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Development of the electricity generation grew rapidly from age to age. Electricity generation is a process that generate electric energy from other form of energy, most of the major company that give an electric supply in Malaysia using Non-Renewable source to generate the electricity such as diesel and coal. Diesel and coal will be used to operate the engine in order to rotate the turbine to generating the electricity.
Power creation is the biggest and fastest-growing resource of international power demand bigger than the amount of primary power used in the transport and residential/. Demand for electricity keeps rising in all areas around the globe. Inhabitants and financial development are two significant factors, just as they are for the estimated need development in other powers. But with electricity there is an additional aspect at work: the change to electricity from other types of power, such as oil or biomass for lighting style and warming in the home, or fossil fuel in the professional industry.
Electricity can be generating using a generator. This generator will have two main components, rotor and stator. It was similar to the motor construction. The EMF produced by Faraday’s law of induction due to comparative movement of copper with a permanent magnetic field in the electric generator turbines. When a permanent magnetic is shifted comparative to a conductor, or vice versa, an electromotive power will exist. If the cable is linked through an electric product, current will flow and thus electric power is produced, transforming the technical power of movement to electric power
1.2 Problem Statement
In recent of the years, the use of non-renewable resources to generate electricity is very high. Cost to generate an electricity will be high to buy the resources to do the generation of the electric power, the pollution will be occur when the generation process. There are several methods to do the generation of electric power using renewable resources, such as windmill, solar, hydro and etc. the problem for this method is the cost to build a dam for hydro is too high, suitable places for windmill and material for solar panel is expensive also.
Nowadays there have invented several product of mini generator set and it’s already in the market. This product was in two men handling and portable, it’s using an engine to rotate the turbine to generate the electricity. But this product is only give the portability with a small size, this product has to use the fuel to run the engine in order to rotate the turbine to generate the electrical power. It’s still not solving the main problem, the cost and the pollution problem.
The main aim of this project is to implement the regeneration of electric power using motor and generator.
1. Learning Objectives
Learn about AC and DC Current and conversion of type of the electrical energy.
Learn how to generate an electrical energy.
How the generator generate an electrical energy.
Knowledge base on power generation, types of power and also have a skill to handle the machine that will generate the electricity.
2. System Objectives
To design the inverter circuit for charging the battery
To develop the battery charging circuit
To generate the AC power to operate the load
3. Application Objectives
Military : Give a power supply when they are out of the grid.
Home appliances purpose : Give an backup power when the main power supply is
have an problem
Small Consumer : Give a power supply to the market vendor without
using an ordinary generator set
List down the general idea and sketch the main part of the general idea. Construct a block diagram based on the general idea to see how the system works. Choose the component and collect the technical data about the entire component that will be used in this project. Test the component and device to sure it works properly to get less error in testing full design of the project. Choosing and appropriate software that will be used to simulate the circuit that will be design in the project, do a test in bread board to see the error for troubleshooting purpose before fixed the circuit on PCB board.
LITERATURE AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
2.1 Theoretical Background
Electrical power that generated usually is an alternating current (AC). However, some kind of electrical generation and storage device produce direct current (DC). AC current is an electric charge that move periodically reverses direction, the movement usually in sine wave but in certain application a different waveform are use such as triangular waveform and square waveform. This AC current commonly used at the industry, commercial and small consumer than DC current.
Electric power is saved consistently in electro-chemical ties within battery power that power plenty of convenient and lightweight devices. However, battery power don’t range very well. They are minor when it comes to saving power for transport and they’re even more minor when it comes to lines power. If we can store electrical power from public utility generation features effectively. We could increase the performance of electrical programs. We could decrease our dependency on ineffective and damaging peak-shaving generating plants. We also could significantly decrease the occurrence of power shutdowns because source power would always be present when needed.
Electricity is the statistical product of two amounts current and current. These two amounts can differ with regard to time or can be known as AC power or can be kept at continuous levels or can be known as DC power. Most appliances, air conditioning, pushes and commercial equipment use AC power whereas most computers and electronic equipment use DC power. AC power has the advantage of being easy to convert between currents and is able to be produced and utilized by brushless equipment. DC power remains the only viable option in electronic systems and can be more cost-effective to deliver over long ranges at very high currents.
The capability to quickly convert the current of AC energy is important for two factors. First of all, energy can be passed on over long ranges with less reduction at greater currents. So in the energy systems where creation is far away from the fill, it is suitable to step-up the current of energy at the creation factor and then step-down the current near the fill. Secondly, it is often more cost-effective to set up generators that generate greater currents than would be used by most equipment, so the capability to quickly convert currents indicates this mismatch between currents can be quickly handled. Direct current (DC) is a unidirectional flow of the electric charge, this type of current is produces by sources such as batteries, solar cell etc. this type of current also can flow through the conductor as same as an AC current, and also can flow through semiconductor, insulator etc. DC current can be produce by rectifying an AC current trough the electronic circuit arrangement.
2.1.1 Generation of Electric Power
Power Engineering deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as the design of a range of related devices. These include transformers, electric generators, electric motors and power electronics. The power grid is an electrical network that connects a variety of electric generators to the users of electric power. Users purchase electricity from the grid avoiding the costly exercise of having to generate their own. Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid as well as the power systems that connect to it. Such systems are called on-grid power systems and may supply the grid with additional power, draw power from the grid or do both. Power engineers may also work on systems that do not connect to the grid. These systems are called off-grid power systems and may be used in preference to on-grid systems for a variety of reasons. For example, in remote locations it may be cheaper for a mine to generate its own power rather than pay for connection to the grid and in most mobile applications connection to the grid is simply not practical.
Today, most grids adopt three-phase electric power with alternating current. This choice can be partly attributed to the ease with which this type of power can be generated, transformed and used. Often, the power is split before it reaches residential customers whose low-power appliances rely upon single-phase electric power. However, many larger industries and organizations still prefer to receive the three-phase power directly because it can be used to drive highly efficient electric motors such as three-phase induction motors.
Transformers play an important role in power transmission because they allow power to be converted to and from higher voltages. This is important because higher voltages suffer less power loss during transmission. This is because higher voltages allow for lower current to deliver the same amount of power, as power is the product of the two. Thus, as the voltage steps up, the current steps down. It is the current flowing through the components that result in both the losses and the subsequent heating. These losses, appearing in the form of heat, are equal to the current squared times the electrical resistance through which the current flows, so as the voltage goes up the losses are dramatically reduced. For these reasons, electrical substations exist throughout power grids to convert power to higher voltages before transmission and to lower voltages suitable for appliances after transmission.
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