers is an experimental study which helps in controlling the characteristics and ON/OFF conditions of a control solenoid valve. A graphical user Interface has been industrialized using supervisory control and statistics acquisition and the software design of the control system has remained done using programmable logic control (PLC). A descriptive study has been combined in this paper to formulize all factors responsible for the change in valve characteristics. This system gives a clear idea about the opening and closing of three types of valves which may be present as per its requirement in an industry. The user of the system is able to supply input parameters so as to professionally control the valve. The scheme is highly efficient and cost effective, as only one interfaced digital system along with a PLC can regulator many following valves. (Das, 2018)

2. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND PROJECT OBJECTIVES:-  

The objective of this project is PLC primarily based bottle filling machine with the help of Programmable Logic Controller. Scope of the goal is Automation is an idea that has emerge as a keyword in the industry today. A product that is fairly dependable first-rate yet price nice only offerings in the competitive today. This can be performed effectively solely by using a desirable automotive system. Automation is essential for elevated productivity and expanded first-rate reduction technique inventory increased safety of working private etc. Existing traits in manipulate automation consists of the conventional relay common sense planes pc based controls as in direct numerical and computer controls transfer machines etc. The trendy style in logic manage is the Programmable logic controller. This project is very beneficial to many industries applications the place the bottle, water bottles, or any variety of tumblers needs to get filled.

  1. METHODOLOGY

HARDWARE SPECIFICATION

TANK – The feature of the water tank is to keep the water which is to be stuffed in the water
Bottle by means of solenoid valve on every occasion required. The water tank includes a flow
Change which is usually used to decide the level of water and whenever the water level in the
Tank falls it is restored by means of the water stored into the reservoir with the help of the pump
Through a slender pipe which is two connected with the tank.
Photoelectric sensor – Operating voltage is 6 — 36 VDC and its output present day is 300 mA. Its response frequency is 0.5 kHz. Its output is n — p — n 3 wire (Black, Blue and Brown). It is made of brass or plastic.

In this project, it is used to experience the position of the bottles. A spherical fashioned sensor
Is used which can detect opaque, transparent or any other kinds of objects. In this case it is
Detecting exclusive plastic bottles. The sensor used here is a diffused reflective kind sensor. The range of sensing the objects are one hundred mm. (automatic bottlefilling machine, 2015)

DC geared motor (for conveyor belt) – The DC motor used is a DC geared type motor whose shaft is
Interconnected with the shaft of the roller. This motor has an input voltage of 12v with an enter
Modern-day 600mA to 14A. It’s no load velocity is 50 RPM. The cause for deciding on this motor
Is to gain excessive torque at a constant speed. It has a torque of 70kgcm which provides
Enough amount of torque for our load. The motor comes with a metal gearbox and
Headquartered shaft. Shaft is loaded with bearing for put on resistance. The reason for deciding
On such an excessive torque is having such heavy rollers used on either facet of the hardware
Which is installed with a conveyor belt. (automatic bottlefilling machine, 2015)

Conveyor belt – conveyor belt is long loop rubber or plastic or any kind of belt shapped material, which is used to transfer the jar, water bottles or any kind of tumbler which so ever is used in the
Industrial application. (automatic bottlefilling machine, 2015)

FLOW CHART –

Figure 1 flow chart of the system  (Ameer L. Saleh, 2017)

In this figure the flow chart of the system is shown, from the first ‘start button’ till last. We can easily understand the whole process of the system by this flowchart.

 

 

 

 

BLOCK DIAGRAM:-

Figure 2 block diagram of the system. (Ameer L. Saleh, 2017)

Schematic diagram

Figure 3 Schematic diagram of my project (automatic bottle filling system using PLC, 2018)

Here this is the schematic diagram of the project ‘’Automatic Water  Filling By PLC’’ as we are now developing the software program only.  I have developed the system in machine simulator however I also developed the packing facility into this system to get some more identification.

 

Working -  The water filling  machine  starts  when the push button switch  is pressed  and  this  caused  working  the  DC  motor hence the conveyor belt is moving.  The bottles move on the conveyor  belt  until  the  first  bottle  reaches  under  the solenoid valve where the laser is cut by the bottle, hence the photoelectric sensor is sensing the bottle and gives a control signal  to  the  PLC  through.  This leads to stopping the DC motor and hence the conveyer belt stops and the solenoid valve operate & the bottle starts filling the water  using timer in PLC to time the process. When the bottle is filled fully filled with water , the solenoid valve will be closed & the conveyor will start. And again another bottle will come in front of the photocell and it will detect the bottle and sends command to the water  fill robot and then timer will start till the bottle fills, the process will be repeated again and again. The block diagram, flow chart and the schematic diagram will show the working clearly. Afterwards, the bottle/jar will go to end of the conveyor belt and over there photocell will detect the bottle over there and sends command to the work part-box. And then box will come and another photocell will sense the box that box has come to the point where we need to pack the jar into the box and after packing of the jars the box will go towards work part transporters. 

Theoretical methodology –
At first, the auto decision swap is chosen so that the whole machine operates automatically. Then the Auto start push button (toggle swap is used here) is chosen and the motor starts and the conveyor belt begins moving. The DC motor used is a DC geared kind motor whose shaft is coupled with the shaft of the roller. This motor has an input voltage of 12v with an input contemporary of 600mA to 14A.The motive for deciding on this motor is to acquire a high beginning torque at a regular speed. It has a torque of 70kgcm.The motor comes with a metal gearbox and founded shaft. Shaft is loaded with bearing for wear resistance. The purpose for selecting such an excessive torque is having such heavy rollers used on either facet of the hardware which is hooked up with a conveyor belt. Then two to three bottles is placed simultaneously on the conveyor belt. Now as the bottle strategies towards the photoelectric sensor, the sensor senses the bottle and the conveyor stops running. As the conveyor stops the solenoid valve receives energized and the water starts off evolved filling in the bottle. After a given time duration is over, then the solenoid valve receives de energized definitely and water flowing through the valve is stopped and the conveyor belt starts off evolved moving. The valves stays energized until the bottle is sensed by way of the sensor again. Then as this technique is persevered the water degree in the tank continues on reducing with course of time. A water flow swap is used which is dipped into a tank filled with water. The whole size of the equipment is 2m. It has an input voltage of 250V A.C with an input cutting-edge of 15A. It has a square shape. It is designed to withstand a temperature of 80degree Celsius. It has both NO & NC contacts and a cfls 2m cable length. It is dipped into the tank stuffed with water so it floats over the water and on reduce in water stage the go with the flow switch falls down definitely towards the floor due to low level of water which then closes the circuit connection with the relay. As a result, the pump that is interfaced with the entire gadget then gets completely energized and the water from the reservoir is pumped immediately to the water tank and it is filled with water and steadily the water stage starts rising and the glide switch gradually begins to drift over water. After the water is stuffed up to a sure level and the drift switch begins floating over water, then the circuit breaks and the pump gets de energized simultaneously. As this system takes area the complete device is turned OFF automatically. It stays in the OFF mode until the tank is refilled with water up to a sure degree the place the go with the flow swap comes to a completely horizontal position. After the tank is absolutely stuffed with water the recreation of the motor as nicely as the belt is resumed respectively. Then the device starts off evolved working as referred to above.
EMERGENCY SWITCH has also been brought in the device which works like a circuit breaker which disconnects the entire PLC gadget on every occasion any destructive prerequisites arise. The electrical connection of the gadget interfacing the hardware with the PLC computer has been done. An Ethernet cable has been used to interface the pc with the PLC machine. A ladder common sense (LAD) has been applied for the use of the SIEMENS software in order for the higher grasp of the system, so that when the computer is on-line we can hold report of which section of the laptop is online as per as requirement.  (mandal, 2013)

APPLICATIONS

1. It is used in process robotics

2. It is used to enhance the process

3. By using PLCs numerous applications are possible in the industry.

4. It is used to integrate the different handling level .

Algorithms – there are basically some steps which are major in this project.

Step 1

From the previous workstations bottle/jar will come.

Step 2

Then the MOTOR starts and the conveyor moves forward towards water  filling machine.

Step 3

If the sensor detects the presence of bottle which is in position with the solenoid valve, then the conveyor will stop.

Step 4

When photocell detects the bottle/jar, the valve turns ON and the bottle will get filled till the timer gets off.

Step 5

After bottle gets filled, a delay is provided and then after the delay the conveyor starts moving

Step 6

And the process respects itself repeats itself from step3

Step7

After bottles/tumblers will get filled, will go to other stations like packing, and moving to another workstations.

Operation of PLC – A PLC works via consistently scanning a program. We can suppose of this scan cycle as consisting of 3 vital steps. There are generally greater than 3 however right here i am focusing on the necessary parts and no longer worry about the others. Typically the others are checking the system and updating the modern-day interior counter and timer values.

 

       CHECK INPUT STATUS

 

    EXECUTE PROGRAM

 

  UPDATE OUTPUT STATUS

Figure 4 operation of PLC

Step 1-CHECK INPUT STATUS– First the PLC takes a look at each enter to decide if it is on or off. In different words, is the sensor related to the first enters on? How about the second input? How about the third… It files these records into its reminiscence to be used at some point of the next step.

Step 2-EXECUTE PROGRAM-Next the PLC executes your program one training at a time. Maybe your application stated that if the first enter was once on then it turn on the first output. Since it already is aware of which inputs are on/off from the preceding step it will be in a position to decide whether the first output should be turned on based on the state of the first input. It will shop the execution consequences for use later in the course of the subsequent step.

Step 3-UPDATE OUTPUT STATUS-Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs. IT updates the outputs based totally on which inputs have been on throughout the first step and the outcomes of executing your program at some stage in the 2d step. Based on the instance in step 2 it would now turn on the first output because the first input was on and your software said to flip on the first output when this condition is true. After the 1/3 step the PLC goes again to step one and repeats the steps continuously. One scan time is described as the time it takes to execute the 3 steps listed above.

4. Result AND DISCUSSIONS

LANGUAGE USED FOR PROGRAMMING PLC
Ladder common sense is a programming language that represents a software by using a graphical format based totally on the circuit diagrams of relay good judgment hardware. It is chiefly used to strengthen software for programmable logic controllers (PLCs) used in industrial manipulate applications. The title is based on the statement that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical rails and a sequence of horizontal rungs between them. Ladder logic has contacts that make or wreck circuits to control coils. Each coil or contact corresponds to the status of a single bit in the programmable controller’s memory. Unlike electromechanical relays, a ladder application can refer any number of times to the fame of a single bit, equal to a relay with an indefinitely giant quantity of contacts. So-called “contacts” may additionally refer to physical (“hard”) inputs to the programmable
Controller from physical units such as pushbuttons and restrict switches through an integrated or exterior enter module, or might also symbolize the fame of interior storage bits which may also be generated elsewhere in the program. Each rung of ladder language generally has one coil at the far right. Some producers may additionally permit more than one output coil on a rung.
● — ( ) — an everyday coil, energized whenever its rung is closed.
● —(\)— A “not” coil, energized every time its rung is open.
● —[ ]— an everyday contact, closed every time its corresponding coil or an enter which controls it is energized.

● —[\]— A “not” contact, open every time its corresponding coil or an input which controls it is energized. The “coil” (output of a rung) may characterize a physical output which operates some gadget connected to the programmable controller, or may also characterize an internal storage bit for use some other place in the program. (patel, 2015)

Ladder logic (LAD)- The elements of a circuit diagram, such as normally closed and normally open contacts, and coils are linked to form networks. To create the logic for complex operations, we can insert branches to create the logic for parallel circuits. Parallel branches are opened downwards or are connected directly to the power rail. You terminate the branches upwards. LAD provides “box” instructions for a variety of functions, such as math, timer, counter, and move.

Ladder Logic Inputs– PLC inputs are without difficulty represented in ladder logic. Here are in this document types of inputs will be shown. some are normally open and normally closed inputs. The IIT (Immediate Input) characteristic allows inputs to be study after the input scan, while the ladder good judgment is being scanned. This permits ladder common sense to study enter values more often than once each cycle. (Note: This guidance is no longer handy on the Control Logic processors, but is nevertheless handy on older models.)

Ladder Logic Outputs – In ladder good judgment there are more than one sorts of outputs, however these are not consistently on hand on all PLC, but right here i am the use of EASY PLC SOFTWARE. Some of the outputs will be externally connected to devices outside the PLC, however it is also feasible to use internal memory areas in the PLC. a variety of types of outputs are proven in programming. In the first is a ordinary output, when energized the output will flip on, and energize an output. The circle with a diagonal line thru is a commonly on output. When energized the output will turn off, this type of output is no longer on hand on all PLC types.

Understanding feasibility- Feasibility learn about means the analysis of a trouble to decide if it can be solved effectively. In other words it is the find out about of the chances of the proposed system. It research the work ability, impact on the organization ability to meet users need and efficient use of resources. Three aspects in which the gadget has to be possible are:-

Economic feasibility – The in your price range analysis checks for the high funding incurred on the system. It evaluates development imposing charges for the proposed Industrial Automation Project. The PLC used for the development is easily reachable at the market but they are very steeply-priced & the software program for programming comes with the PLC as a result it outcomes in high cost implementation.

Technical feasibility– This aspect concentrates on the idea of the use of computer meaning, “Mechanization of human works. Thus the automatic solution leads to the want for a technical feasibility study. The focal point on the platform used is the PLC primarily based Industrial Automation. The proposed device require an in depth technical expertise on a number of electrical machines and PLC hardware as well as software. This is required to improve the technical effectively of the design. Otherwise the machine improvement is simple and effortless to understand. The result obtained should be authentic in the actual time conditions.

Behavioral feasibility – Behavioral feasibility deals with the runtime performance of the proposed system. It should score greater than the existing in the behavioral study. The project should have cease user when the system is designed whilst designing. The programmer ought to be aware of the conditions user’s knowledge input, output, calculations etc. Care should be taken to avoid non-working potential & buttons.  (Das P. , 2017)

Advantages – 1. It will limit the human effort and physical work also.
2. It will exchange the human work with excessive tech technologies.
3. Improvement of economy.
4. Will function the mission which will be beyond the human abilities of size, weight and speed.

Disadvantages  1. Huge two initial investment.
2. Positioning of solenoid valve is a problem which is very critical.
3. Unemployment will enlarge due to humans will decrease, due to the fact that human beings will changing through these sort of technologies.
4. Unpredictable development costs.

Figure 5 time vs. solenoid valve opening (mandal, 2013)

As the figure shows, the empty bottle sent in to filling area the position sensor and proximity
Sensor proves the perfect function of bottle for filling. Solenoid valve open for particular time to FILL required amount of liquid in bottle. After filling the bottle sent for subsequent operation. From the fig. suggests that as the solenoid valve opening will increase the time required to fill 200 ml(assumption) liquid in jar decreases. As the valve attitude increases the drift charge increases. So for filling specific amount of liquid into the jar the filling time must be consistent but the waft charge will be one-of-a-kind hopefully.
Through the study of this paper (jamgir, 2018), this system can fill the 1 litre bottle which having 26cm height and 8cm diameter. This operation is fully automated and in the results we have compare the manual operation time  and  automated  system  time.  After the comparison  we  get  that  the  time consumption is more in the manual operation and the efficiency has increased in the automatic system. If constant production rate is there then the manual operation is better, but if there is any sudden change in production rate then the automatic system would be preferable.

Figure 6 ‘’1st Screenshot of my ladder logic program’’

In this figure some of the inputs and outputs are shown. Like it is clearly shown in this screenshot that in the very first line start button is there whose input is I.0.0 and next to this stop button is there whose input is I.0.1, photocell robot is the photocell which is in front of water  fill robot which will detect the jar and will give command to robot to stop the program. And so on up to end as shown in the picture.

 a photocell is shown, whose input is I.0.2 and it connects with solder stop with the timer of 12000minisecond with trigger up coil. 2nd line of the 2nd screen shot is connected with solder stop TIMER with a delay of 1000miliseconds.

Figure 8 timer shown in this screen shot

Figure 9 variables list of my program

                                   Figure 10 screenshot of machine simulator of my project

                                        Figure 11           machine simulation

In this screenshot of machine simulator, it is shown that there is 2 conveyor belts, 1sst one is the main conveyor on which the water  fill robot will fill the jar whenever photocell detects the jar and afterwards it will go directly to the pallet packing conveyor and then 2nd conveyor will take the pallet with filled jar into the other work station.

Connection diagram

Figure 5 connection diagram of the hardware of a researcher’s project (Das, 2018)

Conclusion – The fundamental goal of this project was to increase a bottle filling gadget primarily based on positive specifications. The project provides a computerized filling device controlled by PLC as per the filing requirement which has easy operation. The gadget has the blessings as simple shape and dependable operation. The system is managed by way of PLC. This was correctly implemented. We reflect on consideration on this assignment as a trip the place we obtained knowledge and additionally won some insights into the problem which we have shared in this report.
By the installation of jet nozzle and strong solenoid valve can decrease the time to fill bottles and can successfully amplify productivity. A guide way may want to be used in case of vibration. A capping part could also be introduced. The nozzle positioning have to be given greater care and concentration. The system could be redesigned for increased bottle dimension and productivity.

5. 

Bibliography

  • Ameer L. Saleh, L. F. (2017). PLC Based Automatic Liquid Filling System . Retrieved from www.irjet.net: https://www.irjet.net/archives/V4/i12/IRJET-V4I1212.pdf
  • automatic bottle filling system using PLC. (2018). Retrieved from http://rcciit.org: http://rcciit.org/students_projects/projects/ee/2018/GR11.pdf
  • automatic bottlefilling machine. (2015, december). Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu: https://www.academia.edu/35945203/Automatic_Bottle_Filling_System_using_PLC
  • Das, P. (2018). automatic bottle filling proccess by plc. kolkata, west bengal.
  • jamgir, a. k. (2018, may). automated bottle fill by using plc. Retrieved from www.researchgate.net: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330873793_AUTOMATED_BOTTLE_FILLING_SYSTEM_BY_USING_PLC
  • mandal, k. (2013). plc automatic bottle filling. Retrieved from http://rcciit.org: http://rcciit.org/students_projects/projects/ee/2018/GR11.pdf
  • Paromita. (2017). automatic water  filling machine. west bengal.
  • patel, j. (2015, June). PLC based automatic bottle filling. Retrieved from http://pnrsolution.org: http://pnrsolution.org/Datacenter/Vol3/Issue3/18.pdf

 

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