Microprocessor Based Instrumentation System
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Keywords: microprocessor based instrumentation, atmospheric ion counter
There are various applications of microprocessor which makes our life easy and simple. Various instruments which we are using in our day to day life includes the role of microprocessors, which is fairly called as Microprocessor Based Instrumentation. On the basis of its processing and intelligence microprocessor are base for the operation of various instruments. Here is the description of some devices or instruments which uses microprocessors. Even the most common purpose equipments which are in our use such as toothbrush, thermometer etc. Placing an embedded microprocessor system into a product makes the product smart. It can then be programmed to do things that are too difficult or expensive using conventional technologies such as logic, or time switches, and so on. Link such a smart product to the Internet and it can do even more. For example, products can be programmed to do self-diagnostic checks and to report back to the manufacturer. Not only does this provide the potential to collect data that can be used to improve products, it can also allow for the manufacturer to inform the user of potential problems, so that action can be taken. This opens up possibilities for improved customer service as well as new services. Basically, embedded microprocessors enable firms to compete on product and service innovation, by adding product and service features that customers value.
II. ATMOSPHERIC ION COUNTER
An atmospheric ion counter was modified and fabricated to measure the atmospheric ions. The bias voltage of ion counter was adjusted using microprocessor and stepper motor. With the adjustment of bias voltage and flow rate of air the instrument, the instrument is capable of measuring ions of all the three categories i.e. small ions, intermediate ions and large ions.
III. Energy Efficient Sterilization for Surgical Instrument
A microprocessor based radio frequency operated induction heated sterilization plant is proposed in this article. In this plant heat is directly generated in surgical stainless steel Instruments by means of eddy current flow. With the adjustment of pulse width modulation (PWM) controlled technique, the controlled heat is generated as per the medical norms. By controlling pulse width it can reach at level of temperature upto 240 degree centigrade. This is sufficient to sterilize the hospital equipment. The depth of heat penetration by induction heating process will depend upon the frequency generation. The relation is inversely proportional with the frequency. For sterilization process, surface area of the instrument must be heated through water boiling in existing process. A new generation induction heated sterilization plant is proposed for the dry surface heating in place of conventional a few parallel stainless steel plates may be added with
the surgical instruments under water to achieve the same objective. In this proposed scheme, there is no heat conduction loss in between source of heat and object (operational instruments). It offers an unique prize as there is no shock hazard during handling of boiled stainless steel surgical instruments. Microprocessor control is introduced for selecting slow or quick heat rate. Microprocessor assembly level language gives flexibility to design the heat rate change with respect of time without rearranging the hardware circuitry. Also it control the temperature through a transducer with the help of closed loop control.
IV. Portable 4-Channel Gamma Ray Spectrometer
It is compact, rugged, lightweight spectrometer and comprises of a 8085 microprocessor, standard peripherals and a scintillation detector of size 1.75” x 2”. It is used for insitu measurement of gross counts, and radioelement concentrations of uranium (U), thorium (Th), and potassium (K) with LCD alpha numeric display. The device is indigenously designed and fabricated.
V. Borehole Logging System
Microprocessor-based gamma-ray spectral logging with scintillation detector to trace the analog profiles of total, K, U and Th channels with corresponding depth. This system is being tested in the field in different areas for its performance.
VI. Microprocessor Based Bulk Ore Analyser
It contains 6 scintillation detectors to compute the grade of the ore in % eU3O8 carried in 25-ton dumper from mine. It was designed and fabricated for UCIL.
VII. Wind Speed Instrumentation System
This system is a basic system to measure the wind parameters like wind speed for wind speed, a visual indication of wind speed is obtained by dc generator to dc voltmeter with appropriate calibrated scale. The scale needs to be arranged such that the pointer indicates a speed of 1milepersecond when the generator stalled and voltage is zero. Then any speeds above 1 mile / second will be correctly displayed if the scale is calibrated according to given graph of frequency verses output voltages. Our circuit design works with a accuracy of 1 mile / second and best suited for examining heights between 30 and 100 m Both wind parameters are measured using microprocessor based instrumentation system. By pressing a respective key respective parameters can be measured for which interrupt service routine is used.
VIII. Other Instruments
- Portable audio-visual scintillometer.
- Carborne gamma survey system (microprocessor-based) for total, K, U and Th.
- Light weight mine face scanner with beta-sensitive Geiger Muller (GM) tubes.
No doubt, In this era everything is modernized, everything is operated under the computer i.e. microprocessors. From toothbrush to missiles everything is operated with microprocessor control. It is supposed that in near future the cars will be fully automated and can be operated under microcontroller applications. Cars will be parked itself, will be driven automatically, itself control its speed according to traffic and many more.
Microprocessor are increasingly playing a major role in modern society. The "invisible" ones, used for controlling and monitoring machine tools, cars, aircraft, consumer electronics and other equipment are the most numerous. They are gradually changing the relationship we have with these devices. It is interesting to show that this is a "market-pull" rather than a "technology-push" phenomenon. The design of new chips thus represents a continuous challenge for the engineers and technologists striving to give the market the products it requires, and which are generally planned a long time before they actually appear. Monolithic microprocessor are overtaking all kinds of computers. Minicomputer lines were absorbed during the 80's, main-frame lines during the 90's and probably super-computers by the beginning of the next century. During this extraordinary evolution, these devices have used all the technical innovations which had been conceived for the previous generations of computers. The future of these devices is very challenging. To keep the evolutionary rate of computing power and binary code compatibility, completely new execution techniques will need to be invented, eventually leading to the break-down of the physical quantum barrier around 2010.
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