Design and Construction of Crane

4419 words (18 pages) Essay in Engineering

18/05/20 Engineering Reference this

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Introduction

The project assigned by the teacher to the students is to design and construct a Tower crane using the materials provided: Hoop pine and paddle pop sticks. The crane needs to pick up move and then put down a certain load freely without any restrictions or breakages.

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A crane is a mechanical structure that has been used throughout history in order to pick up heavy objects and move it from one place to another using a swivelling action. Cranes were originally invented by the Ancient Greeks in order to perform laborious work that could not be done with the human hands. They were commonly powered by donkeys that would help in moving the mechanisms. Since that time period, the crane has evolved to become technologically advanced so that actions can be performed with simple controls. Some types of cranes include:

-          Tower crane

-          Floating crane

-          Telescopic crane

-          Vehicle mounted crane

-          Crawler crane

As per the design process, the first part of this project is to research existing ideas of the many types of cranes. In this part, the researcher develops an understanding on the parts of a crane, and how they conjoin together in order to make the crane work. Next is the design phase, where initial designs of the crane are made on CAD. From this, one gets an idea on what their crane will look like from all views. Next, an evaluation is made in the report, explaining why this type of crane has been chosen. Then, the construction will begin by using paddle pop sticks and a hot glue gun to construct the crane. Finally, the crane is tested using destructive methods to see how much weight the bridge can hold.

The limitations that were set for this project include:

  • The crane can be a model of any type that you believe will satisfy the brief.  The students will investigate and choose a type based on the requirements.
  • The model must have a mechanical advantage of at least 4 and it will need counterweights of an appropriate size and weight designed and manufactured by you.
  • The lifting mechanism must be set at a fixed point (end of jib).
  • The structure will be made from Hoop Pine and paddle pop sticks and a variety of other fixtures and fasteners will be made available to you including the provision of the pulley systems needed to achieve your mechanical advantage.
  • The Crane will also be provided with a base to make it sturdy.  The design and manufacture of your base will be negotiated with your teacher.
  • The crane structure must be at least 500mm wide but not more than 600mm wide and the maximum height to the base of the jib must be at least 500mm high but not more than 600mm high.
  • Students will be required to design and manufacture a swivelling solution for the jib.

 

 

 

 

Telescopic Crane

A Telescopic crane is a type of heavy crane that is used to transport and move objects to from one place to another. They were first used by the ancient Greeks, whereby it operated using wild animals, especially ox. Nowadays, these cranes are extensively used day to day especially on construction sites and at shipping ports. Telescopic cranes are especially helpful in the contemporary world of today because of its ability to be mantled on top of a truck so that goods can be transported from place to place.

Manufacturers and common uses

One of the main manufacturers of the Telescopic crane is the company named SENNEBOGEN, which is situated in Germany. These cranes are most commonly used on construction sites and in the shipping industry, in which the crane is able to transport goods and cargo from one place to another. Telescopic cranes are especially advantageous in moving very heavy objects that are of a significant distance away.

How the crane is constructed/materials used

The Telescopic crane is constructed by assembling many different parts made from steel. This material is chosen due to its strength and rigidity. The supporting chassis supports the crane, cabin and the pen, and transports objects from one place to another. The telescopic boom or jib is the long steel arm which picks up and releases objects. The orientation crown sits at the bottom of the telescopic boom,allowing the crane to manoeuvre the boom at different angles to a desired position. The control cabin is the room on the crane consisting of joysticks and pedals, all serving different operations. These mechanisms allow for the swivelling of the boom, instructing it when to pick up or release an object. The crane stabilizers are four extended legs that sit on the ground, keeping the crane in balance whilst lifting and releasing loads. The crane counterweight is a heavy concrete weight that sits at the back of the crane. It restricts the crane from tilting forward when carrying a load. The steel cable wires run behind the control cabin and along the boom. It main function is to retain rigidity within the lines during times when no objects are being lifted.

How the crane works

 

In order to operate, the telescopic crane requires the combination of simple mechanisms to work and lift extremely heavy road. Connecting to the orientation crown, there is a smaller machinery arm that consists of the motor, gears and counterweights.  This allows the telescopic boom to move from left to right. The boom utilises a trolley system that carries the object as well as a Pulley system, which allows the crane to pick up and carry heavier loads with insignificant force.

 

Vehicle mounted crane

A vehicle mounted crane, otherwise known as a truck mounted crane, is a crane that has been affixed on top of a vehicle, especially a truck. They have the ability to pick up and release objects onto the vehicle. With the increase in more advanced technology, there has been an introduction of vehicle loading cranes with a larger capacity and the ability to control numerous jibs at once. These cranes are best suited at more traditional operations, in which they must:

  • Lift the Load from the vehicle to an area of higher elevation at construction sites. An example of this is lifting groups of timber planks directly to a higher building floor.
  • Carry the load to different locations, in which the crane is still mounted on the vehicle

Manufacturers and common uses

Two of the main manufacturers of the vehicle mounted crane are the companies named Palfinger, situated in Austria, and Maxlift, situated in Australia. They are most commonly used on construction sites due to its ability to be able to transport materials and tools from one place to another.

 

How the crane is constructed/materials used

There are many components that make up the vehicle mounted crane. These components are assembled together in order to construct the crane. These parts include: The boom, a key part in the cranes design. It is the long arm that has the ability supports various loads. They are commonly made from hardened steel beams and are reinforced with concrete at their base end. The jib is a lattice structure attached to the end of the boom, giving it freedom to extend. Counterweights are large weights positioned on the cranes back arm to counteract a load being carried. Outriggers are support structures that are equipped to the vehicle to provide the crane with extra stability and balance. Reinforced steel cables run through several pulleys, which is used to lift various devices. Each cable has the capability of holding a maximum load of 6,350 kilograms.

How the crane works

Over the years the vehicle mounted crane’s design and mechanisms has largely developed and continues to advance as a simple machine. Its design is based on a common lever mechanism allowing the jib to rotate at a specified angle, by which it can then pick up and release objects. This crane also comes with the addition of a vehicle attached to its base, allowing loads to be transported from one place to another.

Overhead crane

Overhead cranes, often referred to as bridge cranes, are cranes that are commonly used in manufacturing factories. The crane has the ability to slide across two parallel beams, along rails, from one side of the factory to another. The very first overhead cranes were used in the industrial revolution in England, during the 18th century, in which they were used to transport Armory. Now, they are often for the transportation of materials, parts and machinery in a factory.

Manufacturers and common uses

 

Three of the main manufacturers of the overhead crane are the companies named Global Inc, situated in New York, Brehob Corporation, situated in Indianapolis, and Konecranes Inc, situated in Springfield. They are most commonly found in industrial environment, especially in factories, in which they have the ability to move extremely heavy loads, especially machinery.

How is the crane constructed/ materials used

 

The overhead crane is constructed by assembling many different components together that are usually made of steel. These parts include: The bridge girders, which are the two steel girders that slide on rails across two parallel beams. The trolley frame, which is the framework that contains the lifting system. It sits on top of the bridge girders and has the ability to slide across it. The Hook block, which is the hook that lifts and releases the load. It is connected to the Trolley frame. The End Trucks are the steel structures that assist in holding up the girders. The electric hoist is the lifting system that sits inside the trolley frame. It slides along the rails of the bridge girders to a desired location, whereby the Hook Block can than pick up and release the objects. The cabin is the room of the operator. It provides great vision so that the operator can manoeuvre the crane. The heads are the structures that house the wheels, that give the crane the ability to move on the rails. The rubber stops are the rubber components that supress impact when the crane slides from end to end.

How does the crane work

 

Through the use of a radio control remote, the bridge girders can be moved back and forth by simply pressing the specific buttons. This can be also used to manoeuvre the trolley frame. Once the crane is in a desired set position, the wire rope from the electric hoist is lowered so that the Hook block can pick up and release an object.

Tower Cranes

 

A tower crane is a type of crane in which a boom is horizontally mounted on a vertical tower. These cranes are especially advantageous due to its incredibly tall structure, being able to reach objects at a higher elevation in comparison to other cranes. The tower crane was first invented in 1949 by Hans Libherr, in which they were used in the construction of taller buildings. With development technology, the tower cranes structure has improved, and new features have been introduced, such as the ability to be controlled on its own, in order to help in the construction industry.

Manufacturers and common uses

Two of the main manufacturers of the tower crane are the companies GGR group, situated in the United Kingdom, and Liebherr, situated in Switzerland. Tower cranes are usually found on construction sites, where they are normally used in the building of skyscrapers. It advantageous height allows it to pick up and release objects on highly elevated floors, and to hold structures into place.

How the crane is constructed/materials used

The tower crane is constructed by assembling many different components that are made from steel. This material is chosen over other metals due to its strength and rigidity. The mast or tower is the tall, vertical, lattice structure of the crane. This component allows the crane to reach significant heights. The jib or boom is the long, horizontal, lattice structure of the crane. This component can rotate at a specified angle in order to pick up and release objects at a desired position. The counter jib is the short, horizontal, lattice structure that is attached to the opposite side of the jib. This is where the concrete counter-weights are placed to restrict the crane form tipping over. The trolley is the component that moves along the bottom side of the jib. The hook hangs off the trolley, allowing objects to be picked up and released. The operator cabin is the main control room which is situated at the top of the crane. Inside this room are a series of controls that allows the movement of the crane. The slewing ring is the mechanism that rotates the jib, counter jib and the operator cabin.

How the crane works

The tower crane is able to function through its main mechanism called the slewing ring. It sits below the operator cabin, allowing everything above it to rotate (The jib, counter jib and operator cabin). After the jib has been rotated, using the slewing mechanism, to a desired angle, the trolley can then slide across, and pick up or release an object through the use of the hook.

 

 

 

 

 

Analyzing Research

 

Advantages of cranes

Disadvantages of cranes

          Reduces manual labor: Cranes are significantly stronger and more efficient in picking up and releasing very heavy objects and transporting them from one place to another.

-          Can be dangerous: Technological malfunctions and mathematical miscalculations can result in the crane to exceed its factor of safety and tip over.

          Some cranes have the ability to be driven and used on most terrains: The use of a crane is not restricted by the location of most construction sites.

          Inconvenience due to mass:       The transportation of cranes can be difficult due to its significant weight.

-          Provide safety for the users: By using a crane, one can eliminate the risks associated with handling heavy objects.

          Expensive: Cranes may be very expensive to manufacture, due to the cost of materials, and to hire.

          Some cranes have lengthy towers and booms: These types of cranes are advantageous as they provide significant assistance in the construction of tall buildings.

          Maintenance: Cranes must be under constant maintenance so that it can function to the best of its ability

          Cranes can be mobile: Some cranes have the ability to transport objects from one place to another.

           

-          Radio controllability: With the advancements in technology, some cranes have the ability to be controlled through the use of a remote control, from outside the crane.

 

Work Health and Safety (WHS)

 

Whilst in an industrial environment, in which a crane is operating in, many work health and safety issues are present which may cause potential harm to surrounding workers and civilians. These risks include:

-          The collapsing of the crane due to flaws within its structure or it is exceeding its factor of safety.

-          The falling of suspended objects.

-          The crane or load striking nearby workers or civilians.

These issues must be first assessed before any operation commences in order to minimalize the risk of injury of workers and civilians in an industrial environment.

Cad Drawings

A3 Drawing

 

 

Conclusion – Final Design

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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