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# Development of Automatic Wheelchair

 ✅ Paper Type: Free Essay ✅ Subject: Engineering ✅ Wordcount: 12678 words ✅ Published: 18th May 2020
1. Summary

The automatic wheel chair for disable person is automatically controllable wheelchair will be designed to have help themselves with assistance of the operator’scommand with its accessibility. This will be going to reduce the physically challenged person’s effort & force to operate the reer wheel of the wheel chair as sated that this is a wheel chair which is automatic one. Furthermore, it conjointly provides a chance for physically or mentallydisable persons to manoeuvre from a place to a different place with an ease of human comfort. The chair is additionally supplied with obstacle detection system which is ultrasonic sensor that will reduce the prospect of crash whereas on the voyage or in the house or we can say whatsoever obstacle will come suddenly in between the path of the wheelchair. Sensible chair has gained various interests within the recent times as compared to the ancient years. These devices square measure helpful particularly in transportation or we can say easily commutable from one place to a different place. The machines may be utilized in prime of life homes everywhere the maturity persons have problem in their movements or he/she cannot make his/her movement on his/her own. So, this wheelchair would be very fruitful to the person who is challenged physically. This wheelchair serve as a bonus for those that have lost their quality, no matter with hands, legs or get paralysed. Differ kinds of sensible chair were developed within the ancient time however the latest generations of wheelchairs square measure being developed and used that opting the employment of latest technology and hence leaves a bit to tinker on the point of the user UN agency uses the wheel chair. The project conjointly aims to create a best and an analogous wheel chair which might have a form of intelligence and thence helps the user iion his/her movement.

Differently disabled individuals face several hardships in life, having to be hooked in to a 3rd person to manoeuvre from place to put. The electric chair is an implementation and experimental platform of a cheap intelligent chair for the disabled. To produce them with a helping hand, several researchers are drudging aimed at an extended time. The discovery of automatic wheel chair could be a nice boon to them, however these kind of things limitsits motion. This development of automatic wheelchair suppose to providing them with eco-friendly and value real answer within options of an electrical Wheel Chair. (Rohit Singh, 2013) (MIT intelligent wheelchair project, 2010) (study on smart wheelchair system)

The automatic wheel chair for physically disable folks is characteristically categorized into 2 categories: -

1. The front wheel supercharged chair: it’s an influence chair for indoor functions. This can be a four wheel drive chair and is most versatile among the ton.

2. The reer wheel supercharged chair: it’s an influence chair expedited for outdoors. Being rear wheeled, this sort of chair are applicable for rugged roads.

2. Introduction

2.1 Historical Background of the Wheelchair

Wheel chairs contain evolved very little over the past thousand years. Most of the hardware design changes have implemented within recent decades as shown in the below presented outline of wheelchair history in the world. From 6th Century A.D., Earliest recording of a wheelchair; a Chinese engraved picturing a man in a such kind of chair with 3 wheels, In 16th Century A.D., Wheelchairs were well-developed in Europe and nearby countries and commonly found in drawings, posters and literature of the ancient people. In the time of American Civil War, the 1st look of wheelchairs in the USA. The chairs were of too heavy weight, big and bulky wooden construction with two big drive wheels and two small caster wheels. However, in 1869 The first wheelchair model was issued in the United States. and in 1903, An EWC(electric wheelchair)  operating on a 12-volt lead battery and a 3/8 hp (horsepower) motor was used to give handicapped people rides. At that time it was not used for handicapped mobility or physically disable person but it did pave the way for prospect developments.

however in 1909, Compact wheelchairs were developed using metal tubing instead of the traditional bulky wood components. World War I – The first electric wheelchairs were used for the physically paralysed people. A battery and motor were applied to existing wheelchairs with a simple one-speed on/off switch.

1937 – The patent for a wheelchair with a folding X-brace frame was issued to two engineers named Everest and Jennings. Though previous chairs had been foldable top-to-bottom, the side-to-side folding position of the cross frame allowed the drive wheels to remain in place. This basic concept is still the standard for manual wheelchairs today. while in 1940, The first patent was issued for an electric wheelchair abd also in 1950, researcher Sam Duke received a patent for a releasable add-on power drive applied to a manual wheelchair (the unit was actually permanently fitted to the chair with Ubolts).

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1960’s – Folding wheelchairs were commonly fitted with electric drives. The drive units were still very heavy and quite difficult to put on and take off. At that point both joystick and steering column mechanisms were available. In 1970’s, Wheelchair frames made of aircraft quality aluminum were introduced to the market and started a revolution of ultralight wheelchairs. The technology has aided in the reduction of the overall weight of many types of wheelchairs. however, 1980’s – Most electric wheelchairs on the market were still bulky, heavy, and required a special vehicle for transportation. The power components of the chair were integrated into the frame which has been strengthened to support them. in 1990’s – The popular electric wheelchairs on the market are foldable though they require removal of at least the leg rests and batteries. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and a growing awareness for the rights of the disabled have greatly improved research and design efforts in the assistive technology industry. Interest has also increased in this area due to the current trend toward the “graying of America” as the average age of Americans increases. (History of Wheelchairs and Power Add-On Units)

Figure 1 Depiction of Confucius in a wheelchair, year 1680 (brusco, 2015)

Figure 2 The wheelBath chair, year 1881 (brusco, 2015)

Figure 3 King Philip II’s wheelchair, year 1655 (brusco, 2015)

Figure 4 Farfler’s wheelchair year 1783 (brusco, 2015)

2.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Wheelchair framework is 1 of the normal vehicles utilized by physical mobility or wiped out ones are restricted in its capabilities, for e.g., it needs human power to move the chair. It is moreover can’t be use for a important lot as the client drained in moving the seat utilizing their very own energy. On that point, the other problem is the presence wheel seat is additionally not so much affable as the shape and its position like as can’t be fixing to the client’s body in getting settled seat. This undertaking worried about the ergonomic feature which is the noteworthy component of human aspect building and thought of wheelchair formation are proposed after generally speaking the standards is fitting with this factor. In this responsibility, the need necessity is to assess the human factor building of the current wheel seat. The ergonomic essential to suitable in the study of structuring articles to be better adjusted to the state of the human body or to address the client’s stance. Wheelchair configuration could be keeping the client from sitting in places that may detrimentally affect the spine. The ergonomic good-looking assembly of wheelchair which offers a fitting variable highlights and dissimilar components which can be changed by the client that need turn out with many plans and evaluate it as indicated by man factor designing and material determination. Before update it, expert need lead a market review to collect fundamental statistics to be integrate into the item.

2.3 LITERATURE REVIEW

A wheelchair is a wheeled portability gadget wherein the client sits. The gadget is impelled either physically (by turning the wheels by the hand) or by means of different computerized frameworks, Wheelchairs are utilized by individuals for whom strolling is troublesome or incomprehensible because of disease (physiological or physical), damage, or inability, Users can discover uniquely crafted high caliber ultra-light elite wheelchairs just as adornments that empower them to individualize their look and style. The principal wheelchair was concocted, required help to push, the twentieth century saw a quick advancement in wheelchairs, from the main mechanized wheelchair, to the principal collapsing wheelchair, to lightweight and sports wheelchairs. Inquires about in the territory of wheelchair control framework are as yet going on. Numerous individuals with incapacities don’t have the aptitude fundamental to control a joystick on an electrical wheelchair. This can be an incredible downside for the client who is for all time unfit to move any of the arms or legs. They can utilize their wheelchair simpler just utilizing voice directions. In the proposed plan, the primary thought of utilizing voice actuated innovation for controlling the movement of the wheelchair is to demonstrate that it very well may be a selective answer for seriously incapacitated. (developed wheelchair, 2016)

Application and scope:

Automatic smart wheel chair has extensive range of scope and applications is as follows:

      Physically disableperson physically challenged people can use it as per their purposes, as they require the wheelchair ideally.

      One disable people who is able to move his head can go for accelerometer ADXL335 section; one disable people who is able to use his hand can go with joystick, no matter he is able to move his right or left hand, we can shift the position of the of the joystick and the position switches on the armrest. Furthermore, in case one able to move his legs only, he can go with the footrest section.

      Old people in the old age homes or various NGO’s, children and old age home people can also use this smart wheel chair as per their requirement.

      Patients suffering in hospital from firm paralysis can use accelerometer ASDXL335 function by moving of their head when wearing that particular accelerometer helmet as per requirement.

2.4 METHODOLOGY

Hardware requirements for development of wheelchair

Actuating

After taking input and process the input at the speed of 12MIPS (Million instructions per Second) method selects the corresponding motor driver and sends the signal that then drives the desired half. There ar electric motor for the movement of the good wheel chair. The output of the motor driver is fed to the relay switch, the output of relay switches ar connected to motors. The minimum needed current for the motor is one.6 amps at seventy rate, most at four amps to run it at 106 rate (without load). They really modification the electrical signals of the microcontroller into the motility motion and supply desired practicality. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Motor Drivers (L293d)

Motor Drivers amplifies the output to the microcontroller such it will drive the several actuators. L293D IC is employed for the shift the relay driver

1. H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC).

2. Motor drivers act as current amplifiers.

3. L293D has output current of 600mA and peak output current of 1.2A per channel.

4. The output supply (VCC2) has a wide range from 4.5V to 36V.. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 5 L293D Motor Driver Board (l293d motor driver board)

Joystick module

Analog joystick has 2 variable resistors for 2 axes. Every rheostat has 3 pins; 2 extreme pins ar connected to Vcc (5v in our case) and ground. The middle pin is that the output pin. The output voltage is between Vcc and GND betting on the position of stick. By activity the voltage output of 2 variable resister from that the joystick is constructed, we are able to verify the position of stick in x and y axis. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 6 joystick (san sam joystick module)

Buzzer

Figure 7 picture of buzzer

Accelerometer

The ADXL335 could be a tiny, less command, 3-axis completion measuring instrument bysignaccustomedoutput voltage. Merchandise readsspeeding up with least all-out vary of ±3 g. This will live stationaryacceleration of gravity (g)intotilt-control sensingfeatures, similarly by way of dynamic acceleration ensuing as of vibration, motion and shock.

1. 3 Axis Sensing.

2. Small, Low, Profile Package.

3. Low Power: 350uA.

4. Single supply Operation: 1.8 to 3.6V. 5. 10,000 g shock survival. (R.S.NIPANIKAR, 2013) (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Position Switches

These switches ar connected at chair, to modify the input management unit as Joystick if the joystick can fail, it is make a copy management for the driving force. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 9 position rocker switches (spdt-3 position rectangular switches)

Microcontroller

We will use the Arduino UNO microcontroller, it’s the most process and process a part of the good Wheel Chair that takes input from the detector, processes it and provides output. It operates at high frequency of 12 megahertz and acts as control center for the machine. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 10arduino UNO (ARDUINO UNO BOARD)

Ultrasonic ranging Module:-

It is used to sense the obstacle. Its use to halt the wheel chair from any kind of danger or hit off. We have set its obstacle sensing level upto 45cm. as and when it sense obstacle it will cut the circuit at a sudden of the whole wheelchair and the buzzer will start beeping for 3seconds. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 11 Ultrasonic Ranging Module (ultrasonic distance sensor module)

Motor: Motor receives power from your Motor driver IC. This power is utilized to do physical works, for example move the Wheel chair. DC motor orientation, speed and operation can be controlled with microcontroller. We can start it, stop it or make it go either in clockwise or anti clock wise direction. The speed of the Motor is controlled by the help of PWM (pulse width modulation).

Figure 12viper motor used in our prototype

Bluetooth module

Figure 13 bluetooth module hc05

Battery to power the prototype

Figure 14 12V 7.0 AH sealed lead-acid rechargeablebattery used in our prototype

Figure 15 caster wheeels used for front wheels

Project design

Figure 16 making wooden seat for the wheelchair

Figure 17 painting the wheelchair

Figure 18 control unit of the wheelchair

Figure 19 Accelerometer for the head control

Figure 20 push switch buttons on the Armrest

Figure 21 joystick module for the Armrest

Wheelchair motion: the wheelchair performs two kinds of movements: straight and pure rotational movements. These two movements executed at a given speed allow to accomplish the tasks we proposed to do. The wheelchair position relies on dead reckoning from wheels encoder readings. Wheelchair displacement and heading angle are obtained from the well known kinematics equations given in [1]. Nevertheless these equations give an accurate method to calculate the position; it is well known in practice that mobile robotics deal with very poor dead-reckoning. Problems such as wheel slippage and variable surface characteristics contribute to a poor dead-reckoning. A researcher said about wheelchairs: “Even in straight travel, variations in wheel diameter due to load shifts cause angular accuracy to be an order of magnitude worse than in most mobile robots”. This statement has indeed been confirmed.

GENERAL OBJECTIVE

      To design and to fabricate an automatic wheel chair for all kind of physical disabilities.

      To define mechanical properties, control system and mechatronics properties of the automatic wheelchair.

      To integrate appropriate sensor and actuators ad use contemporary software on the automatic wheelchair.

Individual objectives

      To develop the program of joystick and position switches to control the armrest gears.

      To design and fabricate the armrest controls of the developed prototype of automatic wheelchair.

      To analyse and determine the external and internal forces on the wheels, axial shear, moments and bending stress, modulus and strain and failure involve in the framing of the automatic wheelchair and also identify stress concentration areas.

Working

Whenever we will give command to the individual function it will give command to the control panel of the wheelchair and the Arduino uno will take the command successfully and after all of that individual functioning the wheelchair will tends to react as driver wants to move. And when so ever the obstacle will in front of the wheelchair it will suddenly cut the circuit off and close the whole circuit of the wheel chair and the buzzer from the control panel will start for 3.5seconds. and we also have a switch in the control panel that if we want ultrasonic sensor in use or not. If we don’t want, them even we can also turn the switch off of the ultrasonic sensor but then it will not going to sense any obstacle.

MECHANICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE WHEELS

Analyse the Tractive forces

Figure 22 Tractive Force on Wheel (Babu, 2015)

Drive wheel motor torque:  We assumed the model criteria as shown in Table 1.

The RF is resistance factor that accounts frictional losses between the axel of the viper motor and driven wheels. Standard values are between 1.1 and 1.15. There are many factors that affected on calculation of maximum torque such as the following.

1)      Rolling Resistance (RR): rolling resistance is based on vehicle weight and rolling resistance factor during motion of the vehicle as in Equation 1.

$\mathit{RR}=\mathit{GWW}×\mathit{CRR}$

– Equation 1

Grade resistance (GR): Grade resistance is based on gravitational force that used to drag the vehicle back when it is scaling an oblique surface as in Equation 2.

$\mathit{GR}=\mathit{GWW}×\mathit{sin\alpha }$

– Equation 2.

2)      Acceleration force (FA): Acceleration force is based on needed force to stop the maximum speed in the required time as in Equation 3.

– Equation 3.

3)      Total tractive effort (TTE): total tractive force is based on three forces RR, GR, and FA as in Equation 4.

– Eqaution 4.

4)      Wheel motor torque (Tw): wheel motor torque is based on the TTE as in Equation 5.

$\mathit{TW}=\mathit{TTE}×\mathit{RW}×\mathit{RF}$

– equation 5.

Wheel motor torque

Tw = TTE * Rw * RF

Where,

TTE = Total tractive effort

Rw = Radius of wheel (rear)

RF = Resistance factor

Solving for TTE

TTE = RR+ GR + FA

Where :

RR = Rolling resistance

FA = acceleration force

Solving for RR :

RR = GWW * Crr

Where :

GWW = gross vehicle weight

Crr = surface friction as shown in table 2.

Solution

RR = GWW * Crr

= 30Kg (0.020)

$\mathbit{RR}\mathbit{=}\mathbit{0}\mathbit{.}\mathbit{6}{\mathbit{KG}}_{\mathbit{F}}$

Solving for GR :

Solution :

$\mathit{GR}=\mathit{GWW}×\mathit{sin\alpha }$

Where: $\alpha$

is inclined lane angle

= 30kg [sin (20)]

GR = 10.26 ${\mathit{Kg}}_{F}$

Solving for FA :

Where :

Vmax – maximum desired velocity

G – gravity = $9.8\frac{m}{s2}$

ta = desired acceleration

solution :

$30×1.67m/s÷\frac{9.8m}{{s}^{2}}×1\mathit{sec}$

$\mathit{FA}=5.11{\mathit{kg}}_{f}$

Solving for TTE :

TTE  – RR + GR + FA

= 0.6Kg + 10.26Kg + 5.11kg

Solving for Tw

$\mathit{TW}=\mathit{TTE}×\mathit{RW}×\mathit{RF}$

TW =

Table1. Vehicle design criteria

 parameters Value gross wheelchair weight (GWW) 30KG weight on each drive wheel 0.45KG radius of rear tire 0.075M radius of front tire 0.05M desired top speed Desired acceleration 1sec Maximum inclined angle 20degrees Worst working surface Concrete(poor) Resistance factor 1.3

Table 2. Rolling resistance factors. (Mai S. Mabrouk, 2017)

 Contact surface ${\mathbit{C}}_{\mathbit{RR}}$ Concrete(good/fair/poor) 0.010/0.015/0.020 Asphalt (good/fair/poor) 0.012/0.017/0.022 Wood (dry/dusty/wet) 0.01/0.005/0.001 Snow 2inch/4inch) 0.025/0.037 Dirt (smoothy/sandy) 0.025/0.037 Mud (firm/medium/soft) 0.037/0.090/0.150

Table 3. Technical specification of our wheelchair.

 Description Measurements Seat width 60cm*60cm Neat depth 16.5cm Armrest height 70cm Seat height 48.5cm Back height 80cm Overall open width 60cm*45cm

Block diagram of the project

Block diagram of my part

Flow chart for the joystick and the position switches

Figure 23 network diagram of the control unit

Wheel Chair Running Time Calculation

Power of viper motor = 50 watts

We know, P = V x I

Where, P = Power in Watts, V= Voltage in V And I = Current in Amp

V = 12 V DC

I = 4.2 Amp

Battery Capacity = 7.0 Amp-hour

Run time in hours =50/4.2 = 11.9hours or 5.32x 6km/hr= 71.4km

Motor Selection

On the basis of Torque, T= 33 N-m, a DC motor with worm gear has been selected [10]. Because     worm drives are a compact means of substantially decreasing speed and increasing torque. The detail of DC motor is as follows;

PMDC 24 V, 180 W, 60 rpm, 9.4 Amp, 36 N-m, worm geared motor

Driven wheel Speed, Ns = 50 RPM

Driver Speed, Np = 60 rpm

Constraint: Center distance is approximately 356 mm adjusted by motor axle movement.

1. Discussions

Figure 24 line graph of distance v/s time

In the figure 24, the relation of distance v/s time is shown. And in this graph it is shown that the data is gathered to determine the speed with respect to time.

Figure 25 line graph of speed v/s time

In the figure 25, in this graph the relation of speed v/s time is shown, and by this graph we can see that speed remains somehow constant when the time is increasing, so we can say that the acc The market potential and fast propels in biomechanics, prominent advancement is being made in wheelchairs. The Electric Powered Wheelchair (EPW) assessment depends on the quality, wellbeing, and cost adequacy of wheelchairs. Effective EPW model with an ease is displayed. Our EPW model is recognized from most other comparative EPW in its endeavors to utilize down to earth parts for limiting support worries through straightforwardness and strength. By and large, this model comprises of programming and equipment interface parts. The usage of RE innovation permitted reusing past information for structure creation model. It encourages examination of the model that dependent on chronicled item information and produces viable improvements during item get together techniques. For instance, General Motors Company have vehicles appraisal focus that dismembered and dissected 40 of adversaries’ vehicles consistently by utilizing a “teardown” procedure to figure out how much every segment costs for delivering, how to accomplish lower expenses, and how to advance industrialization process. By utilizing RE innovation, commercial center patterns and intensity can likewise be characterized. This innovation reached out to item teardowns of mechanical and gadgets as appeared in our model.

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For equipment parts, the center of this model is the Arduino uno microcontroller which is equipped for the interface for all the equipment parts. A microcontroller is constrained by DC engines for transmission every which way or to stop by utilizing a joystick module. All correspondence and controls in this model went through this microcontroller successfully. An ongoing advancement by me and my colleagues controlled our Electric Powered Wheelchair (EPW) was actualized utilizing the Bluetooth device(HC05). Bluetooth gadget is utilized for remote control of the electric wheelchair and empowers it to fill in as an independent gadget. We have utilized ultrasonic sensor that stable at a known separation. Speed of the item is evaluated by isolated the separation between the sensor when distinction of the article. The ultrasonic sensor is intended for simple utilization and a lot less expensive with remarkable execution, particularly in a mechanized gadget. At long last, incapacitated patients are tested for working the EPW in various conditions. Subsequently, our EPW planned in this model is a fruitful electronic gadget that accommodated a wide range of physically incapacitated patients the capacity to recuperate some portion of their versatility and facilitate the lives of patients experiencing at least one handicaps. It is surely critical to keep on actualizing fitting biomechanical advances of EPW so as to improve the wellbeing and advantage of a patient with handicaps.eleration remains constant with time

Outcome of this project

Automatic wheelchairs will stay prolific ground for mechanical research for a long time to come. Keen wheelchairs are magnificent proving grounds for sensor look into, especially machine vision. Savvy wheelchairs likewise give a chance to contemplate human-robot association, versatile or shared control, and novel info techniques, for example, voice control, EOG, and eye-following. Besides, shrewd wheelchairs will keep on filling in as proving grounds for robot control models. While there has been a lot of exertion dedicated to the advancement of shrewd wheelchairs, meager consideration has been paid to assessing their presentation. Not many shrewd wheelchair scientists have included individuals with incapacities in their assessment exercises. Besides, no keen wheelchair has been exposed to a thorough, controlled assessment that includes expanded use in genuine settings. Leading client preliminaries with savvy wheelchairs is hard for a few reasons. Some wheelchair clients don’t demonstrate any prompt improvement in route aptitudes (estimated as far as normal speed and number of crashes) when utilizing a keen wheelchair on a shut course in a research center setting. This could be on the grounds that the keen wheelchair does not work great or the wheelchair client was at that point so capable that little improvement was conceivable. Clients who can possibly demonstrate enormous execution gains, then again, regularly have practically no involvement with autonomous portability and may require a lot of preparing before they are prepared to take part in legitimate client preliminaries. The essential snag to leading long haul concentrates is the restrictive equipment expenses related with building enough keen wheelchairs. Long haul studies are vital, be that as it may, in light of the fact that the genuine impacts of utilizing a brilliant wheelchair for an all-inclusive timeframe are obscure. A few agents (e.g., the call focus) have proposed their shrewd wheelchair to be utilized as a methods for building up the essential aptitudes to utilize standard wheelchairs securely and autonomously. Most examiners, be that as it may, expect their savvy wheelchair to be an individual’s lasting versatility arrangement or have not tended to the issue by any means. It is conceivable that utilizing a savvy wheelchair could really decrease a person’s capacity to utilize a standard wheelchair, as that individual comes to depend on the route help given by the brilliant wheelchair. At last, for certain clients (especially youngsters), savvy wheelchair innovation will be powerful “preparing wheels” that can be utilized to show the most fundamental portability aptitudes (e.g., circumstances and logical results, beginning and ceasing on order), and for different clients, keen wheelchairs will be changeless arrangements. The differentiation between utilizing a keen wheelchair as a versatility help, a preparation apparatus, or an assessment instrument is likewise deserving of study. Every one of these capacities is remarkable and requires altogether different conduct with respect to the savvy wheelchair. As a portability help, the brilliant’s wheelchair will likely enable the client to arrive at a goal as fast and serenely as could reasonably be expected. The client isn’t given input so as to maintain a strategic distance from diversions and to anticipate crashes. As a preparation device, then again, the objective is to create explicit aptitudes. For this situation, criticism is probably going to be altogether expanded and the degree to which the brilliant wheelchair consents to the client’s info will be an element of the real preparing action. At long last, as an assessment instrument, the keen’s wheelchair will probably record action without intercession. For this situation, the client would almost certainly have no input or route help. (Simpson, 2005)

Problems faced

• First the project team try the aluminium and plastic base for project, but for those one is make more expansive.
• We tried to make the frame of the wheel chair as light as we could have, but the problem we faced about the material with it needs to be made.
• Direct soldering used on Arduino instead of breadboard connection to avoid the loose of wires.
• For ultrasonic sensor cannot be fitted in single Arduino so two Arduino used for this system.
• We need to make another circuit for the ultrasonic sensor only, because after so many trials that all of the multifunctions cannot connect in one single Arduino uno board.
• Electrical soldering problem with the electrical connections as we have many connections in the control panel.

FUTURE WORK:

@ Mechanical:

•          Connecting link will be sprocket.

•          Linear best actuator to be installed with the trunnion base..

Lighter design and the balancing can be done to balance the wheels of the wheelchair.

@ Control:

•          Can integrate best components to get good results.

•          Fabrication of the frame can be with lighter material.

•          Output current, voltage and the power produce can be improved by using more efficient  battery and sources.

•          Manual operation option to be added in the system.

•          Led display can also be added to show the battery efficiency or the battery remaining power.

•          Weather and water proof protection for all electrical and electronics component.

1. Conclusion

The obstacle avoidance algorithms have been primarily based on infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor arrangement). Two benefits of IR sensors, when in contrast with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk and the accelerated pace of obstacle detection. However, they are very directional which skill they don’t “cover” massive areas as sonars do. The wheelchair’s control is carried out on a three stage behavior. First level: if none of the infrared sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can power the wheelchair at any place he needs and with the desired speed; 2nd level: if at least one sensor detects an impediment we come in a half-security area (represented in Fig. 5) which means to minimize to a moderated speed; two 1/3 level: this corresponds to a binding state of affairs the place the pace ought to be very low.

We are implementing automatic wheelchair which has more than a few advantages. It is working in three exclusive modes i.e. joystick mode, accelerometer mode and voice cognizance mode. Also there two sorts of sensors which will increase accuracy of wheelchair. This Wheelchair will be low-priced and can low-priced to frequent people. We can additionally add new technological know-how in this wheelchair. A machine for reliable awareness of speech and face has been designed and developed. This device can be made surprisingly efficient and wonderful if stringent environmental conditions are maintained. The setup for retaining these environmental stipulations will be a onetime investment for any actual existence application. The walking value of this machine is tons decrease as compare to different structures used for the same purpose. Always goal of the wheel chair is to transport a physically challenged man or woman from one location to another independently or via attendee. Although the current motorized wheel chairs fulfill the requirements of bodily two challenged  character  however two they two have two first-rate  disadvantage  is two of  higher two cost.  The value  of two existing wheelchairs begins from NZD 1550.  The frequent people can’t have the funds for this excessive charge of wheelchair. Also all the times two all amenities are now not required such as hand two arm for putting related things (glass, notebook etc.)  small bag two for preserving papers, two pen via the user.

In this two condition the designed chair fulfill each the  purposes. It has low value. If the  designed chair is manufactured at mass level the manufacturing fee can also be reduced as noted earlier. It has safety belt for the security of the person. Further, the customers of electric powered wheelchairs make bigger their mobility, maneuverability and independence. On the different  hand it  desires attention  now not only two to simply two fulfill the requirements of the two bodily challenged humans however it should be upgraded over a duration of time to furnish comfort, safety, multi-purpose, economical, light in weight for physically challenged person.  In this paper a wirelessly controlled wheel chair is proposed with the assist of accelerometer, whose demo model is already designed for bodily handicapped human beings so that they can manage their chair themselves and the wireless Bluetooth application gives an more benefit if wheel chair is no longer with them then they can manipulate chair.

## Bibliography

• Babu, D. V. (2015). steering system forces and moments. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/saffrony09/steering-system-forces-and-moments?fbclid=IwAR1hHjDCtiyIT_41HSGgNk28bchE37-YNkPRG0qZ_bmbtR2zXzqUJlhBmwk
• brusco, s. (2015, 02 12). MedTech Memoirs: The Wheelchair. Retrieved from www.ecnmag.com/: https://www.ecnmag.com/blog/2015/12/medtech-memoirs-wheelchair
• Mai S. Mabrouk, S. Y. (2017). Biomechanical analysis of electric powered wheelchair by reverse engineering.
• R.S.NIPANIKAR, V. G. (2013). Automatic wheelchair for physically disabled persons. (IJARECE).
• Rohit Singh, R. R. (2013). smart wheel chair. kathmandu, nepal. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266373564_Smart_Wheel_Chair
• Simpson, R. C. (2005). Richard C. Simpson. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 423-436.
• simpson, r. c. (2005). smart wheelchairs: A literature review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. Retrieved from www.researchgate.net: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7449110_Smart_wheelchairs_A_literature_review

APPENDIX

Coding of the joystick/push switch buttons and Bluetooth module

#include <MPU6050_tockn.h>

#include <Wire.h>

MPU6050 mpu6050(Wire);

//#define DEBUG

#define period 10000

#define X_MAX 0.70

#define X_MIN -0.60

#define Y_MAX 0.60

#define Y_MIN -0.60

#define joy1X A0

#define joy1Y A1

#define joy2X A2

#define joy2Y A3

#define M1RED 3

#define M1BLACK 4

#define M2RED 5

#define M2BLACK 6

int button=A2;

int buttonState = 0;

int buttonState1 = 0;

#define FORWARD ‘F’

#define BACKWARD ‘B’

#define LEFT ‘L’

#define RIGHT ‘R’

#define STOP ‘S’

#define forwardButton 8

#define backwardButton 9

#define leftButton 12

#define rightButton 13

void setup()

{

pinMode(forwardButton, INPUT_PULLUP);

pinMode(backwardButton, INPUT_PULLUP);

pinMode(leftButton, INPUT_PULLUP);

pinMode(rightButton, INPUT_PULLUP);

Serial.begin(9600);

Serial.println(“Initialize MPU6050”);

Wire.begin();

mpu6050.begin();

}

void loop()

{

int action=getbutton();

if(action ==0)

{

action=getBluetoothByte();

if(action == 0 or action == ‘S’)

{

action = getAccel();

if(action == 0)

{

action=getJoyStick1();

if(action == 0)

{

action=getJoyStick2();

if(action == 0)

{}

else

{

Serial.print(“Joy Stick2:”);

}

}

else

{

Serial.print(“Joy Stic1k:”);

}

}

else

{

Serial.print(“Accel:”);

}

}

else

{

Serial.print(“Bluetooth:”);

}

}

else

{

Serial.print(“Button:”);

}

if(action)

Serial.println((char)action);

delay(100);

switch(action)

{

case LEFT:

moveLeft();

break;

case RIGHT:

moveRight();

break;

case FORWARD:

moveForward();

break;

case BACKWARD:

moveBackward();

break;

case 0:

dontMove();

break;

}

}

int getJoyStick1()

{

#ifdef DEBUG

Serial.print(xValue);

Serial.print(“ ”);

Serial.println(yValue);

#endif

if (xValue>=1000)

{

return LEFT;

}

else if (xValue<=20)

{

return RIGHT;

}

else if (yValue<=20)

{

return BACKWARD;

}

else if (yValue>=1000)

{

return FORWARD;

}

delay(50);

return 0;

}

int getJoyStick2()

{

#ifdef DEBUG

Serial.print(xValue);

Serial.print(“ ”);

Serial.println(yValue);

#endif

if (xValue>=1000)

{

return LEFT;

}

else if (xValue<=20)

{

return RIGHT;

}

else if (yValue<=20)

{

return BACKWARD;

}

else if (yValue>=1000)

{

return FORWARD;

}

delay(50);

return 0;

}

int getAccel()

{

mpu6050.update();

float x=mpu6050.getAccX();// normAccel.XAxis;

float y=mpu6050.getAccY(); //normAccel.YAxis;

#ifdef DEBUG

Serial.print(“accX : “); Serial.print(x);

Serial.print(“ accY : “); Serial.print(y);

Serial.print(“ accZ : “); Serial.println(mpu6050.getAccZ());

delay(50);

#endif

if(x > X_MAX)

{

return RIGHT;

}

else if(x< X_MIN)

{

return LEFT;

}

else if(y> Y_MAX)

{

return FORWARD;

}

else if(y < Y_MIN)

{

return BACKWARD;

}

else

{

return 0;

}

}

void moveLeft()

{

digitalWrite(M1RED, HIGH);

digitalWrite(M1BLACK, LOW);

digitalWrite(M2RED, LOW);

digitalWrite(M2BLACK, HIGH);

}

void moveRight()

{

digitalWrite(M2RED, HIGH);

digitalWrite(M2BLACK, LOW);

digitalWrite(M1RED, LOW);

digitalWrite(M1BLACK, HIGH);

}

void moveForward()

{

digitalWrite(M1RED, HIGH);

digitalWrite(M1BLACK, LOW);

digitalWrite(M2RED, HIGH);

digitalWrite(M2BLACK, LOW);

}

void moveBackward()

{

digitalWrite(M1RED, LOW);

digitalWrite(M1BLACK, HIGH);

digitalWrite(M2RED, LOW);

digitalWrite(M2BLACK, HIGH);

}

void dontMove()

{

digitalWrite(M1RED, LOW);

digitalWrite(M1BLACK, LOW);

digitalWrite(M2RED, LOW);

digitalWrite(M2BLACK, LOW);

}

int getBluetoothByte()

{

char ch=0;

while(Serial.available())

{

// Serial.println(ch);

}

return ch;

}

int getbutton()

{

{

return FORWARD;

}

{

return BACKWARD;

}

{

return LEFT;

}

{

return RIGHT;

}

else

{

return 0;

}

}

COSTING OF OUR WHOLE PROTOTYPE

1. Wheelchair Control vs. Sensors
2.
3. The obstacle avoidance algorithms were based on
4. infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor
5. arrangement). Two advantages of IR sensors, when
6. compared with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk
7. and the increased speed of obstacle detection.
8. However, they are very directional which means they
9. don’t “cover” large areas as sonars do.
10. The wheelchair’s control is performed on a three
11. level behaviour. First level: if none of the infrared
12. sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can drive the
13. wheelchair wherever he wants and with the desired
14. speed;  second level: if at least one sensor detects an
15. obstacle we come in a half-security zone (represented
16. in Fig. 5) which means to reduce to a moderated
17. speed;  third level: this corresponds to a binding
18. situation where the speed must be very low
19. Wheelchair Control vs. Sensors
20.
21. The obstacle avoidance algorithms were based on
22. infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor
23. arrangement). Two advantages of IR sensors, when
24. compared with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk
25. and the increased speed of obstacle detection.
26. However, they are very directional which means they
27. don’t “cover” large areas as sonars do.
28. The wheelchair’s control is performed on a three
29. level behaviour. First level: if none of the infrared
30. sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can drive the
31. wheelchair wherever he wants and with the desired
32. speed;  second level: if at least one sensor detects an
33. obstacle we come in a half-security zone (represented
34. in Fig. 5) which means to reduce to a moderated
35. speed;  third level: this corresponds to a binding
36. situation where the speed must be very low
37. Wheelchair Control vs. Sensors
38.
39. The obstacle avoidance algorithms were based on
40. infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor
41. arrangement). Two advantages of IR sensors, when
42. compared with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk
43. and the increased speed of obstacle detection.
44. However, they are very directional which means they
45. don’t “cover” large areas as sonars do.
46. The wheelchair’s control is performed on a three
47. level behaviour. First level: if none of the infrared
48. sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can drive the
49. wheelchair wherever he wants and with the desired
50. speed;  second level: if at least one sensor detects an
51. obstacle we come in a half-security zone (represented
52. in Fig. 5) which means to reduce to a moderated
53. speed;  third level: this corresponds to a binding
54. situation where the speed must be very low.
55. he obstacle avoidance algorithms were based on
56. infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor
57. arrangement). Two advantages of IR sensors, when
58. compared with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk
59. and the increased speed of obstacle detection.
60. However, they are very directional which means they
61. don’t “cover” large areas as sonars do.
62. The wheelchair’s control is performed on a three
63. level behaviour. First level: if none of the infrared
64. sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can drive the
65. wheelchair wherever he wants and with the desired
66. speed;  second level: if at least one sensor detects an
67. obstacle we come in a half-security zone (represented
68. in Fig. 5) which means to reduce to a moderated
69. speed;  third level: this corresponds to a binding
70. situation where the speed must be v

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